Cloning and expression of the gene for the melanoma-associated ME20 antigen.
Maresh G A,Marken J S,Neubauer M,Aruffo A,Hellström I,Hellström K E,Marquardt H
DNA and cell biology
Human melanoma cells, but not tumor cells of other histological origin, express a unique membrane-associated glycoprotein, designated ME20-M, and secrete a soluble glycoprotein, designated ME20-S, defined by monoclonal antibody ME20. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone that when transfected into COS cells directs the expression of ME20-M and ME20-S. This cDNA contains an open reading frame which encodes a 661-amino-acid-long precursor that contains a 23-amino-acid signal peptide and a 26-amino-acid transmembrane domain, separated by a hydrophilic region containing 5 potential Asn-linked and 14 predicted Pro-associated, Thr-linked glycosylation sites. The transmembrane domain is followed by a carboxy-terminal 45-amino-acid putative intracellular domain rich in Ser residues. Analysis of ME20-M by amino acid sequencing identified the proteolytic processing site. Signal peptide cleavage occurs at the Thr-24-Lys-25 peptide bond of the precursor and results in the 637-amino-acid ME20-M with a calculated molecular weight of 67,782. ME20-M is derived from a single 3.3- to 3.4-kb mRNA transcript that is expressed at varying levels in melanoma cell lines, correlating with immunofluorescence determination of protein expression. The amino acid sequence of the ME20 antigen deduced from the cDNA differs from the human neonatal melanocyte-specific Pmel 17 gene product by a single amino acid substitution and deletion of 7 amino acid residues, and it is 80% homologous with the bovine retinal pigment RPE1 cDNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gene therapy with human and mouse T-cell receptors mediates cancer regression and targets normal tissues expressing cognate antigen.
Johnson Laura A,Morgan Richard A,Dudley Mark E,Cassard Lydie,Yang James C,Hughes Marybeth S,Kammula Udai S,Royal Richard E,Sherry Richard M,Wunderlich John R,Lee Chyi-Chia R,Restifo Nicholas P,Schwarz Susan L,Cogdill Alexandria P,Bishop Rachel J,Kim Hung,Brewer Carmen C,Rudy Susan F,VanWaes Carter,Davis Jeremy L,Mathur Aarti,Ripley Robert T,Nathan Debbie A,Laurencot Carolyn M,Rosenberg Steven A
Gene therapy of human cancer using genetically engineered lymphocytes is dependent on the identification of highly reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) with antitumor activity. We immunized transgenic mice and also conducted high-throughput screening of human lymphocytes to generate TCRs highly reactive to melanoma/melanocyte antigens. Genes encoding these TCRs were engineered into retroviral vectors and used to transduce autologous peripheral lymphocytes administered to 36 patients with metastatic melanoma. Transduced patient lymphocytes were CD45RA(-) and CD45RO(+) after ex vivo expansion. After infusion, the persisting cells displayed a CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(-) phenotype. Gene-engineered cells persisted at high levels in the blood of all patients 1 month after treatment, responding patients with higher ex vivo antitumor reactivity than nonresponders. Objective cancer regressions were seen in 30% and 19% of patients who received the human or mouse TCR, respectively. However, patients exhibited destruction of normal melanocytes in the skin, eye, and ear, and sometimes required local steroid administration to treat uveitis and hearing loss. Thus, T cells expressing highly reactive TCRs mediate cancer regression in humans and target rare cognate-antigen-containing cells throughout the body, a finding with important implications for the gene therapy of cancer. This trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCI-07-C-0174 and NCI-07-C-0175.
Safety, correlative markers, and clinical results of adjuvant nivolumab in combination with vaccine in resected high-risk metastatic melanoma.
