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    PHB2 (prohibitin 2) promotes PINK1-PRKN/Parkin-dependent mitophagy by the PARL-PGAM5-PINK1 axis. Yan Chaojun,Gong Longlong,Chen Li,Xu Meng,Abou-Hamdan Hussein,Tang Mingliang,Désaubry Laurent,Song Zhiyin Autophagy Mitophagy, which is a conserved cellular process for selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria, is critical for mitochondrial quality control and the maintenance of normal cellular physiology. However, the precise mechanisms underlying mitophagy remain largely unknown. Prior studies on mitophagy focused on the events in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PHB2 (prohibitin 2), which is a highly conserved membrane scaffold protein, was recently identified as a novel inner membrane mitophagy receptor that mediates mitophagy. Here, we report a new signaling pathway for PHB2-mediated mitophagy. Upon mitochondrial membrane depolarization or misfolded protein aggregation, PHB2 depletion destabilizes PINK1 in the mitochondria, which blocks the mitochondrial recruitment of PRKN/Parkin, ubiquitin and OPTN (optineurin), leading to an inhibition of mitophagy. In addition, PHB2 overexpression directly induces PRKN recruitment to the mitochondria. Moreover, PHB2-mediated mitophagy is dependent on the mitochondrial inner membrane protease PARL, which interacts with PHB2 and is activated upon PHB2 depletion. Furthermore, PGAM5, which is processed by PARL, participates in PHB2-mediated PINK1 stabilization. Finally, a ligand of PHB proteins that we synthesized, called FL3, was found to strongly inhibit PHB2-mediated mitophagy and to effectively block cancer cell growth and energy production at nanomolar concentrations. Thus, our findings reveal that the PHB2-PARL-PGAM5-PINK1 axis is a novel pathway of PHB2-mediated mitophagy and that targeting PHB2 with the chemical compound FL3 is a promising strategy for cancer therapy.: AIFM1: apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1; ATP5F1A/ATP5A1: ATP synthase F1 subunit alpha; BAF: bafilomycin A; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: chemical reagent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine; FL3: flavaglines compound 3; HSPD1/HSP60: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LC3B/MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF: mouse embryo fibroblasts; MPP: mitochondrial-processing peptidase; MT-CO2/COX2: mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II; MTS: mitochondrial targeting sequence; OA: oligomycin and antimycin A; OPTN: optineurin; OTC: ornithine carbamoyltransferase; PARL: presenilin associated rhomboid like; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PGAM5: PGAM family member 5, mitochondrial serine/threonine protein phosphatase; PHB: prohibitin; PHB2: prohibitin 2; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; Roc-A: rocaglamide A; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; TUBB: tubulin beta class I. 10.1080/15548627.2019.1628520
    Down-regulation of HSP60 Suppresses the Proliferation of Glioblastoma Cells via the ROS/AMPK/mTOR Pathway. Tang Haiping,Li Jin,Liu Xiaohui,Wang Guihuai,Luo Minkui,Deng Haiteng Scientific reports Glioblastoma is a fatal and incurable cancer with the hyper-activated mTOR pathway. HSP60, a major chaperone for maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis, is highly expressed in glioblastoma patients. To understand the effects of HSP60 on glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, we characterized the HSP60-knockdowned glioblastoma cells and revealed that HSP60 silencing markedly suppressed cell proliferation and promoted cell to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Proteomic analysis showed that ribosomal proteins were significantly downregulated whereas EMT-associated proteins were up-regulated in HSP60-knockdowned U87 cells as confirmed by a distinct enrichment pattern in newly synthesized proteins with azido-homoalanine labeling. Biochemical analysis revealed that HSP60 knockdown increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that led to AMPK activation, similarly to the complex I inhibitor rotenone-induced AMPK activation. Activated AMPK suppressed mTORC1 mediated S6K and 4EBP1 phosphorylation to decrease protein translation, which slowed down cell growth and proliferation. On the other hand, high levels of ROS in HSP60 knockdowned or rotenone-treated U87 cells contributed to EMT. These results indicate that HSP60 silencing deactivates the mTOR pathway to suppress glioblastoma progression, suggesting that HSP60 is a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma treatment. 10.1038/srep28388
    The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA induces HSP60 nitration and its extracellular release by exosomal vesicles in human lung-derived carcinoma cells. Campanella Claudia,D'Anneo Antonella,Marino Gammazza Antonella,Caruso Bavisotto Celeste,Barone Rosario,Emanuele Sonia,Lo Cascio Filippa,Mocciaro Emanuele,Fais Stefano,Conway De Macario Everly,Macario Alberto J L,Cappello Francesco,Lauricella Marianna Oncotarget HSP60 undergoes changes in quantity and distribution in some types of tumors suggesting a participation of the chaperonin in the mechanism of transformation and cancer progression. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a member of a family of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), has anti-cancer potential but its interaction, if any, with HSP60 has not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of SAHA in a human lung-derived carcinoma cell line (H292). We analysed cell viability and cycle; oxidative stress markers; mitochondrial integrity; HSP60 protein and mRNA levels; and HSP60 post-translational modifications, and its secretion. We found that SAHA is cytotoxic for H292 cells, interrupting the cycle at the G2/M phase, which is followed by death; cytotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and diminution of intracellular levels of HSP60; HSP60 undergoes a post-translational modification and becomes nitrated; and nitrated HSP60 is exported via exosomes. We propose that SAHA causes ROS overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to HSP60 nitration and release into the intercellular space and circulation to interact with the immune system. These successive steps might constitute the mechanism of the anti-tumor action of SAHA and provide a basis to design supplementary therapeutic strategies targeting HSP60, which would be more efficacious than the compound alone. 10.18632/oncotarget.6680
