Antagonistic regulation of F-BAR protein assemblies controls actin polymerization during podosome formation.
Tsujita Kazuya,Kondo Akihiro,Kurisu Shusaku,Hasegawa Junya,Itoh Toshiki,Takenawa Tadaomi
Journal of cell science
FBP17, an F-BAR domain protein, has emerged as a crucial factor linking the plasma membrane to WASP-mediated actin polymerization. Although it is well established that FBP17 has a powerful self-polymerizing ability that promotes actin nucleation on membranes in vitro, knowledge of inhibitory factors that counteract this activity in vivo is limited. Here, we demonstrate that the assembly of FBP17 on the plasma membranes is antagonized by PSTPIP2, another F-BAR protein implicated in auto-inflammatory disorder. Knockdown of PSTPIP2 in macrophage promotes the assembly of FBP17 as well as subsequent actin nucleation at podosomes, resulting in an enhancement of matrix degradation. This phenotype is rescued by expression of PSTPIP2 in a manner dependent on its F-BAR domain. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy observations reveal that the self-assembly of FBP17 at the podosomal membrane initiates actin polymerization, whereas the clustering of PSTPIP2 has an opposite effect. Biochemical analysis and live-cell imaging show that PSTPIP2 inhibits actin polymerization by competing with FBP17 for assembly at artificial as well as the plasma membrane. Interestingly, the assembly of FBP17 is dependent on WASP, and its dissociation by WASP inhibition strongly induces a self-organization of PSTPIP2 at podosomes. Thus, our data uncover a previously unappreciated antagonism between different F-BAR domain assemblies that determines the threshold of actin polymerization for the formation of functional podosomes and may explain how the absence of PSTPIP2 causes auto-inflammatory disorder.
Expression of WASP and Scar1/WAVE1 actin-associated proteins is differentially modulated during differentiation of HL-60 cells.
Launay Sophie,Brown Geoffrey,Machesky Laura M
Cell motility and the cytoskeleton
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a disease associated with mutations in the WAS gene and characterised by developmental defects in haematopoietic cells such as myeloid cells. The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP)-family includes Scar1 and WASP, which are key regulators of actin reorganization in motile cells. To understand the roles of Scar1 and WASP in myeloid cells and their cytoskeletal control in haematopoietic tissues, we have explored their expression during differentiation of the promyeloid cell line HL-60. Undifferentiated HL-60 cells expressed Scar1 and WASP, and differentiation to neutrophils, induced by retinoic acid or non-retinoid agent treatments, led to a decrease in the level of expression of Scar1, whereas WASP expression was unaffected. Differentiation to monocytes/macrophages, induced by phorbol ester treatment, resulted in a decreased expression of both proteins in the adherent mature cells. Vitamin D(3) treatment or cytochalasin D in combination with PMA treatment did not affect WASP expression suggesting that adhesion and cytoskeletal integrity were both essential to regulate WASP expression. Scar1 expression was regulated by differentiation, adhesion, and cytoskeletal integrity. Recently, WASP was found to colocalize with actin in the podosomes. In contrast, we show here that Scar1 did not localize with the podosomes in mature monocytes/macrophages. These observations show for the first time that modulation of Scar1 and WASP expression is a component of the differentiation program of myeloid precursors and indicate that WASP and Scar1 have different roles in mature myeloid cells.
Regulation of actin ring formation by rho GTPases in osteoclasts.
Chellaiah Meenakshi A
The Journal of biological chemistry
Actin ring formation is a prerequisite for osteoclast bone resorption. Although gelsolin null osteoclasts failed to exhibit podosomes, actin ring was observed in these osteoclasts. Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) was observed in the actin ring of gelsolin null osteoclast. Osteoclasts stimulated with osteopontin simulated the effects of Rho and Cdc42 in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) association with WASP as well as formation of podosomes, peripheral microfilopodia-like structures, and actin ring. To explore the potential functions of Rho and Cdc42, TAT-mediated delivery of Rho proteins into osteoclasts was performed. Although Rho and Cdc42 are required for actin ring formation, transduction of either one of the proteins alone is insufficient for this process. Addition of osteopontin to osteoclasts transduced with Cdc42Val12 or transduction of osteoclasts with both RhoVal14 and Cdc42Val12 augments the formation of WASP-Arp2/3 complex and actin ring. Neomycin, an antibiotic, blocked the effects of osteopontin or TAT-RhoVal14 on PIP2 interaction with WASP. WASP distribution was found to be cytosolic in these osteoclasts. Depletion of WASP by short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing blocked actin polymerization as well as actin ring formation in osteoclasts. These results suggest that Rho-mediated PIP2 interaction with WASP may contribute to the activation and membrane targeting of WASP. Subsequent interaction of Cdc42 and Arp2/3 with WASP may enhance cortical actin polymerization in the process of actin ring formation in osteoclasts.
