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    The E2F1-miR-520/372/373-SPOP Axis Modulates Progression of Renal Carcinoma. Ding Meng,Lu Xiaolan,Wang Cheng,Zhao Quan,Ge Jingping,Xia Qiuyuan,Wang Junjun,Zen Ke,Zhang Chen-Yu,Zhang Chunni Cancer research : Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most malignant urologic cancer, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and effective treatments for advanced RCC are still lacking. Here, we report that a novel E2F1-miR-520/372/373-SPOP axis controls RCC carcinogenesis. Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) was upregulated in over 90% of RCC tissues, whereas the miR-520/372/373 family was downregulated and correlated inversely with SPOP protein levels in RCC tissues. The miR-520/372/373 family targeted the SPOP 3'-UTR and suppressed SPOP protein expression, leading to elevation of PTEN and DUSP7 levels and, consequently, decreased proliferation, invasion/migration, and metastasis of RCC cells and . Tail-vein delivery of therapeutic miR-520/372/373 family significantly decreased both tumor size and lung metastasis ratio in mice bearing orthotopic xenograft tumors. Decreased expression of miR-520/372/373 family was mediated by transcription factor E2F1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the E2F1-miR-520/372/373-SPOP axis functions as a key signaling pathway in RCC progression and metastasis and represents a promising opportunity for targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that the E2F1-miR-520/372/373 family-SPOP axis promotes RCC progression, thereby contributing to our understanding of RCC pathogenesis and unveiling new avenues for more effective targeted therapies. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-1662
    Coordinated activation of the nuclear ubiquitin ligase Cul3-SPOP by the generation of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate. Bunce Matthew W,Boronenkov Igor V,Anderson Richard A The Journal of biological chemistry Phosphoinositide signaling pathways regulate numerous processes in eukaryotic cells, including migration, proliferation, and survival. The regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is synthesized by two distinct classes of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs), the type I and II PIPKs. Although numerous physiological functions have been identified for type I PIPKs, little is known about the functions and regulation of type II PIPK. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified an interaction between the type IIbeta PIPK isoform (PIPKIIbeta) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ domain protein), a nuclear speckle-associated protein that recruits substrates to Cul3-based ubiquitin ligases. PIPKIIbeta and SPOP interact and co-localize at nuclear speckles in mammalian cells, and SPOP mediates the ubiquitylation of PIPKIIbeta by Cul3-based ubiquitin ligases. Additionally, stimulation of the p38 MAPK pathway enhances the ubiquitin ligase activity of Cul3-SPOP toward multiple substrate proteins. Finally, a kinase-dead PIPKIIbeta mutant enhanced ubiquitylation of Cul3-SPOP substrates. The kinase-dead PIPKIIbeta mutant increases the cellular content of its substrate lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P), suggesting that PI5P may stimulate Cul3-SPOP activity through a p38-dependent signaling pathway. Expression of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatases that generate PI5P dramatically stimulated Cul3-SPOP activity and was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Taken together, these data define a novel mechanism whereby the phosphoinositide PI5P leads to stimulation of Cul3-SPOP ubiquitin ligase activity and also implicate PIPKIIbeta as a key regulator of this signaling pathway through its association with the Cul3-SPOP complex. 10.1074/jbc.M710222200
    SPOP suppresses prostate cancer through regulation of CYCLIN E1 stability. Ju Lin-Gao,Zhu Yuan,Long Qiao-Yun,Li Xue-Jing,Lin Xiang,Tang Shan-Bo,Yin Lei,Xiao Yu,Wang Xing-Huan,Li Lianyun,Zhang Lei,Wu Min Cell death and differentiation SPOP is one of the important subunits for CUL3/SPOP/RBX1 complex tightly connected with tumorigenesis. However, its exact roles in different cancers remain debatable. Here, we identify CYCLIN E1, as a novel substrate for SPOP. SPOP directly interacts with CYCLIN E1 and specific regulates its stability in prostate cancer cell lines. SPOP/CUL3/RBX1 complex regulates CYCLIN E1 stability through poly-ubiquitination. CDK2 competes with SPOP for CYCLIN E1 interaction, suggesting that SPOP probably regulates the stability of CDK2-free CYCLIN E1. CYCLIN E1 expression rescued proliferation, migration, and tumor formation of prostate cancer cell suppressed by SPOP. Furthermore, we found SPOP selectively regulates the substrates' stability and signaling pathways in prostate cancer and CCRC cell lines, suggesting that complicated mechanisms exist for SPOP to regulate substrate specificity. Altogether, we have revealed a novel mechanism for SPOP in suppressing prostate cancer and provided evidence to show SPOP has dual functions in prostate cancer and CCRC. 10.1038/s41418-018-0198-0
