Psychoeducation for schizophrenia.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
BACKGROUND:Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients' knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). SELECTION CRITERIA:All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. MAIN RESULTS:This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ˜ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0.89, NNT 5 CI 4 to 13). Scale-derived data also suggested that psychoeducation promotes better social and global functioning. In the medium term, treating four people with schizophrenia with psychoeducation instead of standard care resulted in one additional person showing a clinical improvement. Evidence suggests that participants receiving psychoeducation are more likely to be satisfied with mental health services (n = 236, RR 0.24 CI 0.12 to 0.50, NNT 5 CI 5 to 8) and have improved quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Psychoeducation does seem to reduce relapse, readmission and encourage medication compliance, as well as reduce the length of hospital stay in these hospital-based studies of limited quality. The true size of effect is likely to be less than demonstrated in this review - but, nevertheless, some sort of psychoeducation could be clinically effective and potentially cost beneficial. It is not difficult to justify better, more applicable, research in this area aimed at fully investigating the effects of this promising approach.
Global health-related quality of life in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ supportive & palliative care
BACKGROUND AND AIM:Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia may have serious impacts on patients' quality of life leading to concern about different aspects of their lives. This study presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies examining the quality of life among patients with schizophrenia and its relationship with patients' characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 40 studies were extracted from searching of relevant databases published between 2000 and 2020. Descriptive data and correlation coefficients between patient's characteristics and quality of life were extracted and the results were reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses standards and meta-analysis of pooled studies. RESULTS:In total, 8363 patients with schizophrenia participated in 40 studies which used Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale revision 4. The total score of quality of life (QOL) in the study subjects was reported to be 40.66. Weighted effect size analyses revealed a significant relationship between QOL and variables including patients' age and duration of the disease. Furthermore, the highest (the worst) score of QOL in schizophrenia patients was observed in Europe 47.04 (95% CI 41.26 to 52.82) and the Euro region 47.05 (95% CI 41.18 to 52.92). CONCLUSION:Overall, the QOL among patients with schizophrenia was in a good status, which could be improved through considering different life aspects of people living in various contexts. In fact, clarifying the determinants of QOL would be a key step in the provision of future treatment efforts.