    Downregulation of HSP60 disrupts mitochondrial proteostasis to promote tumorigenesis and progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Tang Haiping,Chen Yuling,Liu Xiaohui,Wang Shiyu,Lv Yang,Wu Di,Wang Qingtao,Luo Minkui,Deng Haiteng Oncotarget In the present study, we demonstrate that HSP60 is unequivocally downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues compared to pericarcinous tissues. Overexpression of HSP60 in ccRCC cancer cells suppresses cell growth. HSP60 knockdown increases cell growth and proliferation in both cell culture and nude mice xenografts, and drives cells to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results propose that HSP60 silencing disrupts the integrity of the respiratory complex I and triggers the excessive ROS production, which promotes tumor progression in the following aspects: (1) ROS activates the AMPK pathway that promotes acquisition of the Warburg phenotype in HSP60-KN cells; (2) ROS generated by HSP60 knockdown or by rotenone inhibition drives cells to undergo EMT; and (3) the high level of ROS may also fragment the Fe-S clusters that up regulates ADHFe1 expression and the 2-hydroxygluterate (2-HG) production leading to changes in DNA methylation. These results suggest that the high level of ROS is needed for tumorigenesis and progression in tumors with the low HSP60 expression and HSP60 is a potential diagnostic biomarker as well as a therapeutic target in ccRCC. 10.18632/oncotarget.9615
    Differential expression of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) in human colorectal cancer progression using human cancer cDNA microarrays. Mori Daisuke,Nakafusa Yuji,Miyazaki Kohji,Tokunaga Osamu Pathology, research and practice In this study, we applied commercially available cDNA microarray systems (1068 genes) to investigate the genetic changes in six colorectal cancers (CRC). Thirty-two genes fell into the group of commonly upregulated genes. In addition, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of the four top ranked upregulated genes, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), in 44 CRC. JAK3 staining was located in the cancer cells. A comparison of JAK3 immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters showed a significant association of tumor differentiation, pT, and TMN stage. Staining of MMP13 and HSP60 was noted mainly in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. A significant association of these expressions was observed with tumor differentiation and pT. MDM2 staining was noted in the nucleus of cancer and non-cancer cells. No significant association of clinicopathological parameters with MDM2 expression was observed. In multivariate analysis, JAK3 immunoreactivity showed independent prognostically unfavorable predictors. These data suggest that JAK3, in particular, is a highly significant, prognostic immunohistochemical marker in CRC. This study proves that cDNA microarrays, plotted by a small number of genes from a few samples, are both practical and useful. 10.1016/j.prp.2005.06.005
    CCAR2/DBC1 and Hsp60 Positively Regulate Expression of Survivin in Neuroblastoma Cells. Kim Wootae,Ryu Jaewook,Kim Ja-Eun International journal of molecular sciences CCAR2 (cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2) controls a variety of cellular functions; however, its main function is to regulate cell survival and cell death in response to genotoxic and metabolic stresses. Recently, we reported that CCAR2 protects cells from apoptosis following mitochondrial stress, possibly by co-operating with Hsp60. However, it is not clear how CCAR2 and Hsp60 control cell survival and death. Here, we found that depleting CCAR2 and Hsp60 downregulated expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Survivin expression in neuroblastoma tissues and human cancer cell lines correlated positively with expression of CCAR2 and Hsp60. Furthermore, high expression of CCAR2, Hsp60, and survivin was associated with poor survival of neuroblastoma patients. In summary, both CCAR2 and Hsp60 are required for expression of survivin, and both promote cancer cell survival, at least in part, by maintaining survivin expression. Therefore, CCAR2, Hsp60, and survivin are candidate tumor biomarkers and prognostic markers in neuroblastomas. 10.3390/ijms20010131
    HSP60 silencing promotes Warburg-like phenotypes and switches the mitochondrial function from ATP production to biosynthesis in ccRCC cells. Teng Ruifang,Liu Zongyuan,Tang Haiping,Zhang Wenhao,Chen Yuling,Xu Renhua,Chen Liang,Song Jiangping,Liu Xiaohui,Deng Haiteng Redox biology HSP60 is a major mitochondrial chaperone for maintaining mitochondrial proteostasis. Our previous studies showed that HSP60 was significantly downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common type of kidney cancer characterized by the classic Warburg effect. Here, we analyzed datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas and revealed that higher HSP60 expression correlated with better overall survival in ccRCC patients. We also stably knocked down or overexpressed HSP60 in ccRCC cells to investigate the effects of HSP60 expression on the transition between oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. We confirmed that HSP60 knockdown increased cell proliferation, whereas its overexpression decreased cell growth. Proteomics and metabolomics revealed that HSP60 knockdown promoted Warburg-like phenotypes with enhanced glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial activity. Consistent with this finding, isotope tracing showed that the metabolic flow from glycolysis to TCA was reduced. However, HSP60 silencing enhanced mitochondrial functions in glutamine-directed biosynthesis with increased flow in two parts of the TCA cycle: Gln→αKG→OAA→Asp and Gln→αKG→ISO→acetyl-CoA, resulting in elevated de novo nucleotide synthesis and lipid synthesis. Proteomic analysis indicated that HSP60 silencing activated NRF2-mediated oxidative stress responses, while glutamate generated from glutamine increased glutathione synthesis for quenching excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced upon elevated cell growth. We further found that HSP60 silencing activated the MEK/ERK/c-Myc axis to promote glutamine addiction, and confirmed that ccRCC cells were susceptible to oxidative stress and glutaminase inhibition. Collectively, our data show that HSP60 knockdown drives metabolic reprogramming in ccRCC to promote tumor progression and enhances mitochondrial-dependent biosynthesis. 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101218
    Chaperonin (HSP60) and annexin-2 are candidate biomarkers for non-small cell lung carcinoma. Ağababaoğlu İsmail,Önen Ahmet,Demir Ayşe Banu,Aktaş Safiye,Altun Zekiye,Ersöz Hasan,Şanl Aydn,Özdemir Nezih,Akkoçlu Atila Medicine BACKGROUND:Lung cancer is responsible of 12.4% and 17.6% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases and mortality due to cancer, respectively, and 5-year survival rate despite all improved treatment options is 15%. This survival rate reaches 66% in the Stage 1 and surgically treated patients. Early diagnosis which could not be definitely and commonly achieved yet is extremely critical in obtaining high survival rate in this disease. For this reason; proteomic differences were evaluated using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry in the subgroups of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS:Fresh tissue samples of 36 malignant cases involving 83.3% (n = 30) men and 16.7% (n = 6) women patients were distributed into 2 groups as early and end stage lung cancer and each group were composed of subgroups including 18 squamous cell carcinoma (9 early stage cases, 9 end stage cases) and 18 adenocarcinoma cases (9 early stage cases, 9 end stage cases). The fresh tissues obtained from the tumoral and matched normal sites after surgical intervention. The differences in protein expression levels were determined