    TRIM28 protects TRIM24 from SPOP-mediated degradation and promotes prostate cancer progression. Fong Ka-Wing,Zhao Jonathan C,Song Bing,Zheng Bin,Yu Jindan Nature communications TRIM24 is an effector substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPOP and becomes stabilized in prostate cancer (PCa) with SPOP mutations. However, how TRIM24 protein is regulated in the vast majority of SPOP-wildtype PCa is unknown. Here we report TRIM28 as a critical upstream regulator of TRIM24. TRIM28 protein interacts with TRIM24 to prevent its ubiquitination and degradation by SPOP. Further, TRIM28 facilitates TRIM24 occupancy on the chromatin and, like TRIM24, augments AR signaling. TRIM28 promotes PCa cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, TRIM28 is upregulated in aggressive PCa and associated with elevated levels of TRIM24 and worse clinical outcome. TRIM24 and AR coactivated gene signature of SPOP-mutant PCa is similarly activated in human PCa with high TRIM28 expression. Taken together, this study provides a novel mechanism to broad TRIM24 protein stabilization and establishes TRIM28 as a promising therapeutic target. 10.1038/s41467-018-07475-5
    Tumor-suppressor role for the SPOP ubiquitin ligase in signal-dependent proteolysis of the oncogenic co-activator SRC-3/AIB1. Li C,Ao J,Fu J,Lee D-F,Xu J,Lonard D,O'Malley B W Oncogene Steroid receptor co-activator-3 (SRC-3/AIB1) is an oncogene that is amplified and overexpressed in many human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate 'activated SRC-3 oncoprotein' turnover during tumorigenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP), a cullin 3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin ligase, is responsible for SRC-3 ubiquitination and proteolysis. SPOP interacts directly with an SRC-3 phospho-degron in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Casein kinase Iɛ phosphorylates the S102 in this degron and promotes SPOP-dependent turnover of SRC-3. Short hairpin RNA knockdown and overexpression experiments substantiated that the SPOP/CUL3/Rbx1 ubiquitin ligase complex promotes SRC-3 turnover. A systematic analysis of the SPOP genomic locus revealed that a high percentage of genomic loss or loss of heterozygosity occurs at this locus in breast cancers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that restoration of SPOP expression inhibited SRC-3-mediated oncogenic signaling and tumorigenesis, thus positioning SPOP as a tumor suppressor. 10.1038/onc.2011.151
    Intrinsic BET inhibitor resistance in SPOP-mutated prostate cancer is mediated by BET protein stabilization and AKT-mTORC1 activation. Zhang Pingzhao,Wang Dejie,Zhao Yu,Ren Shancheng,Gao Kun,Ye Zhenqing,Wang Shangqian,Pan Chun-Wu,Zhu Yasheng,Yan Yuqian,Yang Yinhui,Wu Di,He Yundong,Zhang Jun,Lu Daru,Liu Xiuping,Yu Long,Zhao Shimin,Li Yao,Lin Dong,Wang Yuzhuo,Wang Liguo,Chen Yu,Sun Yinghao,Wang Chenji,Huang Haojie Nature medicine Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein inhibitors are emerging as promising anticancer therapies. The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding adaptor speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is the most frequently mutated in primary prostate cancer. Here we demonstrate that wild-type SPOP binds to and induces ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4) by recognizing a degron motif common among them. In contrast, prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutants show impaired binding to BET proteins, resulting in decreased proteasomal degradation and accumulation of these proteins in prostate cancer cell lines and patient specimens and causing resistance to BET inhibitors. Transcriptome and BRD4 cistrome analyses reveal enhanced expression of the GTPase RAC1 and cholesterol-biosynthesis-associated genes together with activation of AKT-mTORC1 signaling as a consequence of BRD4 stabilization. Our data show that resistance to BET inhibitors in SPOP-mutant prostate cancer can be overcome by combination with AKT inhibitors and further support the evaluation of SPOP mutations as biomarkers to guide BET-inhibitor-oriented therapy in patients with prostate cancer. 10.1038/nm.4379
    RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells. Liu Xiaoxia,Sun Guiling,Sun Xiuju OncoTargets and therapy This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) gene on renal cell cancer (RCC) cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA)-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, which are related to the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions and extracellular matrix organization signaling pathway. 10.2147/OTT.S91097