Mechanosensitive caveolin-1 activation-induced PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway promotes breast cancer motility, invadopodia formation and metastasis in vivo.
Yang Hong,Guan Liuyuan,Li Shun,Jiang Ying,Xiong Niya,Li Li,Wu Chunhui,Zeng Hongjuan,Liu Yiyao
Cancer cells are subjected to fluid shear stress during passage through the venous and lymphatic system. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a principal structural component of caveolar membrane domains, contributes to cancer development but its mechanobiological roles under low shear stress (LSS) conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we identified Cav-1 is mechanosensitive to LSS exposure, and its activation-induced PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling promotes motility, invadopodia formation and metastasis of breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Application of LSS (1.8 and 4.0 dynes/cm2) to MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased the cell motility, invadopodia formation, MT1-MMP expression, ECM degradation, and also induced a sustained activation of Cav-1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascades. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin-caused caveolae destruction markedly decreased LSS-induced activation of both Cav-1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, leading to suppress MT1-MMP expression, inhibit invadopodia formation and ECM degradation, suggesting that caveolae integrity also involved in metastasis. Immunocytochemical assay showed that LSS induces the Cav-1 clustering in lipid rafts and co-localization of Cav-1 and MT1-MMP on invadopodia. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis demonstrated that Cav-1 activation were required for the acquisition of a polarized phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, Cav-1 knockdown significantly suppressed tumor colonization in the lungs and distant metastases in animal models. Our findings highlight the importance of Cav-1 in hematogenous metastasis, and provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of mechanotransduction induced by LSS.
The novel adaptor protein Tks4 (SH3PXD2B) is required for functional podosome formation.
Buschman Matthew D,Bromann Paul A,Cejudo-Martin Pilar,Wen Fang,Pass Ian,Courtneidge Sara A
Molecular biology of the cell
Metastatic cancer cells have the ability to both degrade and migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM). Invasiveness can be correlated with the presence of dynamic actin-rich membrane structures called podosomes or invadopodia. We showed previously that the adaptor protein tyrosine kinase substrate with five Src homology 3 domains (Tks5)/Fish is required for podosome/invadopodia formation, degradation of ECM, and cancer cell invasion in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe Tks4, a novel protein that is closely related to Tks5. This protein contains an amino-terminal Phox homology domain, four SH3 domains, and several proline-rich motifs. In Src-transformed fibroblasts, Tks4 is tyrosine phosphorylated and predominantly localized to rosettes of podosomes. We used both short hairpin RNA knockdown and mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking Tks4 to investigate its role in podosome formation. We found that lack of Tks4 resulted in incomplete podosome formation and inhibited ECM degradation. Both phenotypes were rescued by reintroduction of Tks4, whereas only podosome formation, but not ECM degradation, was rescued by overexpression of Tks5. The tyrosine phosphorylation sites of Tks4 were required for efficient rescue. Furthermore, in the absence of Tks4, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was not recruited to the incomplete podosomes. These findings suggest that Tks4 and Tks5 have overlapping, but not identical, functions, and implicate Tks4 in MT1-MMP recruitment and ECM degradation.
Surface cholesterol-enriched domains specifically promote invasion of breast cancer cell lines by controlling invadopodia and extracellular matrix degradation.