Gibney Geoffrey T,Kudchadkar Ragini R,DeConti Ronald C,Thebeau Melissa S,Czupryn Maria P,Tetteh Leticia,Eysmans Cabell,Richards Allison,Schell Michael J,Fisher Kate J,Horak Christine E,Inzunza H David,Yu Bin,Martinez Alberto J,Younos Ibrahim,Weber Jeffrey S
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE:The anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody nivolumab (BMS-936558) has clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. Nivolumab plus vaccine was investigated as adjuvant therapy in resected stage IIIC and IV melanoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:HLA-A*0201 positive patients with HMB-45, NY-ESO-1, and/or MART-1 positive resected tumors received nivolumab (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg i.v.) with a multi-peptide vaccine (gp100, MART-1, and NY-ESO-1 with Montanide ISA 51 VG) every 2 weeks for 12 doses followed by nivolumab maintenance every 12 weeks for 8 doses. Primary objective was safety and determination of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives included relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and immunologic correlative studies. RESULTS:Thirty-three patients were enrolled. Median age was 47 years; 55% were male. Two patients had stage IIIC disease; 31 patients had stage IV disease. Median follow-up was 32.1 months. MTD was not reached. Most common related adverse events (>40%) were vaccine injection site reaction, fatigue, rash, pruritus, nausea, and arthralgias. Five related grade 3 adverse events [hypokalemia (1), rash (1), enteritis (1), and colitis (2)] were observed. Ten of 33 patients relapsed. Estimated median RFS was 47.1 months; median OS was not reached. Increases in CTLA-4(+)/CD4(+), CD25(+)Treg/CD4(+), and tetramer specific CD8(+) T-cell populations were observed with treatment (P < 0.05). Trends for lower baseline myeloid-derived suppressor cell and CD25(+)Treg/CD4(+) populations were seen in nonrelapsing patients; PD-L1 tumor status was not significantly associated with RFS. CONCLUSIONS:Nivolumab with vaccine is well tolerated as adjuvant therapy and demonstrates immunologic activity with promising survival in high-risk resected melanoma, justifying further study.
A Molecular Switch Abrogates Glycoprotein 100 (gp100) T-cell Receptor (TCR) Targeting of a Human Melanoma Antigen.
Bianchi Valentina,Bulek Anna,Fuller Anna,Lloyd Angharad,Attaf Meriem,Rizkallah Pierre J,Dolton Garry,Sewell Andrew K,Cole David K
The Journal of biological chemistry
Human CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes can mediate tumor regression in melanoma through the specific recognition of HLA-restricted peptides. Because of the relatively weak affinity of most anti-cancer T-cell receptors (TCRs), there is growing emphasis on immunizing melanoma patients with altered peptide ligands in order to induce strong anti-tumor immunity capable of breaking tolerance toward these self-antigens. However, previous studies have shown that these immunogenic designer peptides are not always effective. The melanocyte differentiation protein, glycoprotein 100 (gp100), encodes a naturally processed epitope that is an attractive target for melanoma immunotherapies, in particular peptide-based vaccines. Previous studies have shown that substitutions at peptide residue Glu(3) have a broad negative impact on polyclonal T-cell responses. Here, we describe the first atomic structure of a natural cognate TCR in complex with this gp100 epitope and highlight the relatively high affinity of the interaction. Alanine scan mutagenesis performed across the gp100(280-288) peptide showed that Glu(3) was critically important for TCR binding. Unexpectedly, structural analysis demonstrated that the Glu(3) → Ala substitution resulted in a molecular switch that was transmitted to adjacent residues, abrogating TCR binding and T-cell recognition. These findings help to clarify the mechanism of T-cell recognition of gp100 during melanoma responses and could direct the development of altered peptides for vaccination.
ICAM3-Fc Outperforms Receptor-Specific Antibodies Targeted Nanoparticles to Dendritic Cells for Cross-Presentation.
Cruz Luis J,Tacken Paul J,van der Schoot Johan M S,Rueda Felix,Torensma Ruurd,Figdor Carl G
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to the efficient induction of anti-tumour immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins, which acts as the natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
An effective mouse model for adoptive cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.