by comparing proteomic changes in each patient. RESULTS:In the subgroups of advanced stage adenocarcinoma; tumoral tissue revealed differences in expression of 2 proteins compared with normal parenchymal tissue. Of those; difference in protein expression in heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) was found statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Subgroups of early and advanced stage squamos cell carcinoma have differed in certain 20 protein expression of normal tissue and diseased squamos cell carcinoma. Of those, increased protein expression level of only annexin-2 protein was found statistically significant (P = 0.002). No significant difference was detected in early and advanced stage protein expressions of the tumoral tissues in the subgroups of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that with respect to early diagnosis of lung cancer that HSP60 and annexin-2 proteins are the important biomarkers in the subgroups of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. We also consider that these 2 proteins are molecules which may provide critical contribution in evaluation of prognosis, metastatic potential, response to treatment, and in establishment of differential diagnosis between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. 10.1097/MD.0000000000005903
    Gossypol induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells through oxidative stress. Wang Jia,Jin Lixu,Li Xiaoyu,Deng Haiyun,Chen Yuling,Lian Qingquan,Ge Renshan,Deng Haiteng Molecular bioSystems In the present work, metabolomic and redox proteomic analyses were carried out on an untreated- and gossypol-treated ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3. Gossypol treatment resulted in cell death through oxidative stress. Metabolite analysis showed that gossypol induces a decrease of the cellular levels of GSH, aspartic acid, and FAD. Using a combination of double labeling and LC-MS-MS, we identified changes in thiol-redox states of 545 cysteine-containing peptides from 356 proteins. The frequently occurring amino acid residue immediately before or after the cysteine in these peptides is the non-polar and neutral leucine, valine, or alanine. These redox sensitive proteins participate in a variety of cellular processes. We have characterized the redox-sensitive cysteine residues in PKM2, HSP60, malate dehydrogenase and other proteins that play important roles in metabolism homeostasis and stress responses. The three cysteine residues of HSP60 exhibit different responses to gossypol treatment: an increase of thiol/disulfide ratio for the Cys447 residue due to a decrease of the cellular GSH level, and a decrease of thiol/disulfide ratios for Cys442 and Cys237 residues due to oxidation and sulfation. This study suggests that thiol/disulfide ratios are dependent on the level of cellular GSH. Our data provide a valuable resource for deciphering the redox regulation of proteins and for understanding gossypol-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. 10.1039/c3mb25461e
    Clinical validation of colorectal cancer biomarkers identified from bioinformatics analysis of public expression data. Jung Yeonjoo,Lee Sanghyuk,Choi Hyung-Seok,Kim Soon-Nam,Lee Eunyoung,Shin Youngah,Seo Jihae,Kim Bumjin,Jung Yeonhwa,Kim Wan Kyu,Chun Ho-Kyung,Lee Woo Yong,Kim Jaesang Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Identification of novel biomarkers of cancer is important for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify marker genes of colorectal cancer (CRC) by combining bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data and validation experiments using patient samples and to examine the potential connection between validated markers and the established oncogenes such as c-Myc and K-ras. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Publicly available data from GenBank and Oncomine were meta-analyzed leading to 34 candidate marker genes of CRC. Multiple case-matched normal and tumor tissues were examined by RT-PCR for differential expression, and 9 genes were validated as CRC biomarkers. Statistical analyses for correlation with major clinical parameters were carried out, and RNA interference was used to examine connection with major oncogenes. RESULTS:We show with high confidence that 9 (ECT2, ETV4, DDX21, RAN, S100A11, RPS4X, HSPD1, CKS2, and C9orf140) of the 34 candidate genes are expressed at significantly elevated levels in CRC tissues compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, high-level expression of RPS4X was associated with nonmucinous cancer cell type and that of ECT2 with lack of lymphatic invasion while upregulation of CKS2 was correlated with early tumor stage and lack of family history of CRC. We also demonstrate that RPS4X and DDX21 are regulatory targets of c-Myc and ETV4 is downstream to K-ras signaling. CONCLUSIONS:We have identified multiple novel biomarkers of CRC. Further analyses of their function and connection to signaling pathways may reveal potential value of these biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of CRC. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1300
    Proteomic analysis of apoptosis induction in human lung cancer cells by recombinant MVL. Li Yuqin,Zhang Bochao,Wang Xiaoqin,Yan Huidan,Chen Gu,Zhang Xuewu Amino acids Lung cancer is still difficult to treat by current chemotherapeutic procedures. We recently found that MVL, an anti-HIV lectin from blue-green algae Microcystis viridis, also has antitumor activity. The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis-inducing activity of recombinant MVL (R-MVL) and proteomic changes in A549 cells, and to identify the molecular pathways responsible for the anti-cancer action of R-MVL. We found that R-MVL induces A549 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay, fluorescent microscope (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and the IC50 was calculated to be 24.12 μg/ml. Subsequently, 7 altered proteins in R-MVL-treated A549 cells were identified, including upregulated aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and β-actin, and five downregulated proteins: heat shock protein 90, heat shock 60, plastin 3, tropomyosin 3, and β-tubulin. Further bioinformatics analysis predicted the potential pathways for R-MVL to induce apoptosis of A549 cells. In conclusion, this is the first report to investigate anti-cancer activity of R-MVL and its mechanism of action by proteomics analysis. Our observations provide potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer inhibitor intervention and implicated the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. 10.1007/s00726-010-0791-0