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Tumor cells exhibit altered cholesterol content. However, cholesterol structural subcellular distribution and implication in cancer cell invasion are poorly understood mainly due to difficulties to investigate cholesterol both quantitatively and qualitatively and to compare isogenic cell models. Here, using the MCF10A cell line series (non-tumorigenic MCF10A, pre-malignant MCF10AT and malignant MCF10CAIa cells) as a model of breast cancer progression and the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cell line which exhibits the common TP53 mutation, we investigated if cholesterol contributes to cancer cell invasion, whether the effects are specific to cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. We found that partial membrane cholesterol depletion specifically and reversibly decreased invasion of the malignant cell lines. Those cells exhibited dorsal surface cholesterol-enriched submicrometric domains and narrow ER-plasma membrane and ER-intracellular organelles contact sites. Dorsal cholesterol-enriched domains can be endocytosed and reach the cell ventral face where they were involved in invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation. In contrast, non-malignant cells showed low cell invasion, low surface cholesterol exposure and cholesterol-dependent focal adhesions. The differential cholesterol distribution and role in breast cancer cell invasion provide new clues for the understanding of the molecular events underlying cellular mechanisms in breast cancer.
Characterization of the Intramolecular Interactions and Regulatory Mechanisms of the Scaffold Protein Tks4.
Merő Balázs,Koprivanacz Kitti,Cserkaszky Anna,Radnai László,Vas Virag,Kudlik Gyöngyi,Gógl Gergő,Sok Péter,Póti Ádám L,Szeder Bálint,Nyitray László,Reményi Attila,Geiszt Miklós,Buday László
International journal of molecular sciences
The scaffold protein Tks4 is a member of the p47-related organizer superfamily. It plays a key role in cell motility by being essential for the formation of podosomes and invadopodia. In addition, Tks4 is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway, in which EGF induces the translocation of Tks4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. The evolutionarily-related protein p47 and Tks4 share many similarities in their -terminal region: a phosphoinositide-binding PX domain is followed by two SH3 domains (so called "tandem SH3") and a proline-rich region (PRR). In p47, the PRR is followed by a relatively short, disordered -terminal tail region containing multiple phosphorylation sites. These play a key role in the regulation of the protein. In Tks4, the PRR is followed by a third and a fourth SH3 domain connected by a long (~420 residues) unstructured region. In p47, the tandem SH3 domain binds the PRR while the first SH3 domain interacts with the PX domain, thereby preventing its binding to the membrane. Based on the conserved structural features of p47 and Tks4 and the fact that an intramolecular interaction between the third SH3 and the PX domains of Tks4 has already been reported, we hypothesized that Tks4 is similarly regulated by autoinhibition. In this study, we showed, via fluorescence-based titrations, MST, ITC, and SAXS measurements, that the tandem SH3 domain of Tks4 binds the PRR and that the PX domain interacts with the third SH3 domain. We also investigated a phosphomimicking Thr-to-Glu point mutation in the PRR as a possible regulator of intramolecular interactions. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) was identified as the main binding partner of the PX domain via lipid-binding assays. In truncated Tks4 fragments, the presence of the tandem SH3, together with the PRR, reduced PtdIns(3)P binding, while the presence of the third SH3 domain led to complete inhibition.
Cell Migration and Invadopodia Formation Require a Membrane-binding Domain of CARMIL2.
Lanier M Hunter,McConnell Patrick,Cooper John A
The Journal of biological chemistry
CARMILs regulate capping protein (CP), a critical determinant of actin assembly and actin-based cell motility. Vertebrates have three conserved CARMIL genes with distinct functions. In migrating cells, CARMIL2 is important for cell polarity, lamellipodial assembly, ruffling, and macropinocytosis. In cells, CARMIL2 localizes with a distinctive dual pattern to vimentin intermediate filaments and to membranes at leading edges and macropinosomes. The mechanism by which CARMIL2 localizes to membranes has not been defined. Here, we report that CARMIL2 has a conserved membrane-binding domain composed of basic and hydrophobic residues, which is necessary and sufficient for membrane localization, based on expression studies in cells and on direct binding of purified protein to lipids. Most important, we find that the membrane-binding domain is necessary for CARMIL2 to function in cells, based on rescue expression with a set of biochemically defined mutants. CARMIL1 and CARMIL3 contain similar membrane-binding domains, based on sequence analysis and on experiments, but other CPI motif proteins, such as CD2AP, do not. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the membrane-binding domain of CARMIL2 tethers this multidomain protein to the membrane, where it links dynamic vimentin filaments with regulation of actin assembly via CP.
PtdIns(3,4)P2 instigates focal adhesions to generate podosomes.