Hanada Ken-Ichi,Yu Zhiya,Chappell Gabrielle R,Park Adam S,Restifo Nicholas P
The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of T cells targeting mutated neoantigens can cause objective responses in varieties of metastatic cancers, but the development of new T cell-based treatments relies on accurate animal models. To investigate the therapeutic effect of targeting a neoantigen with ACT, we used T cells from pmel-1 T cell receptor-transgenic mice, known to recognize a WT peptide, gp100, and a mutated version of the peptide that has higher avidity. We gene-engineered B16 cells to express the WT or mutated gp100 epitopes and found that pmel-1-specific T cells targeting a neoantigen tumor target augmented recognition as measured by IFN-γ production. Neoantigen expression by B16 also enhanced the capacity of pmel-1 T cells to trigger the complete and durable regression of large, established, vascularized tumor and required less lymphodepleting conditioning. Targeting neoantigen uncovered the possibility of using enforced expression of the IL-2Rα chain (CD25) in mutation-reactive CD8+ T cells to improve their antitumor functionality. These data reveal that targeting of "mutated-self" neoantigens may lead to improved efficacy and reduced toxicities of T cell-based cellular immunotherapies for patients with cancer.
gp100 peptide vaccine and interleukin-2 in patients with advanced melanoma.
Schwartzentruber Douglas J,Lawson David H,Richards Jon M,Conry Robert M,Miller Donald M,Treisman Jonathan,Gailani Fawaz,Riley Lee,Conlon Kevin,Pockaj Barbara,Kendra Kari L,White Richard L,Gonzalez Rene,Kuzel Timothy M,Curti Brendan,Leming Phillip D,Whitman Eric D,Balkissoon Jai,Reintgen Douglas S,Kaufman Howard,Marincola Francesco M,Merino Maria J,Rosenberg Steven A,Choyke Peter,Vena Don,Hwu Patrick
The New England journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:Stimulating an immune response against cancer with the use of vaccines remains a challenge. We hypothesized that combining a melanoma vaccine with interleukin-2, an immune activating agent, could improve outcomes. In a previous phase 2 study, patients with metastatic melanoma receiving high-dose interleukin-2 plus the gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine had a higher rate of response than the rate that is expected among patients who are treated with interleukin-2 alone. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, phase 3 trial involving 185 patients at 21 centers. Eligibility criteria included stage IV or locally advanced stage III cutaneous melanoma, expression of HLA*A0201, an absence of brain metastases, and suitability for high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 alone (720,000 IU per kilogram of body weight per dose) or gp100:209-217(210M) plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (Montanide ISA-51) once per cycle, followed by interleukin-2. The primary end point was clinical response. Secondary end points included toxic effects and progression-free survival. RESULTS:The treatment groups were well balanced with respect to baseline characteristics and received a similar amount of interleukin-2 per cycle. The toxic effects were consistent with those expected with interleukin-2 therapy. The vaccine-interleukin-2 group, as compared with the interleukin-2-only group, had a significant improvement in centrally verified overall clinical response (16% vs. 6%, P=0.03), as well as longer progression-free survival (2.2 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 3.9 vs. 1.6 months; 95% CI, 1.5 to 1.8; P=0.008). The median overall survival was also longer in the vaccine-interleukin-2 group than in the interleukin-2-only group (17.8 months; 95% CI, 11.9 to 25.8 vs. 11.1 months; 95% CI, 8.7 to 16.3; P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with advanced melanoma, the response rate was higher and progression-free survival longer with vaccine and interleukin-2 than with interleukin-2 alone. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00019682.).
Cytomegalovirus-Based Vaccine Expressing a Modified Tumor Antigen Induces Potent Tumor-Specific CD8(+) T-cell Response and Protects Mice from Melanoma.