    Quantitative proteome analysis of multidrug resistance in human ovarian cancer cell line. Li Sang-Lin,Ye Feng,Cai Wei-Jun,Hu Huai-Dong,Hu Peng,Ren Hong,Zhu Fu-Fan,Zhang Da-Zhi Journal of cellular biochemistry In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in ovarian cancer, we employed the proteomic approach of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), followed by LC-MS/MS, using the cisplatin-resistant COC1/DDP cell line and its parental COC1 cell line as a model. A total number of 28 proteins differentially expressed were identified, and then the differential expression levels of partially identified proteins were confirmed by Western blot analysis and/or real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, the association of PKM2 and HSPD1, two differentially expressed proteins, with MDR were analyzed, and the results showed that they could contribute considerably to the cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell. The differential expression proteins could be classified into eight categories based on their functions, that is, calcium binding proteins, chaperones, extracellular matrix, proteins involved in drug detoxification or repair of DNA damage, metabolic enzymes, transcription factor, proteins related to cellular structure and proteins relative to signal transduction. These data will be valuable for further study of the mechanisms of MDR in the ovarian cancer. 10.1002/jcb.22413
    Quantitative patterns of Hsps in tubular adenoma compared with normal and tumor tissues reveal the value of Hsp10 and Hsp60 in early diagnosis of large bowel cancer. Rappa Francesca,Pitruzzella Alessandro,Marino Gammazza Antonella,Barone Rosario,Mocciaro Emanuele,Tomasello Giovanni,Carini Francesco,Farina Felicia,Zummo Giovanni,Conway de Macario Everly,Macario Alberto Jl,Cappello Francesco Cell stress & chaperones Large bowel carcinogenesis involves accumulation of genetic alterations leading to transformation of normal mucosa into dysplasia and, lastly, adenocarcinoma. It is pertinent to elucidate the molecular changes occurring in the pre-neoplastic lesions to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), many of which are molecular chaperones, are implicated in carcinogenesis, and their variations with tumor progression encourage their study as biomarkers. There are many reports on Hsps and cancer but none to our knowledge on their systematic quantification in pre-neoplastic lesions of the large bowel. We performed immunohistochemical determinations of Hsp10, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 in biopsies of large bowel tubular adenomas with moderate grade of dysplasia and compared to normal mucosa and adenocarcinoma with a moderate grade of differentiation (G2). A significant elevation of Hsp10 and Hsp60 only, i.e., in the absence of elevation of Hsp70 or Hsp90, in both epithelium and lamina propria was found in tubular adenoma by comparison with normal mucosa. In contrast, adenocarcinoma was characterized by the highest levels of Hsp10 and Hsp60 in epithelium and lamina propria, accompanied by the highest levels of Hsp70 only in epithelium and of Hsp90 only in lamina propria, by comparison with normal and tubular adenoma counterparts. Hsp10 and Hsp60 are promising biomarkers for early diagnosis of tubular adenoma and for its differentiation from more advanced malignant lesions. Hsp10 and Hsp60 may be implicated in carcinogenesis from its very early steps and, thus, are potentially convenient targets for therapy. 10.1007/s12192-016-0721-5
    Heat shock protein 60 overexpression is associated with the progression and prognosis in gastric cancer. Li Xiao-shan,Xu Qing,Fu Xiang-yang,Luo Wei-sheng PloS one BACKGROUND:Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a chaperonin with essential functions for cell physiology and survival, and its expression correlates with prognosis in a number of malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of HSP60 status with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in gastric cancer. METHODS:The levels of HSP60 and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 223 gastric carcinoma samples. The association between HSP60 and MMP-9, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis of gastric cancer was examined. RESULTS:The level of HSP60 protein was significantly associated with depth invasion, lymph node metastasis and stage of disease (all P<0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HSP60 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (both P<0.05). Furthermore, HSP60 overexpression was associated with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer in different risk groups. Moreover, HSP60 was significantly correlated with MMP-9 among 223 gastric cancer tissues (P<0.001). Patients who had HSP60 overexpression, in which tumor cells displayed high invasiveness, had poor OS and shorter RFS. CONCLUSION:HSP60 plays an important role on tumor aggressiveness and prognosis, and may act as a promising target for prognostic prediction. 10.1371/journal.pone.0107507
    Microarray-based data mining reveals key genes and potential therapeutic drugs for Cadmium-induced prostate cell malignant transformation. Xiang Ying,Zhang Liang,Huang Yu,Ling Junjun,Zhuo Wenlei Environmental toxicology and pharmacology Increasing evidence showed that Cadmium (Cd) can accumulate in the body and damage cells, resulting in cancerigenesis of the prostate with complex mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed to explore the possible key genes, pathways and therapeutic drugs using bioinformatics methods. Microarray-based data were retrieved and analyzed to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Cd-treated prostate cells and controls. Then, functions of the DEGs were annotated and hub genes were screened. Next, key genes were selected from the hub genes via validation in a prostate cancer cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Afterward, potential drugs were further predicted. Consequently, a gene expression profile, GSE9951, was retrieved. Then, 361 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated DEGs were screened out, which were enriched in various pathways. Among the DEGs, seven hub genes (HSPA5, HSP90AB1, RHOA, HSPD1, MAD2L1, SKP2, and CCT2) were dysregulated in prostate cancer compared to normal controls, and two of them (HSPD1 and CCT2) might influence the prostate cancer prognosis. Lastly, ionomycin was predicted to be a potential agent reversing Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation. In summary, the present study provided novel evidence regarding the mechanisms of Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation, and identified ionomycin as a potential small molecule against Cd toxicity. 10.1016/j.etap.2019.03.014