Oikawa Tsukasa,Takenawa Tadaomi
Cell adhesion & migration
Cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion plays important roles in various biological events, such as proliferation, differentiation and migration. Distinct from other types of adhesion structures (focal complexes, focal adhesions and so on), podosomes and invadopodia are thought to have additional functions beyond attachment, possibly including invasion into the ECM. for podosomes and invadopodia to invade into the ECM, molecules involved in adhesion, actin polymerization and ECM degradation must be recruited to sites of action. Our recent study demonstrated that podosomes form near newly formed focal adhesions via the minimally expressed phosphoinositide PtdIns(3,4) P2-mediated recruitment of the Tks5-Grb2 scaffold, followed by the accumulation of N-WASP. Although this study demonstrated details of molecular interplay during the transformation of focal adhesion, its regulation in the in vivo invasion process remains to be clarified. Here, we discuss the molecular bases of the transformation of focal adhesions to podosomes/invadopodia based on current understanding.
Regulation of podosomes by integrin alphavbeta3 and Rho GTPase-facilitated phosphoinositide signaling.
Chellaiah Meenakshi A
European journal of cell biology
In osteoclasts, polyphosphoinositides such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) are produced in response to integrin alphavbeta3 signaling and they have a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The levels of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 are regulated by Rho GTPase through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P-5 kinase) and phospatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase), respectively. Interaction of PI(4,5)P2 with gelsolin and Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is critical for podosome assembly/disassembly and actin ring formation in osteoclasts. Interaction of PI(3,4,5)P3 with gelsolin functions in orchestrating the podosome signaling complex consisting of several key signaling molecules. Gelsolin deficiency has been shown to block podosome assembly and motility in mouse osteoclasts. However, these osteoclasts are able to form a WASP-containing actin ring and retain their resorptive function. The TAT-mediated delivery of gelsolin phosphoinositide-binding domains into osteoclasts resulted in production of podosome clusters and disruption of actin ring formation. Hence, these osteoclasts were hypomotile and less resorptive. Our observations suggest that both PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 are involved in regulating osteoclast functions through modulation of severing, capping, and nucleating functions of actin-binding proteins.
Membrane lipids in invadopodia and podosomes: key structures for cancer invasion and metastasis.
Yamaguchi Hideki,Oikawa Tsukasa
Invadopodia are extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading protrusions formed by invasive cancer cells. Podosomes are structures functionally similar to invadopodia that are found in oncogene-transformed fibroblasts and monocyte-derived cells, including macrophages and osteoclasts. These structures are thought to play important roles in the pericellular remodeling of ECM during cancer invasion and metastasis. Much effort has been directed toward identification of the molecular components and regulators of invadopodia/podosomes, which could be therapeutic targets in the treatment of malignant cancers. However, it remains largely unknown how these components are assembled into invadopodia/podosomes and how the assembly process is spatially and temporally regulated. This review will summarize recent progress on the molecular mechanisms of invadopodia/podosome formation, with strong emphasis on the roles of lipid rafts and phosphoinositides.
Role of Clathrin Light Chains in Regulating Invadopodia Formation.
Mukenhirn Markus,Muraca Francesco,Bucher Delia,Asberger Edgar,Cappio Barazzone Elisa,Cavalcanti-Adam Elisabetta Ada,Boulant Steeve
One of the most fundamental processes of the cell is the uptake of molecules from the surrounding environment. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-described uptake pathway and regulates nutrient uptake, protein and lipid turnover at the plasma membrane (PM), cell signaling, cell motility and cell polarity. The main protein in CME is clathrin, which assembles as a triskelion-looking building block made of three clathrin heavy chains and three clathrin light chains. Compared to clathrin heavy chains (CHCs), the role of the two isoforms of clathrin light chains (CLCA and CLCB) is poorly understood. Here, we confirm that the simultaneous deletion of both CLCA/B causes abnormal actin structures at the ventral PM and we describe them, for the first time, as functional invadopodia rather than disorganized actin-cytoskeleton assembly sites. Their identification is based on the occurrence of common invadopodia markers as well as functional invadopodia activity characterized by an increased local proteolytic activity of the extracellular matrix proteins. We demonstrate that CLCA/B deletion impacts the intracellular trafficking and recovery of the matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) leading to its accumulation at the plasma membrane and induction of invadopodia formation. Importantly, we show that invadopodia formation can be prevented by depletion of MMP14. As such, we propose that CLCA/B regulate invadopodia formation by regulating MMP14 delivery to the plasma membrane.