Qiu Zhijuan,Huang Huakang,Grenier Jeremy M,Perez Oriana A,Smilowitz Henry M,Adler Barbara,Khanna Kamal M
Cancer immunology research
The presence of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells is associated with tumor regression and better prognosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection elicits a robust and long-lasting CD8(+) T-cell response, which makes CMV a potentially promising vaccine vector against cancer. In the current study, we used recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) strains as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines in an aggressive B16 lung metastatic melanoma model. Immunization with MCMV-expressing ovalbumin (OVA) induced a potent OVA-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and was effective in protecting mice from OVA-expressing B16 melanoma in an antigen-dependent manner. We engineered MCMV to express a modified B16 melanoma antigen gp100 (MCMV-gp100KGP). Immunization with MCMV-gp100KGP was highly effective in overcoming immune tolerance to self-antigen and induced a strong, long-lasting gp100-specific CD8(+) T-cell response even in the presence of preexisting anti-CMV immunity. Furthermore, both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations of mice with MCMV-gp100KGP effectively protected mice from highly aggressive lung B16-F10 melanoma, and the protection was mediated by gp100-specific CD8(+) T cells. We showed that MCMV is a superior vaccine vector compared with a commonly used vesicular stomatitis virus vector. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that CMV is a promising vaccine vector to prevent and treat tumors.
Enhanced multiepitope-based vaccines elicit CD8+ cytotoxic T cells against both immunodominant and cryptic epitopes.
Tine John A,Firat Huseyin,Payne Anne,Russo Guy,Davis Stephen W,Tartaglia Jim,Lemonnier François A,Demoyen Pierre Langlade,Moingeon Philippe
A frequent issue in vaccinology is to elicit balanced T cell responses against both immunodominant and cryptic T cell epitopes, from one or several antigens presented at the same time to the immune system. Using HLA-A2.1.1 restricted epitopes from the Melan A/MART-1 or gp 100 melanoma-associated antigens as a model, we engineered a series of constructs in the ALVAC canarypox vector system: T cell epitopes were expressed either as linear polyepitopes (with or without spacers), or as minigenes encoding a single epitope. The latter were found to allow the best processing and presentation of most T cell epitopes, following infection by ALVAC recombinants of the HLA A2+ bladder carcinoma cell line and stimulation of epitope-specific human TIL lines. These various constructs were also used to immunize HLA-A2.1.1 HHD transgenic mice to compare their capacity to elicit T cells responses. Polyepitopes but also minigenes encoding wild-type epitopes could not elicit in a reliable manner balanced CTL responses against all target epitopes from gp100. We could rescue T cells responses against poorly immunogenic epitopes after introducing appropriate point mutations to enhance their interaction with MHC Class I molecules. Epitope enhancement within either polyepitope, multiepitopes (i.e. minigenes expressed under the control of separate promoters) or full length immunogens should be systematically considered when designing vaccines containing both cryptic and immunodominant target epitopes.
Enhanced viral and tumor immunity with intranodal injection of canary pox viruses expressing the melanoma antigen, gp100.
Spaner David E,Astsaturov Igor,Vogel Thorsten,Petrella Teresa,Elias Ileana,Burdett-Radoux Susan,Verma Shailendra,Iscoe Neill,Hamilton Paul,Berinstein Neil L
BACKGROUND:The route of administration and extent of helper T-cell activation are factors that are likely to be important for the development of effective cancer vaccines. In order to optimize CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, the immunologic effects of direct lymph node (LN) injections of canary pox virus (ALVAC) vectors (expressing the melanoma antigen, gp100) and immunogenic gp100 peptides, along with concomitant injections of the helper adjuvant, tetanus toxoid, were studied in high-risk HLA-A*0201(+) patients. METHODS:Forty-two patients were vaccinated using six different protocols. Twenty-three patients were 'primed' with ALVAC(2)-gp100m and 'boosted' with gp100 peptides, either subcutaneously or into an LN. Intranodal (IN) peptides, alone, were administered to six patients. Thirteen patients were given tetanus toxoid initially, and with each gp100 vaccination. Toxicity was recorded and immunologic responses were determined in 35 patients by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and gp100-tetramer binding assays and anti-ALVAC(2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). RESULTS:All vaccine protocols were tolerated well. Using stringent criteria for immunologic response, 8 of 18 patients responded to the viral vaccines, in striking contrast to peptides only (0 of 6 patients) or with help in trans from tetanus-reactive T-cells (1 of 11 patients). Changes in gp100-reactive CTL frequencies and ALVAC antibodies were greatest when viruses were injected directly into LNs. CONCLUSIONS:IN injections of ALVAC(2)-gp100m viruses are feasible, safe, and may be a superior method of vaccination in humans. CTL responses to this vaccine were not enhanced by tetanus toxoid.
Safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with MART-1 (26-35, 27L), gp100 (209-217, 210M), and tyrosinase (368-376, 370D) in adjuvant with PF-3512676 and GM-CSF in metastatic melanoma.
Tarhini Ahmad A,Leng Siyang,Moschos Stergios J,Yin Yan,Sander Cindy,Lin Yan,Gooding William E,Kirkwood John M
Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
The effectivenes of cancer vaccines in inducing CD8(+) T-cell responses remains a challenge, resulting in a need for testing more potent adjuvants. Our objective was to determine the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination against melanoma-related antigens employing MART-1, gp100, and tysosinase paptides combined with the TLR9 agonist PF-3512676 and local granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in oil emulsion. Using continuous monitoring of safety and a 2-stage design for immunologic efficacy, 20 immune response evaluable patients were targetted. Vaccinations were given subcutaneously on days 1 and 15 per cycle (1cycle=28 d) for up to 13 cycles. Interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot was used as the primary assay measuring the frequency of peripheral antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells at days 50 and 90 compared with baseline (target ≥ 9/20 immunologic responses). Clinical responses were measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors every 8 weeks. Twenty-two (including 20 immune response evaluable) melanoma patients were enrolled. All had American Joint Committe on Cancer stage IV (5M1a, 6M1b, 11M1c) and most had previously received therapy. Eight had previously treated brain metastases. An average of 3.5 cycles of vaccination per patient was administered. Clinical response data were available for 21 patients. There were 2 partial response and 8 stable disease lasting 2-7 months. One patient with ongoing partial response continued on treatment. At a median follow-up of 7.39 months (range, 3.22-20.47 mo), median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (90% confidence interval, 1.84-3.68) and median overall survival was 13.4 months (90% confidence interval,11.3-∞). No regimen-related grade 3/4/5 toxicities were observed. There were 9/20 patients with positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot at day 50 and/or day 90. Our adjuvant regimen combining PF-3512676 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor was safe and is worthy of further testing with these or alternative peptides, potentially in combination with antibodies that target immunoregulatory checkpoints.
Cancer vaccines: Trafficking of tumor-specific T cells to tumor after therapeutic vaccination.
Hailemichael Yared,Overwijk Willem W
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
Cancer vaccines can induce robust activation of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells that can destroy tumors. Understanding the mechanism by which cancer vaccines work is essential in designing next-generation vaccines with more potent therapeutic activity. We recently reported that short peptides emulsified in poorly biodegradable, Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) primed CD8(+) T cells that did not localize to the tumor site but accumulated at the persisting, antigen-rich vaccination site. The vaccination site eventually became a T cell graveyard where T cells responded to chronically released gp100 peptide by releasing cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which in turn upregulated Fas ligand (FasL) on host cells, causing apoptosis of Fas(+) T cells. T cells that escaped apoptosis rapidly became exhausted, memory formation was poor, and therapeutic impact was minimal. Replacing the non-biodegradable IFA-based formulation with water-based, short-lived formulation in the presence of immunostimulatory molecules allowed T cells to traffic to tumors, causing their regression. In this review, we discuss recent advances in immunotherapeutic approaches that could enhance vaccine-primed immune cells fitness and render the tumor microenvironment more accessible for immune cell infiltration.