    Metabolic markers and HSP60 in chemonaive serous solid ovarian cancer versus ascites. Hjerpe Elisabet,Brage Suzanne Egyhazi,Frostvik Stolt Marianne,Johansson Hemming,Shoshan Maria,Avall-Lundqvist Elisabeth International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society OBJECTIVE:Metabolic pathway alterations in cancer are thought to be dependent upon tumor type-specific oncogenic activation and local nutrient and oxygen supply during disease progression. In serous ovarian cancer, the typical peritoneal spread of disease is caused by shedding of tumor cells into the abdominal cavity, often along with ascites formation. Not much is known about the metabolic features of these detached serous tumor cells. In this study, we investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of GAPDH (glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and PKM2 (pyruvate kinase isoform M2), ATP5B (mitochondrial β-F1-ATPase), and heat shock protein 60 in matched serous solid tumor and corresponding ascites. MATERIALS/METHODS:Fresh samples from solid tumor and corresponding ascites were prospectively collected from 40 patients undergoing primary surgery for suspected advanced ovarian cancer. Of these, 25 met the study eligibility criteria, that is, stage IIC to IV disease of the serous (24) or endometrioid (1) subtype with solid and ascites specimens containing 50% or more tumor cells and with good quality and quantity mRNA yield. All but 2 patients (92%) had type II disease. GAPDH, PKM2, ATP5B, and HSP60 mRNA expressions were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. For each marker, the mRNA expression in solid tumor was pairwise compared with the corresponding expression in ascites using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test. RESULTS:In contrast to our hypothesis, the mRNA expression of analyzed metabolic markers and HSP60 did not significantly differ between matched solid tumor and malignant ascites. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that further expression changes in genes related to glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation are not a prerequisite for serous cancer cell survival after detachment. 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000246
    The tumor promoting roles of HSP60 and HIF2α in gastric cancer cells. Tong Wei-Wei,Tong Guang-Hui,Kong Hong,Liu Yong Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine The roles of HSP60 and HIF2α in diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention and treatment of various human cancers have been detected. However, the combined roles of HSP60 and HIF2α on the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer remain unclear. In this work, we confirmed that the levels of HSP60 and HIF2α messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were higher in gastric cancer tissues than that in matched normal tissues by using real-time PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, we confirmed that inhibition of HSP60 or HIF2α could induce apoptosis and inhibit cell mobility. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) was performed to determine the interaction between HSP60 and HIF2α. Lastly, we confirmed that knockdown of HSP60 or HIF2α induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is negatively related to the MEK/ERK signaling in vitro. In summary, HSP60 or HIF2α protein expression may be a predictive marker for the prognosis of the patients with gastric cancer. Targeting HSP60 and HIF2α could be a future strategy to improve survival of gastric patients with poor prognosis. 10.1007/s13277-015-4783-2
    Mitochondrial markers predict survival and progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: Use as companion diagnostics. Sotgia Federica,Lisanti Michael P Oncotarget Here, we used an informatics-based approach to identify novel biomarkers of overall survival and tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We determined whether nuclear-encoded genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and function can be used to effectively predict clinical outcome in lung cancer. This strategy allowed us to directly provide validation of the prognostic value of these mitochondrial components in large, clinically-relevant, lung cancer patient populations. Towards this end, we used a group of 726 lung cancer patients, with negative surgical margins. Importantly, in this group of cancer patients, markers of cell proliferation (Ki67 and PCNA) were associated with poor overall survival, as would be expected. Similarly, key markers of inflammation (CD163 and CD68) also predicted poor clinical outcome in this patient population. Using this approach, we identified >180 new individual mitochondrial gene probes that effectively predicted significantly reduced overall survival, with hazard-ratios (HR) of up to 4.89 (p<1.0e-16). These nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes included chaperones, membrane proteins as well as ribosomal proteins (MRPs) and components of the OXPHOS (I-V) complexes. In this analysis, HSPD1, a key marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, had the highest predictive value and was also effective in predicting tumor progression in both smokers and non-smokers alike. In fact, it had even higher predictive value in non-smokers (HR=5.9; p=3.9e-07). Based on this analysis, we conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis should be considered as a new therapeutic target, for the more effective treatment of human lung cancers. The mitochondrial biomarkers that we have identified could serve as new companion diagnostics to assist clinicians in more accurately predicting clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients, driving more personalized cancer therapy. 10.18632/oncotarget.19677
    KHS101 disrupts energy metabolism in human glioblastoma cells and reduces tumor growth in mice. Polson Euan S,Kuchler Verena B,Abbosh Christopher,Ross Edith M,Mathew Ryan K,Beard Hester A,da Silva Bárbara,Holding Andrew N,Ballereau Stephane,Chuntharpursat-Bon Eulashini,Williams Jennifer,Griffiths Hollie B S,Shao Hao,Patel Anjana,Davies Adam J,Droop Alastair,Chumas Paul,Short Susan C,Lorger Mihaela,Gestwicki Jason E,Roberts Lee D,Bon Robin S,Allison Simon J,Zhu Shoutian,Markowetz Florian,Wurdak Heiko Science translational medicine Pharmacological inhibition of uncontrolled cell growth with small-molecule inhibitors is a potential strategy for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant primary brain cancer. We showed that the synthetic small-molecule KHS101 promoted tumor cell death in diverse GBM cell models, independent of their tumor subtype, and without affecting the viability of noncancerous brain cell lines. KHS101 exerted cytotoxic effects by disrupting the mitochondrial chaperone heat shock protein family D member 1 (HSPD1). In GBM cells, KHS101 promoted aggregation of proteins regulating mitochondrial integrity and energy metabolism. Mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity and glycolytic activity were selectively impaired in KHS101-treated GBM cells. In two intracranial patient-derived xenograft tumor models in mice, systemic administration of KHS101 reduced tumor growth and increased survival without discernible side effects. These findings suggest that targeting of HSPD1-dependent metabolic pathways might be an effective strategy for treating GBM. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aar2718