Profilin1 regulates invadopodium maturation in human breast cancer cells.
Valenzuela-Iglesias A,Sharma V P,Beaty B T,Ding Z,Gutierrez-Millan L E,Roy P,Condeelis J S,Bravo-Cordero J J
European journal of cell biology
Invadopodia are actin-driven membrane protrusions that show oscillatory assembly and disassembly causing matrix degradation to support invasion and dissemination of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Profilin1, an actin and phosphoinositide binding protein, is downregulated in several adenocarcinomas and it is been shown that its depletion enhances invasiveness and motility of breast cancer cells by increasing PI(3,4)P2 levels at the leading edge. In this study, we show for the first time that depletion of profilin1 leads to an increase in the number of mature invadopodia and these assemble and disassemble more rapidly than in control cells. Previous work by Sharma et al. (2013a), has shown that the binding of the protein Tks5 with PI(3,4)P2 confers stability to the invadopodium precursor causing it to mature into a degradation-competent structure. We found that loss of profilin1 expression increases the levels of PI(3,4)P2 at the invadopodium and as a result, enhances recruitment of the interacting adaptor Tks5. The increased PI(3,4)P2-Tks5 interaction accelerates the rate of invadopodium anchorage, maturation, and turnover. Our results indicate that profilin1 acts as a molecular regulator of the levels of PI(3,4)P2 and Tks5 recruitment in invadopodia to control the invasion efficiency of invadopodia.
TGF-β-induced transgelin promotes bladder cancer metastasis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invadopodia formation.
Chen Zhicong,He Shiming,Zhan Yonghao,He Anbang,Fang Dong,Gong Yanqing,Li Xuesong,Zhou Liqun
BACKGROUND:Metastatic bladder cancer (BLCA) is a lethal disease with an unmet need for study. Transgelin (TAGLN) is an actin-binding protein that affects the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton indicating its robust potential as a metastasis initiator. Here, we sought to explore the expression pattern of TAGLN and elucidate its specific functioning and mechanisms in BLCA. METHODS:A comprehensive assessment of TAGLN expression in BLCA was performed in three cohorts with a total of 847 patients. The potential effects of TAGLN on BLCA were further determined using clinical genomic analyses that guided the subsequent functional and mechanistic studies. In vitro migration, invasion assays and in vivo metastatic mouse model were performed to explore the biological functions of TAGLN in BLCA cells. Immunofluorescence, western blot and correlation analysis were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of TAGLN. FINDINGS:TAGLN was highly expressed in BLCA and correlated with advanced prognostic features. TAGLN promoted cell colony formation and cell migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo by inducing invadopodia formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, during which a significant correlation between TAGLN and Slug was observed. The progression-dependent correlation between TGF-β and TAGLN was analysed at both the cellular and tissue levels, while TGF-β-mediated migration was abolished by the suppression of TAGLN. INTERPRETATION:Overall, TAGLN is a promising novel prognosis biomarker of BLCA, and its metastatic mechanisms indicate that TAGLN may represent a novel target agent that can be utilized for the clinical management of invasive and metastatic BLCA. FUND: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [81772703, 81672546, 81602253]; the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing [71772219, 7152146]. and Innovative Fund for Doctoral Students of Peking University Health Science Center (BUM2018BSS002). Funders had no role in the design of the study, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, or the writing of this report.
Invadopodia play a role in prostate cancer progression.
BACKGROUND:Invadopodia, actin-rich structures that release metallo-proteases at the interface with extra-cellular matrix, in a punctate manner are thought to be important drivers of tumour invasion. Invadopodia formation has been observed in-vitro and in-vivo in numerous metastatic cell lines derived from multiple tumour types. However, prostate cancer cell lines have not been routinely reported to generate invadopodia and the few instances have always required external stimulation. METHODS:In this study, the invasive potential of primary prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines, which have never been fully characterised before, was investigated both in-vitro invadopodia assays and in-vivo zebrafish dissemination assay. Subsequently, circulating tumour cells from prostate cancer patients were isolated and tested in the invadopodia assay. RESULTS:Retention of E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression indicated a transitional state of EMT progression, consistent with the idea of partial EMT that has been frequently observed in aggressive prostate cancer. All cell lines tested were capable of spontaneous invadopodia formation and possess a significant degradative ability in-vitro under basal conditions. These cell lines were invasive in-vivo and produced visible metastasis in the zebrafish dissemination assay. Importantly we have proceeded to demonstrate that circulating tumour cells isolated from prostate cancer patients exhibit invadopodia-like structures and degrade matrix with visible puncta. This work supports a role for invadopodia activity as one of the mechanisms of dissemination employed by prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSION:The combination of studies presented here provide clear evidence that invadopodia activity can play a role in prostate cancer progression.
