The clinical surrogate definition of the trigeminocardiac reflex: Development of an optimized model according to a PRISMA-compliant systematic review.
BACKGROUND:The trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) is defined as sudden onset of parasympathetic dysrhythmias including hemodynamic irregularities, apnea, and gastric hypermotility during stimulation of sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve. Since the first description of the TCR 1999, there is an ongoing discussion about a more flexible than the existing clinical definition. Aim of this work was to create a clinical surrogate definition through a systematic review of the literature. METHODS:In this meta-analysis study, literature about TCR occurrences was, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement, systematically identified through various search engines including PubMed (Medline), Embase (Ovid SP), and ISI Web of Sciences databases from January 2005 to August 2015. TCR was defined as a drop of heart rate (HR) below 60 bpm or 20% to the baseline. We extracted detailed data about hemodynamic changes and searched for connections between arterial blood pressure (BP) and HR changes during such episodes. RESULTS:Overall 45 studies harboring 57 patients were included in the study but only 32 patients showed sufficient data for final analyze. HR showed a nonlinear behavior with a "tipping point" phenomena that differs in variance from the central/peripheral (20-30% drop) to ganglion (40-49% drop). BP showed a linear behavior with a "central limit" phenomena not differing in variance in the whole subgroup (30-39% drop). An analyzation of the correlation between BP and HR showed a trend to a linear correlation. CONCLUSIONS:We can show for the first time that HR is the dominant variable in the TCR and present a new surrogate definition model. This model and the role of BP must be better investigated in further studies.
Evidences in Neurological Surgery and a Cutting Edge Classification of the Trigeminocardiac Reflex: A Systematic Review.
Leon-Ariza Daniel S,Leon-Ariza Juan S,Nangiana Jasvinder,Vargas Grau Gabriel,Leon-Sarmiento Fidias E,Quiñones-Hinojosa Alfredo
BACKGROUND:The trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) is characterized by bradycardia, decrease of mean arterial blood pressure, and sometimes, asystole during surgery. We critically reviewed TCR studies and devised a novel classification scheme for assessing the reflex. METHODS:A comprehensive systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scielo databases. Eligible studies were extracted based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were used to assess cardiovascular variables. TCR was classified according to morphophysiologic aspects involved with reflex elicitation. RESULTS:A total of 575 patients were included in this study. TCR was found in 8.9% of patients. The reflex was more often triggered by interventions made within the anterior cranial fossa. The maxillary branch (type II in the new classification) was the most prevalent nerve branch found to trigger the TCR. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were similarly altered (P = 0.06; F = 0.3912809), covaried with age (P = 0.012; F = 9.302), and inversely correlated to each other (r = -0.27). CONCLUSIONS:TCR is a critical cardiovascular phenomenon that must be quickly identified and efficiently classified and should trigger vigilance. Prompt therapeutic measures during neurosurgical procedures should be carefully addressed to avoid unwanted complications. Accurate categorization using the new classification scheme will help to improve understanding and guide the management of TCR in the perioperative period.
[Trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery].
Duan H Z,Zhang Y,Li L,Zhang J Y,Yi Z Q,Bao S D
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
OBJECTIVE:To explore the mechanism, clinical features, and prognosis of Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) during skull base operations. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed on 291 patients with skull base disease from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2015 in Peking University First Hospital. By reviewing the patients' operative data and anaesthetic electrical record, and we picked out all the patients who suffered from TCR during the operation and analyzed their surgical procedures, clinical features, influence factors, and prognosis. TCR was defined as a drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the heart rate (HR) of more than 20% to the baseline values before the stimulus and coinciding with the manipulation of the trigeminal nerve. RESULTS:In all the 291 patients receiving skull base surgery, 9 patients suffering TCR for 19 times during the operation were found. These 9 cases included three acoustice schwannomas, one trigeminal schwannoma, one petroclival meningioma, one epidermoid cyst in cerebellopontine angle, one cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma, one pituitary adenoma, and one trigeminal neuralgia. The trigger of TCR was related to manipulation, retraction, and stimulation of the trunk or branches of trigeminal nerve. The baseline heart rate was 62-119/min [mean (79.4±14.6) /min] and dropped about 29.0%-66.4% (mean 44.3%) to 22-60 /min [mean (44.2±9.6) /min] after TCR. The baseline mean arterial blood pressure was 75-103 mmHg [mean (87.5±7.8) mmHg] and dropped about 23.4%-47.2% (mean 37.3%) to 45-67 mmHg [mean (54.9±6.3) mmHg] after TCR. During the 19 times of TCR, heart rate and blood pressure could return to baseline in a short time while stopping manipulation (8 times), using atropine (8 times, dose 0.5-1.0 mg, mean 0.69 mg), using ephedrine hydrochloride (one time, 15 mg), using epinephrine (one time, 1 mg), and using dopamine (one time, 2 mg). TCR also could be triggered again by a second stimulation. There was no relative cardiologic complication or neurological deficit in the postoperative 24 hours. CONCLUSION:TCR is a short neural reflex with a drop in blood pressure and heart rate coinciding with the manipulation of the trigeminal nerve in skull base surgery. Correct recognition, intensive observation, and essential management of TCR will lead to a good prognosis.