    Co-expression Network Analysis Identified Key Proteins in Association With Hepatic Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Yang Wang,Shi Jian,Zhou Yan,Liu Tongjun,Li Jiannan,Hong Feng,Zhang Kai,Liu Ning Proteomics. Clinical applications PURPOSE:Intense efforts have been made in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment in recent decades. However, the mechanism of development and metastasis of CRC has not been fully cleared. This study is designed to identify key proteins involved in stage III and hepatic metastatic CRC. EXPERIMENT DESIGN:Protein expression profiles of paired tumor and benign tissue samples from stage III and hepatic metastatic CRC patients are characterized by using a label-free proteomics approach. Key proteins relevant to hepatic metastatic CRC are revealed by weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and other bioinformatics tools. RESULTS:WGCNA reveals three hub modules: CRC without specific stage (turquoise), stage III CRC (blue), and hepatic metastatic CRC (green). Nine key proteins (heat shock protein family D member 1 (HSPD1), eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, fibrinogen beta chain (FGB), Talin 1, adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit alpha 2, serrate RNA effector molecule homolog, apolipoprotein C3, phosphoglucomutase 5) are identified. Moreover, upregulation of HSPD1 is validated in CRC tissue by the immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of fibrinogen is validated in metastatic CRC by plasma fibrinogen assay. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:This study provides the proteomic analysis of stage III and hepatic metastatic CRC to identify key proteins of CRC. FGB plays a key role to serve as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for hepatic metastatic CRC. 10.1002/prca.201900017
    Regulation of Heat Shock Proteins by miRNAs in human breast cancer. Ozgur Aykut,Tutar Lutfi,Tutar Yusuf MicroRNA (Shariqah, United Arab Emirates) Metabolic rates of cancer cells are faster compared to normal cells. This faster rate yields aberrant protein folding and causes loss of protein function. Therefore, cancer cells need more Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) for proper substrate- protein folding on oncogenic pathways. Pseudogenes regulate tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and pseudogenes are deregulated in cancer progression. Further, alterations in miRNA expression have been identified in different cancer types. MiRNAs also have both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive roles in breast cancer post-transcriptional gene regulation. Breast cancer is a genetic disease and we performed miRNA analysis in human breast cancer cell lines to identify miRNAs in association with HSPs and pseudogenes by employing CellMiner; a web-based suite. CellMiner integrates several databases and help analysing microarray metadata. The experimental data provide a platform for researchers to compare macromolecules' relationships in NCI-60 cell lines. Breast cancer associated miRNAs gathered from literature and analyzed by employing this suite, significantly correlated HSP genes and pseudogenes in the breast cancer are determined as; HSPA13, HSP90AB1, TRAP1, HSPB1, DNAJB4, HSPD1 and HSP90AA4P, HSPB1P1, DNAJC8P1, HSPD1P9 respectively. HSPs involved in breast cancer are regulated by several miRNAs and miRNA regulators from CellMiner data found as hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-22, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-106a, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-130a, and hsamiR- 141. Cross check of the determined miRNAs and target HSPs was performed by target site prediction software. Comparison of the experimental data from CellMiner and software predicted data indicate differences. CellMiner data provide a vast miRNA types compared to prediction softwares-web tools data and reported miRNAs in the literature. Therefore, reported key miRNAs in this work that are not studied earlier may help cancer researchers to uncover novel posttranslational regulation mechanisms. Cancer cells use HSP network as an escape mechanism from apoptosis, therefore inhibition of associated HSPs by modulating miRNAs may provide a novel therapy for the tumorigenesis. 10.2174/2211536604666141216214140
    Heat shock protein 60 levels in tissue and circulating exosomes in human large bowel cancer before and after ablative surgery. Campanella Claudia,Rappa Francesca,Sciumè Carmelo,Marino Gammazza Antonella,Barone Rosario,Bucchieri Fabio,David Sabrina,Curcurù Giuseppe,Caruso Bavisotto Celeste,Pitruzzella Alessandro,Geraci Girolamo,Modica Giuseppe,Farina Felicia,Zummo Giovanni,Fais Stefano,Conway de Macario Everly,Macario Alberto J L,Cappello Francesco Cancer BACKGROUND:Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperonin involved in tumorigenesis, but its participation in tumor development and progression is not well understood and its value as a tumor biomarker has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the authors presented evidence supporting the theory that Hsp60 has potential as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target in patients with large bowel cancer. METHODS:The authors studied a population of 97 subjects, including patients and controls. Immunomorphology, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed on tissue specimens. Exosomes were isolated from blood and characterized by electron microscopy, biochemical tests, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS:Hsp60 was found to be increased in cancerous tissue, in which it was localized in the tumor cell plasma membrane, and in the interstitium associated with cells of the immune system, in which it was associated with exosomes liberated by tumor cells and, as such, circulated in the blood. An interesting finding was that these parameters returned to normal shortly after tumor removal. CONCLUSIONS:The data from the current study suggested that Hsp60 is a good candidate for theranostics applied to patients with large bowel carcinoma and encourage similar research among patients with other tumors in which Hsp60 has been implicated. 10.1002/cncr.29499
    Proteomic profiling of a mouse model of acute intestinal Apc deletion leads to identification of potential novel biomarkers of human colorectal cancer (CRC). Hammoudi Abeer,Song Fei,Reed Karen R,Jenkins Rosalind E,Meniel Valerie S,Watson Alastair J M,Pritchard D Mark,Clarke Alan R,Jenkins John R Biochemical and biophysical research communications Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Accurate non-invasive screening for CRC would greatly enhance a population's health. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene mutations commonly occur in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, leading to Wnt signalling pathway activation. Acute conditional transgenic deletion of Apc in murine intestinal epithelium (AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl)) causes phenotypic changes similar to those found during colorectal tumourigenesis. This study comprised a proteomic analysis of murine small intestinal epithelial cells following acute Apc deletion to identify proteins that show altered expression during human colorectal carcinogenesis, thus identifying proteins that may prove clinically useful as blood/serum biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia. Eighty-one proteins showed significantly increased expression following iTRAQ analysis, and validation of nine of these by Ingenuity Pathaway Analysis showed they could be detected in blood or serum. Expression was assessed in AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) small intestinal epithelium by immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR; increased nucelolin concentrations were also detected in the serum of AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) and Apc(Min)(/)(+) mice by ELISA. Six proteins; heat shock 60kDa protein 1, Nucleolin, Prohibitin, Cytokeratin 18, Ribosomal protein L6 and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 5,were selected for further investigation. Increased expression of 4 of these was confirmed in human CRC by qPCR. In conclusion, several novel candidate biomarkers have been identified from analysis of transgenic mice in which the Apc gene was deleted in the intestinal epithelium that also showed increased expression in human CRC. Some of these warrant further investigation as potential serum-based biomarkers of human CRC. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.076