A multi-antigen vaccine in combination with an immunotoxin targeting tumor-associated fibroblast for treating murine melanoma.
Fang Jinxu,Hu Biliang,Li Si,Zhang Chupei,Liu Yarong,Wang Pin
Molecular therapy oncolytics
A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.
Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
Rothberg Bonnie E Gould,Moeder Christopher B,Kluger Harriet,Halaban Ruth,Elder David E,Murphy George F,Lazar Alexander,Prieto Victor,Duncan Lynn McDivitt,Rimm David L
Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
HMB45 is a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Pmel17/gp100, a melanoma-specific marker, which is routinely used in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. The standard expression pattern for a positive HMB45 staining result on immunohistochemistry is based upon the results of chromogenic-based methods. We re-evaluated the patterns of HMB45 staining across the 480-core 'SPORE melanoma progression array' containing lesions representing the spectrum of melanocytic lesions ranging from thin nevus to visceral metastasis using the fluorescence-based staining technique and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) of the obtained digital images. The methods validated the expected cytoplasmic HMB45 staining pattern in 70/108 malignant lesions and in the epithelial components of nevus specimens. However, the fluorescence-based approach revealed a nuclear gp100 localization present in the dermal component of all nevi that was not seen before. This nuclear localization could not be observed on routine chromogenic stains, because the standard hematoxylin nuclear counterstain overwhelms the weak nuclear HMB45 stain. The thin (0.450+/-0.253) and thick (0.513+/-0.227) nevi had strongly positive mean ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratios), which are significantly higher than those from the group of malignant lesions (P<0.0001). This finding was reproduced on a smaller but independent progression array composed of nevi and melanomas from the Yale Pathology archives (P<0.01). The odds ratio associated with a sample being a nevus was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.87-2.69, P<0.0001) for each 0.1 unit increase of the ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratio) to yield an ROC curve with 0.93 units of area and a simultaneously maximized sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.80 for distinguishing benign nevi from malignant melanomas. On the basis of this preliminary study, we propose that the ratio of nuclear to non-nuclear HMB45 staining may be useful for diagnostic challenges in melanocytic lesions.
The melanosomal protein PMEL17 as a target for antibody drug conjugate therapy in melanoma.
Chen Youjun,Chalouni Cecile,Tan Christine,Clark Robyn,Venook Rayna,Ohri Rachana,Raab Helga,Firestein Ron,Mallet William,Polakis Paul
The Journal of biological chemistry
Melanocytes uniquely express specialized genes required for pigment formation, some of which are maintained following their transformation to melanoma. Here we exploit this property to selectively target melanoma with an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) specific to PMEL17, the product of the SILV pigment-forming gene. We describe new PMEL17 antibodies that detect the endogenous protein. These antibodies help define the secretory fate of PMEL17 and demonstrate its utility as an ADC target. Although newly synthesized PMEL17 is ultimately routed to the melanosome, we find substantial amounts accessible to our antibodies at the cell surface that undergo internalization and routing to a LAMP1-enriched, lysosome-related organelle. Accordingly, an ADC reactive with PMEL17 exhibits target-dependent tumor cell killing in vitro and in vivo.
Epitope mapping of the melanosomal matrix protein gp100 (PMEL17): rapid processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and glycosylation in the early Golgi compartment.