PLXDC2 enhances invadopodium formation to promote invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells via interacting with PTP1B.
Clinical & experimental metastasis
Plexin-domain containing 2 (PLXDC2) has been reported as an oncoprotein in several human malignancies. However, its expression and roles in gastric cancer remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that PLXDC2 was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, and the expression levels were positively correlated with clinicopathological features, but negatively with the patients' outcome. Cox regression analysis identified PLXDC2 as an independent prognostic indicator for the patients. Knockdown of PLXDC2 markedly suppressed the in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of gastric cancer cells, while overexpression of PLXDC2 resulted in opposite effects. Mechanistically, PLXDC2 enhanced the level of phosphorylated Cortactin (p-Cortactin) by physically interacting with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an important dephosphorylase, to prevent its dephosphorylating of p-Cortactin, thereby promoting the formation of invadopodia. Collectively, our results indicate that PLXDC2 contributes to the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by inhibiting PTP1B to facilitate the invadopodium formation, and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for this disease.
Molecular mechanisms of invadopodium formation: the role of the N-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway and cofilin.
Yamaguchi Hideki,Lorenz Mike,Kempiak Stephan,Sarmiento Corina,Coniglio Salvatore,Symons Marc,Segall Jeffrey,Eddy Robert,Miki Hiroaki,Takenawa Tadaomi,Condeelis John
The Journal of cell biology
Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions with a matrix degradation activity formed by invasive cancer cells. We have studied the molecular mechanisms of invadopodium formation in metastatic carcinoma cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitors blocked invadopodium formation in the presence of serum, and EGF stimulation of serum-starved cells induced invadopodium formation. RNA interference and dominant-negative mutant expression analyses revealed that neural WASP (N-WASP), Arp2/3 complex, and their upstream regulators, Nck1, Cdc42, and WIP, are necessary for invadopodium formation. Time-lapse analysis revealed that invadopodia are formed de novo at the cell periphery and their lifetime varies from minutes to several hours. Invadopodia with short lifetimes are motile, whereas long-lived invadopodia tend to be stationary. Interestingly, suppression of cofilin expression by RNA interference inhibited the formation of long-lived invadopodia, resulting in formation of only short-lived invadopodia with less matrix degradation activity. These results indicate that EGF receptor signaling regulates invadopodium formation through the N-WASP-Arp2/3 pathway and cofilin is necessary for the stabilization and maturation of invadopodia.
Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells.
Brasher Megan I,Martynowicz David M,Grafinger Olivia R,Hucik Andrea,Shanks-Skinner Emma,Uniacke James,Coppolino Marc G
The Journal of biological chemistry
Tumor cell invasion involves targeted localization of proteins required for interactions with the extracellular matrix and for proteolysis. The localization of many proteins during these cell-extracellular matrix interactions relies on membrane trafficking mediated in part by SNAREs. The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function is regulated during tumor cell invasion. Munc18c is known to regulate Stx4 activity, and here we show that Munc18c is required for Stx4-mediated invadopodium formation and cell invasion. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed a physical association between Munc18c and Stx4, which was enhanced during invadopodium formation, and that a reduction in Munc18c expression decreases invadopodium formation. We also found that an N-terminal Stx4-derived peptide associates with Munc18c and inhibits endogenous interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Furthermore, expression of the Stx4 N-terminal peptide decreased invadopodium formation and cell invasion Of note, cells expressing the Stx4 N-terminal peptide exhibited impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and EGF receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface during invadopodium formation. Our findings implicate Munc18c as a regulator of Stx4-mediated trafficking of MT1-MMP and EGFR, advancing our understanding of the role of SNARE function in the localization of proteins that drive tumor cell invasion.