    Mitochondrial markers predict recurrence, metastasis and tamoxifen-resistance in breast cancer patients: Early detection of treatment failure with companion diagnostics. Sotgia Federica,Fiorillo Marco,Lisanti Michael P Oncotarget Here, we used a data-mining and informatics approach to discover new biomarkers of resistance to hormonal therapy in breast cancer. More specifically, we investigated whether nuclear-encoded genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis can be used to predict tumor recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment failure in high-risk breast cancer patients. Overall, this strategy allowed us to directly provide validation of the prognostic value of these mitochondrial components in large and clinically relevant patient populations, with >15 years of follow-up data. For this purpose, we employed a group of 145 ER(+) luminal A breast cancer patients, with lymph-node (LN) metastasis at diagnosis, that were treated with tamoxifen, but not any chemotherapy agents. Using this approach, we identified >60 new individual mitochondrial biomarkers that predicted treatment failure and tumor recurrence, with hazard-ratios (HR) of up to 4.17 (=2.2e-07). These include mitochondrial chaperones (HSPD1, HSPA9), membrane proteins (VDAC2, TOMM70A) and anti-oxidants (SOD2), as well as 18 different mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) and >20 distinct components of the OXPHOS complexes. In addition, we combined 4 mitochondrial proteins (HSPD1, UQCRB, MRPL15, COX17), to generate a compact mitochondrial gene signature, associated with a HR of 5.34 (=1e-09). This signature also successfully predicted distant metastasis and was effective in larger groups of ER(+) (=2,447), basal (=540) and HER2(+) (=193) breast cancers. It was also effective in all breast cancers (=3,180), if considered together as a single group. Based on this analysis, we conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis should be considered as a new therapeutic target for overcoming tumor recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment failure in patients with breast cancer. In summary, we identified individual mitochondrial biomarkers and 2 compact mitochondrial gene signatures that can be used to predict tamoxifen-resistance and tumor recurrence, at their initial diagnosis, in patients with advanced breast cancer. In the long-term, these mitochondrial biomarkers could provide a new companion diagnostics platform to help clinicians to accurately predict the response to hormonal therapy in ER(+) breast cancer patients, facilitating more personalized and effective treatment. Similarly, these mitochondrial markers could be used as companion diagnostics, to determine which breast cancer patients would benefit most from clinical treatments with mitochondrially-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. Finally, we also showed that these mitochondrial markers are superior when directly compared with conventional biomarkers, such as Ki67 and PCNA. 10.18632/oncotarget.19612
    The dissociation of the Hsp60/pro-Caspase-3 complex by bis(pyridyl)oxadiazole copper complex (CubipyOXA) leads to cell death in NCI-H292 cancer cells. Caruso Bavisotto Celeste,Nikolic Dragana,Marino Gammazza Antonella,Barone Rosario,Lo Cascio Filippa,Mocciaro Emanuele,Zummo Giovanni,Conway de Macario Everly,Macario Alberto Jl,Cappello Francesco,Giacalone Valentina,Pace Andrea,Barone Giampaolo,Palumbo Piccionello Antonio,Campanella Claudia Journal of inorganic biochemistry Cell survival and proliferation are central to carcinogenesis, involving various mechanisms among which those that impede apoptosis are important. In this, the role of the molecular chaperone Hsp60 is unclear since it has been reported that it can be both, pro- or anti-apoptotic. A solution to this riddle is crucial to the development of anti-cancer therapies targeting Hsp60. We addressed this question using a tumor cell line, NCI-H292, and [Cu(3,5-bis(2'-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole)(HO)](ClO), CubipyOXA, a copper-containing compound with cytotoxic properties. We treated cells with various doses of the compound and measured cell viability; apoptosis indicators; and levels of Hsp60, pro-Caspase-3 (pC3), Caspase-3 (C3), and complex Hsp60/pC3, with complementary methods. The quantitative dose-response curves of the levels of Hsp60, activated C3, inactivated pC3, Hsp60/pC3 complex and indicators of cell apoptosis, and cell death, all coincided to show that CubipyOXA has pro-apoptotic activity and promotes cell death. The curves also indicate that the pro-apoptotic effects of CubipyOXA could likely be due to a lowering of Hsp60 levels and to its blocking the formation of the Hsp60/pC3 complex and/or its dissociating the complex when already formed, thus, interfering with the anti-apoptotic action of Hsp60. These findings shed some light on how a tumor cell may avert apoptosis using Hsp60 and point to the anti-cancer potential of drugs, such as CubipyOXA, which interfere with Hsp60/pC3 complex formation, and thus allow the apoptotic cascade to proceed. In view of these findings it becomes clear that the novel compound CubipyOXA should be considered a potential, high-efficiency antitumor agent deserving further testing. 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.02.004
    Modulatory effects of curcumin on heat shock proteins in cancer: A promising therapeutic approach. Forouzanfar Fatemeh,Barreto George,Majeed Muhammed,Sahebkar Amirhossein BioFactors (Oxford, England) Cancer metastasis represents a multistep process, including alteration of cell adhesion/motility in the microenvironment and sustained angiogenesis, which is essential for supporting cancer growth in tissues that are distant from the primary tumor. There is growing evidence suggesting that heat shock proteins (HSPs) (also known as heat stress proteins), which constitute a family of stress-inducible proteins, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor agent. Curcumin has been shown to regulate different members of HSPs including HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 in cancer. Here, we present extent findings suggesting that curcumin may act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer through its regulation of HSPs. 10.1002/biof.1522