    SPOP promotes tumor progression via activation of β-catenin/TCF4 complex in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Zhao Wencai,Zhou Jiancheng,Deng Zhuo,Gao Yang,Cheng Yongyi International journal of oncology Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer, about one third of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stages with metastases and effective treatments for metastatic RCC are lacking. The molecular events supporting RCC progression remain poorly understood. SPOP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase component, was recently showed to sufficiently promote RCC tumorigenesis, however, other potential functions of SPOP in RCC have not been studied. In the present investigation, by assessing the immunohistochemical staining of SPOP in urological tumors, we found the protein was highly expressed in RCC, in particular, it was specifically expressed in clear cell RCC. cDNA microarray data showed that SPOP mRNA level was significantly increased in clear cell RCC compared to normal kidney tissues, which might be the result of the abnormal DNA copy number of this gene. More interestingly, SPOP was positive in tumors with local invasion or metastasis, and it was associated with tumor recurrence-free survival of clear cell RCC patients. Further in vitro assays demonstrated that SPOP drove RCC epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted cell invasion. Mechanistically, SPOP enhanced β-catenin protein expression as well as its nuclear translocation, and elevated TCF4 expression. Both β-catenin and TCF4 upregulated the critical EMT-inducing transcription factor ZEB1, which functioned as an effector of β-catenin/TCF4 signaling in RCC invasion. These data identified SPOP as a new marker and prognostic factor for clear cell RCC, and its functions provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of RCC progression, in which SPOP appears to be an EMT activator. 10.3892/ijo.2016.3609
    Prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutations confer resistance to BET inhibitors through stabilization of BRD4. Dai Xiangpeng,Gan Wenjian,Li Xiaoning,Wang Shangqian,Zhang Wei,Huang Ling,Liu Shengwu,Zhong Qing,Guo Jianping,Zhang Jinfang,Chen Ting,Shimizu Kouhei,Beca Francisco,Blattner Mirjam,Vasudevan Divya,Buckley Dennis L,Qi Jun,Buser Lorenz,Liu Pengda,Inuzuka Hiroyuki,Beck Andrew H,Wang Liewei,Wild Peter J,Garraway Levi A,Rubin Mark A,Barbieri Christopher E,Wong Kwok-Kin,Muthuswamy Senthil K,Huang Jiaoti,Chen Yu,Bradner James E,Wei Wenyi Nature medicine The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins comprises four members-BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and the testis-specific isoform BRDT-that largely function as transcriptional coactivators and play critical roles in various cellular processes, including the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. BET proteins enhance the oncogenic functions of major cancer drivers by elevating the expression of these drivers, such as c-Myc in leukemia, or by promoting the transcriptional activities of oncogenic factors, such as AR and ERG in prostate cancer. Pathologically, BET proteins are frequently overexpressed and are clinically linked to various types of human cancer; they are therefore being pursued as attractive therapeutic targets for selective inhibition in patients with cancer. To this end, a number of bromodomain inhibitors, including JQ1 and I-BET, have been developed and have shown promising outcomes in early clinical trials. Although resistance to BET inhibitors has been documented in preclinical models, the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance are largely unknown. Here we report that cullin-3 earmarks BET proteins, including BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4, for ubiquitination-mediated degradation. Pathologically, prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutants fail to interact with and promote the degradation of BET proteins, leading to their elevated abundance in SPOP-mutant prostate cancer. As a result, prostate cancer cell lines and organoids derived from individuals harboring SPOP mutations are more resistant to BET-inhibitor-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, our results elucidate the tumor-suppressor role of SPOP in prostate cancer in which it acts as a negative regulator of BET protein stability and also provide a molecular mechanism for resistance to BET inhibitors in individuals with prostate cancer bearing SPOP mutations. 10.1038/nm.4378