Yasumoto Ken-ichi,Watabe Hidenori,Valencia Julio C,Kushimoto Tsuneto,Kobayashi Takeshi,Appella Ettore,Hearing Vincent J
The Journal of biological chemistry
Melanosomes, specific organelles produced only by melanocytes, undergo a unique maturation process that involves their transition form amorphous rounded vesicles to fibrillar ellipsoid organelles, during which they move from the perinuclear to the distal areas of the cells. This depends upon the trafficking and processing of gp100 (also known as Pmel17 and the silver protein), a protein of great interest, because it elicits immune responses in melanoma patients but in which specific function(s) remains elusive. In this study, we have used biochemical and immunochemical approaches to more critically assess the synthesis, processing, glycosylation, and trafficking of gp100. We now report that gp100 is processed and sorted in a manner distinct from other melanosomal proteins (such as tyrosinase, Tyrp1 and Dct) and is predominantly delivered directly to immature melanosomes following its rapid processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi. Following its arrival, gp100 is cleaved at the amino and at the carboxyl termini in a series of specific steps that result in the reorganization of immature melanosomes to the fibrillar mature melanosomes. Once this structural reorganization occurs, melanogenic enzymes begin to be targeted to the melanosomes, which are then competent to synthesize melanin pigment.
Intratumoral Tcf1PD-1CD8 T Cells with Stem-like Properties Promote Tumor Control in Response to Vaccination and Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy.
Siddiqui Imran,Schaeuble Karin,Chennupati Vijaykumar,Fuertes Marraco Silvia A,Calderon-Copete Sandra,Pais Ferreira Daniela,Carmona Santiago J,Scarpellino Leonardo,Gfeller David,Pradervand Sylvain,Luther Sanjiv A,Speiser Daniel E,Held Werner
Checkpoint blockade mediates a proliferative response of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes (TILs). The origin of this response has remained elusive because chronic activation promotes terminal differentiation or exhaustion of tumor-specific T cells. Here we identified a subset of tumor-reactive TILs bearing hallmarks of exhausted cells and central memory cells, including expression of the checkpoint protein PD-1 and the transcription factor Tcf1. Tcf1PD-1 TILs mediated the proliferative response to immunotherapy, generating both Tcf1PD-1 and differentiated Tcf1PD-1 cells. Ablation of Tcf1PD-1 TILs restricted responses to immunotherapy. Tcf1 was not required for the generation of Tcf1PD-1 TILs but was essential for the stem-like functions of these cells. Human TCF1PD-1 cells were detected among tumor-reactive CD8 T cells in the blood of melanoma patients and among TILs of primary melanomas. Thus, immune checkpoint blockade relies not on reversal of T cell exhaustion programs, but on the proliferation of a stem-like TIL subset.
Effect of radiotherapy on coronary arteries and heart in breast-conserving surgery: a dosimetric analysis.
Gocer Gulsen Pinar Soydemir,Ozer Elif Eda
Radiology and oncology
Background There are certain risks of radiotherapy (RT), especially patients with left-sided breast cancer have a higher tendency to develop cardiac complications than the right-sided cancers. This study aims to perform a dosi-metric analysis the effect of RT on coronary arteries and heart in breast-conserving surgery. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with early stage right and left-sided breast carcinomas (T1/T2 + N0) were randomly selected. RT was delivered to the entire breast, and tumor beds were boosted in these patients using tangential fields with computed tomography based planning. The doses for Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), left circumflex coronary artery (LCx), right ventricle (RV), left ventricle (LV), and heart were recorded and median values compared between groups. Results The highest mean of radiation dose in patients with left-sided breast cancer was to LAD 2402.48 ± 838.39 cGy, while the highest mean dose in right-sided breast cancer patients was to RV 130.18 ± 24.92. The highest maximum dose of radiotherapy was applied to heart at left-sided breast cancer patients as well as at right-sides prients. The mean V5 of the LV was 18.68% (6.89-31.69), mean V25 of the LV was 5.22% (0.45-16.54), mean V5 in bilateral ventricles was 23.73% (2.56-26.89), and mean V25 in bilateral ventricles 6.78% (0.63-13.63). Conclusions Especially in left-sided breast cancer, the most direct and best strategy to reduce and protect radiation-induced cardiac injury is to balance dose constraints between several high-dose regions of cardiac substructures and the mean heart dose.