    Lipid droplet binding thalidomide analogs activate endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppress hepatocellular carcinoma in a chemically induced transgenic mouse model. Nagy Lajos I,Molnár Eszter,Kanizsai Iván,Madácsi Ramóna,Ózsvári Béla,Fehér Liliána Z,Fábián Gabriella,Marton Annamária,Vizler Csaba,Ayaydin Ferhan,Kitajka Klára,Hackler László,Mátés Lajos,Deák Ferenc,Kiss Ibolya,Puskás László G Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the liver and it has limited treatment options. RESULTS:In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two novel amino-trifluoro-phtalimide analogs, Ac-915 and Ac-2010. Both compounds bind lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interact with several proteins with chaperone functions (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and protein disulfide isomerase) as determined by affinity chromatography and resonant waveguide optical biosensor technology. Both compounds inhibited protein disulfide isomerase activity and induced cell death of different HCC cells at sub or low micromolar ranges detected by classical biochemical end-point assay as well as with real-time label-free measurements. Besides cell proliferation inhibiton, analogs also inhibited cell migration even at 250 nM. Relative biodistribution of the analogs was analysed in native tissue sections of different organs after administration of drugs, and by using fluorescent confocal microscopy based on the inherent blue fluorescence of the compounds. The analogs mainly accumulated in the liver. The effects of Ac-915 and Ac-2010 were also demonstrated on the advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Significantly less tumor development was found in the livers of the Ac-915- or Ac-2010-treated groups compared with control mice, characterized by less liver tumor incidence, fewer tumors and smaller tumor size. CONCLUSION:These results imply that these amino-trifluoro-phthalimide analogs could serve potent clinical candidates against HCC alone or in combination with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. 10.1186/1476-511X-12-175
    Oxidation of heat shock protein 60 and protein disulfide isomerase activates ERK and migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2. Lin Chung-Yi,Hu Chi-Tan,Cheng Chuan-Chu,Lee Ming-Che,Pan Siou-Mei,Lin Teng-Yi,Wu Wen-Sheng Oncotarget Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met were frequently deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Signaling pathways activated by HGF-c-Met are promising targets for preventing HCC progression. HGF can induce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling for cell adhesion, migration and invasion of tumors including HCC. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), member of mitogen activated kinase, can be activated by ROS for a lot of cellular processes. As expected, HGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK and progression of HCC cell HepG2 were suppressed by ROS scavengers. By N-(biotinoyl)-N'-(iodoacetyl)-ethylenediamine (BIAM) labeling method, a lot of cysteine (-SH)-containing proteins with M.W. 50-75 kD were decreased in HepG2 treated with HGF or two other ROS generators, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and phenazine methosulfate. These redox sensitive proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Among them, two chaperones, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), were found to be the most common redox sensitive proteins in responding to all three agonists. Affinity blot of BIAM-labeled, immunoprecipitated HSP60 and PDI verified that HGF can decrease the cysteine (-SH) containing HSP60 and PDI. On the other hand, HGF and TPA increased cysteinyl glutathione-containing HSP60, consistent with the decrease of cysteine (-SH)-containing HSP60. Moreover, depletion of HSP60 and PDI or expression of dominant negative mutant of HSP60 with alteration of Cys, effectively prevented HGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and HepG2 migration.In conclusion, the redox sensitive HSP60 and PDI are required for HGF-induced ROS signaling and potential targets for preventing HCC progressions. 10.18632/oncotarget.7093
    The Clinical Value of HSP60 in Digestive System Cancers: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chen Yan,Li Xiaoyu,Shao Shengwen Clinical laboratory BACKGROUND:Heat shock protein 60 has been reported to have a high diagnostic value for digestive system cancers. We sought to systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of HSP60 in patients with gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS:Relevant literature was adopted from the online databases. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled using random effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to express the overall test performance. Statistical analysis was performed by STATA 14.0 and Meta-DiSc 1.4 software. RESULTS:We merged 12 studies in a meta-analysis, including 1 GC, 5 CRC, and 6 HCC. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR to predict GC/CRC/HCC patients were 70%, 71%, and 8.49, respectively, corresponding to an AUC of 0.81. In subgroup analysis, the 82% specificity prompted a more advanced diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing CRC than HCC. CONCLUSIONS:HSP60 was an advanced biomarker for digestive system cancers and its abnormal expression might have implications for early diagnosis in screening of GC/CRC/HCC. 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190523
    Hsp60 exerts a tumor suppressor function by inducing cell differentiation and inhibiting invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Zhang Jing,Zhou Xingchun,Chang Hulin,Huang Xiaojun,Guo Xu,Du Xiaohong,Tian Siyuan,Wang Lexiao,Lyv Yinghua,Yuan Peng,Xing Jinliang Oncotarget Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a typical mitochondrial chaperone, is associated with progression of various cancers. However, its expression and significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unclear. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression of Hsp60 in HCC tissues were detected by quantitative RT-PCR (n=24), western blot (n=7), and immunohistochemical staining (n=295), respectively. The correlation between Hsp60 expression and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC patient was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the influence of Hsp60 on malignant phenotype of HCC cells was further investigated. We found that expression of Hsp60 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared to peritumor tissues. Hsp60 expression was significantly correlated with serum alpha -foetoprotein (AFP) level and tumor differentiation grade. Moreover, high Hsp60 expression cancer/pericancer (C/P) ratio was associated with a better overall survival rate (P=0.035, n=295). The prognostic implication of Hsp60 in HCC was further confirmed in another cohort of 107 HCC patients (P=0.027). Up-regulation of Hsp60 remarkably induced the cell differentiation and inhibited the invasive potential of HCC in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, the down-regulation of Hsp60 significantly impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Although more data are required to clarify the underling mechanism responsible for function of Hsp60, our results suggested that the effect of Hsp60 on differentiation and invasion of HCC cells might be associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively, our findings indicated that Hsp60 exerted a tumor suppressor function, and might serve as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of HCC. 10.18632/oncotarget.12185