    Opposing effects of cancer-type-specific SPOP mutants on BET protein degradation and sensitivity to BET inhibitors. Janouskova Hana,El Tekle Geniver,Bellini Elisa,Udeshi Namrata D,Rinaldi Anna,Ulbricht Anna,Bernasocchi Tiziano,Civenni Gianluca,Losa Marco,Svinkina Tanya,Bielski Craig M,Kryukov Gregory V,Cascione Luciano,Napoli Sara,Enchev Radoslav I,Mutch David G,Carney Michael E,Berchuck Andrew,Winterhoff Boris J N,Broaddus Russell R,Schraml Peter,Moch Holger,Bertoni Francesco,Catapano Carlo V,Peter Matthias,Carr Steven A,Garraway Levi A,Wild Peter J,Theurillat Jean-Philippe P Nature medicine It is generally assumed that recurrent mutations within a given cancer driver gene elicit similar drug responses. Cancer genome studies have identified recurrent but divergent missense mutations affecting the substrate-recognition domain of the ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPOP in endometrial and prostate cancers. The therapeutic implications of these mutations remain incompletely understood. Here we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by endometrial cancer-associated SPOP mutations and identified BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 proteins (BETs) as SPOP-CUL3 substrates that are preferentially degraded by endometrial cancer-associated SPOP mutants. The resulting reduction of BET protein levels sensitized cancer cells to BET inhibitors. Conversely, prostate cancer-specific SPOP mutations resulted in impaired degradation of BETs, promoting their resistance to pharmacologic inhibition. These results uncover an oncogenomics paradox, whereby mutations mapping to the same domain evoke opposing drug susceptibilities. Specifically, we provide a molecular rationale for the use of BET inhibitors to treat patients with endometrial but not prostate cancer who harbor SPOP mutations. 10.1038/nm.4372
    Speckle-type POZ protein is negatively associated with malignancies and inhibits cell proliferation and migration in liver cancer. Huang Yuping,Tan Ning,Jia Deshui,Jing Ying,Wang Qifeng,Li Zhe,Zhang Jiwei,Liu Li,Li Jinjun,Chen Zhiao,He Xianghuo Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor that is frequently mutated in human cancers. Our previous findings have indicated that SPOP is mutated and functions as a novel tumor suppressor in hepatoblastoma (HB). However, the biological roles and clinical significance of this SPOP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression level of SPOP was downregulated in HCC primary tumors by quantitative real-time PCR and the protein level of SPOP was also reduced in 72 pairs of HCC tissue microarrays by immunohistochemical analyses. Moreover, SPOP expression was observed to negatively correlate with the tumor grade and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC patients. Furthermore, we revealed that SPOP not only inhibits cell proliferation but also inhibits the motility of liver cancer cells. Finally, we discovered that one of the mechanisms through which SPOP inhibits liver cancer cell migration involves the disruption of ZEB2 expression and the associated epithelial-mesenchymal transition program. Together, our findings emphasize the critical role of SPOP in the regulation of proliferation and migration in liver cancer. 10.1007/s13277-015-3753-z
    SPOP Mutation Drives Prostate Tumorigenesis In Vivo through Coordinate Regulation of PI3K/mTOR and AR Signaling. Blattner Mirjam,Liu Deli,Robinson Brian D,Huang Dennis,Poliakov Anton,Gao Dong,Nataraj Srilakshmi,Deonarine Lesa D,Augello Michael A,Sailer Verena,Ponnala Lalit,Ittmann Michael,Chinnaiyan Arul M,Sboner Andrea,Chen Yu,Rubin Mark A,Barbieri Christopher E Cancer cell Recurrent point mutations in SPOP define a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer. Here, we describe a mouse model showing that mutant SPOP drives prostate tumorigenesis in vivo. Conditional expression of mutant SPOP in the prostate dramatically altered phenotypes in the setting of Pten loss, with early neoplastic lesions (high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) with striking nuclear atypia and invasive, poorly differentiated carcinoma. In mouse prostate organoids, mutant SPOP drove increased proliferation and a transcriptional signature consistent with human prostate cancer. Using these models and human prostate cancer samples, we show that SPOP mutation activates both PI3K/mTOR and androgen receptor signaling, effectively uncoupling the normal negative feedback between these two pathways. 10.1016/j.ccell.2017.02.004
