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F-FDG PET/CT findings of COVID-19: a series of four highly suspected cases. Qin Chunxia,Liu Fang,Yen Tzu-Chen,Lan Xiaoli European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging PURPOSE:The aim of this case series is to illustrate the F-FDG PET/CT findings of patients with acute respiratory disease caused by COVID-19 in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. METHODS:We describe the F-FDG PET/CT results from four patients who were admitted to the hospital with respiratory symptoms and fever between January 13 and January 20, 2020, when the COVID-19 outbreak was still unrecognized and the virus infectivity was unknown. A retrospective review of the patients' medical history, clinical and laboratory data, as well as imaging findings strongly suggested a diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS:All patients had peripheral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in more than two pulmonary lobes. Lung lesions were characterized by a high F-FDG uptake and there was evidence of lymph node involvement. Conversely, disseminated disease was absent, a finding suggesting that COVID-19 has pulmonary tropism. CONCLUSIONS:Although F-FDG PET/CT cannot be routinely used in an emergency setting and is generally not recommended for infectious diseases, our pilot data shed light on the potential clinical utility of this imaging technique in the differential diagnosis of complex cases. 10.1007/s00259-020-04734-w
E-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI): case series and diagnostic approach. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Since June, 2019, more than 1000 new cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) have been reported in the USA. Patients presented with dyspnoea, cough, and were found to be hypoxaemic with bilateral airspace opacities on chest imaging. Most patients required management in the intensive care unit and steroid therapy. All patients recovered with cessation of vaping, supportive care, and steroid therapy and remained symptom free at follow up. E-cigarette use continues to rapidly escalate in the USA, particularly among youth. METHODS:Cases were defined as patients admitted to the University of Rochester Medical Center (Rochester, NY, USA) who had used e-cigarettes or another vaping device in the 30 days before presentation, and who had bilateral airspace opacification on chest imaging (CT or x-ray). Case details were obtained via medical record review and patient interviews over the past 3 months including symptomatology, physical exam data, imaging studies, laboratory data, vaping history, and subsequent outpatient follow-up data. In collaboration with the New York State Department of Health, our hospital developed a novel clinical practice algorithm based on statewide physician feedback along with input from experts in environmental health, medical toxicology, infectious disease, epidemiology, and chronic disease prevention. FINDINGS:We report 12 cases treated for suspected EVALI at our medical centre between June 6, 2019, and Sept 15, 2019. Ten (83%) patients had dyspnoea, fever, and emesis and nine (75%) had cough. 11 (92%) patients reported the use of e-cigarette cartridges containing tetrahydrocannabinol oil. Although eight (67%) patients required admission to the intensive care unit for hypoxaemic respiratory failure, no deaths occurred. The median hospitalisation duration was 7 days (IQR 7-8). All patients completing follow up (6 [50%]) had resolution of previous chest CT findings and normal spirometry. The clinical algorithm focuses on the key signs and symptoms of EVALI and the importance of ruling out infection and other cardiopulmonary conditions before making a presumptive diagnosis of EVALI. INTERPRETATION:Patients with suspected EVALI in our cohort had life-threatening hypoxaemia, with 67% requiring management in the intensive care unit. Despite the severity of presentation, similar to previous reports of patients with EVALI, most patients improved within 1-2 weeks of initial presentation after vaping cessation and administration of systemic corticosteroids when needed. Almost all (92%) patients with suspected EVALI reported vaping a THC product, making THC containing e-liquids or oils a key focus on the ongoing nationwide investigations into the cause of EVALI. Additional research is required to understand the potential toxins, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and identification of susceptible individuals at higher risk for hospitalisation due to EVALI. To our knowledge we present the first clinical practice algorithm for the evaluation and management of EVALI, which will be useful for both acute management and improved accurate reporting of this life-threatening respiratory illness. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30415-1
Acute Kidney Injury and Hair-Straightening Products: A Case Series. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:Keratin-based hair-straightening treatment is a popular hair-styling method. The majority of keratin-based hair-straightening products in Israel contain glycolic acid derivatives, which are considered safe when used topically. Systemic absorption of these products is possible, and anecdotal reports have described kidney toxicity associated with their use. We report a series of cases of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) following use of hair-straightening treatment in Israel during the past several years. STUDY DESIGN:Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:We retrospectively identified 26 patients from 14 medical centers in Israel who experienced severe AKI and reported prior treatment with hair-straightening products in 2019-2022. FINDINGS:The 26 patients described had a median age of 28.5 (range, 14-58) years and experienced severe AKI following a hair-straightening procedure. The most common symptoms at presentation were nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Scalp rash was noted in 10 (38%) patients. Two patients experienced a recurrent episode of AKI following a repeat hair-straightening treatment. Seven patients underwent kidney biopsies, which demonstrated intratubular calcium oxalate deposition in 6 and microcalcification in tubular cells in 1. In all biopsies, signs of acute tubular injury were present, and an interstitial infiltrate was noted in 4 cases. Three patients required temporary dialysis. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective uncontrolled study, small number of kidney biopsies. CONCLUSIONS:This series describes cases of AKI with prior exposure to hair-straightening treatments. Acute oxalate nephropathy was the dominant finding on kidney biopsies, which may be related to absorption of glycolic acid derivatives and their metabolism to oxalate. This case series suggests a potential underrecognized cause of AKI in the young healthy population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to assess the extent of this phenomenon as well as its pathogenesis. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2022.11.016
Distinguishing case series from cohort studies. Dekkers Olaf M,Egger Matthias,Altman Douglas G,Vandenbroucke Jan P Annals of internal medicine Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label "case series" is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. 10.7326/0003-4819-156-1-201201030-00006