    SPOP Promotes Ubiquitination and Degradation of the ERG Oncoprotein to Suppress Prostate Cancer Progression. Gan Wenjian,Dai Xiangpeng,Lunardi Andrea,Li Zhen,Inuzuka Hiroyuki,Liu Pengda,Varmeh Shoreh,Zhang Jinfang,Cheng Liang,Sun Yin,Asara John M,Beck Andrew H,Huang Jiaoti,Pandolfi Pier Paolo,Wei Wenyi Molecular cell The ERG gene is fused to TMPRSS2 in approximately 50% of prostate cancers (PrCa), resulting in its overexpression. However, whether this is the sole mechanism underlying ERG elevation in PrCa is currently unclear. Here we report that ERG ubiquitination and degradation are governed by the Cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase SPOP and that deficiency in this pathway leads to aberrant elevation of the ERG oncoprotein. Specifically, we find that truncated ERG (ΔERG), encoded by the ERG fusion gene, is stabilized by evading SPOP-mediated destruction, whereas prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutants are also deficient in promoting ERG ubiquitination. Furthermore, we show that the SPOP/ERG interaction is modulated by CKI-mediated phosphorylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that DNA damage drugs, topoisomerase inhibitors, can trigger CKI activation to restore the SPOP/ΔERG interaction and its consequent degradation. Therefore, SPOP functions as a tumor suppressor to negatively regulate the stability of the ERG oncoprotein in prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.07.026
    HDACs and HDAC Inhibitors in Cancer Development and Therapy. Li Yixuan,Seto Edward Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine Over the last several decades, it has become clear that epigenetic abnormalities may be one of the hallmarks of cancer. Posttranslational modifications of histones, for example, may play a crucial role in cancer development and progression by modulating gene transcription, chromatin remodeling, and nuclear architecture. Histone acetylation, a well-studied posttranslational histone modification, is controlled by the opposing activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). By removing acetyl groups, HDACs reverse chromatin acetylation and alter transcription of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In addition, HDACs deacetylate numerous nonhistone cellular substrates that govern a wide array of biological processes including cancer initiation and progression. This review will discuss the role of HDACs in cancer and the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as emerging drugs in cancer treatment. 10.1101/cshperspect.a026831
    Formate assay in body fluids: application in methanol poisoning. Makar A B,McMartin K E,Palese M,Tephly T R Biochemical medicine 10.1016/0006-2944(75)90147-7
    Structures of SPOP-substrate complexes: insights into molecular architectures of BTB-Cul3 ubiquitin ligases. Zhuang Min,Calabrese Matthew F,Liu Jiang,Waddell M Brett,Nourse Amanda,Hammel Michal,Miller Darcie J,Walden Helen,Duda David M,Seyedin Steven N,Hoggard Timothy,Harper J Wade,White Kevin P,Schulman Brenda A Molecular cell In the largest E3 ligase subfamily, Cul3 binds a BTB domain, and an associated protein-interaction domain such as MATH recruits substrates for ubiquitination. Here, we present biochemical and structural analyses of the MATH-BTB protein, SPOP. We define a SPOP-binding consensus (SBC) and determine structures revealing recognition of SBCs from the phosphatase Puc, the transcriptional regulator Ci, and the chromatin component MacroH2A. We identify a dimeric SPOP-Cul3 assembly involving a conserved helical structure C-terminal of BTB domains, which we call "3-box" due to its facilitating Cul3 binding and its resemblance to F-/SOCS-boxes in other cullin-based E3s. Structural flexibility between the substrate-binding MATH and Cul3-binding BTB/3-box domains potentially allows a SPOP dimer to engage multiple SBCs found within a single substrate, such as Puc. These studies provide a molecular understanding of how MATH-BTB proteins recruit substrates to Cul3 and how their dimerization and conformational variability may facilitate avid interactions with diverse substrates. 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.022
    Speckle-type POZ protein, SPOP, is involved in the DNA damage response. Zhang Dan,Wang Haibo,Sun Mianen,Yang Jun,Zhang Wei,Han Suxia,Xu Bo Carcinogenesis Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is an adaptor of the cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase responsible for the degradation of oncoproteins frequently overexpressed in many tumor cells. Altered expression and somatic mutations of SPOP have been observed in various tumor types with chromosomal aberrations, indicating a role of SPOP in maintaining genome stability, although a detailed mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that SPOP is a component of the DNA damage response (DDR). SPOP is recruited to DNA double-strand break sites and it forms nuclear foci after DNA damage. SPOP foci colocalize with γ-H2AX foci and are predominantly dependent on the activity of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Furthermore, SPOP interacts with ATM in response to DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that knocking down of SPOP resulted in an impaired DDR and a hypersensitivity to ionizing irradiation. Together, we highlight a critical role of SPOP in the DDR. 10.1093/carcin/bgu022
    Hedgehog signaling downregulates suppressor of fused through the HIB/SPOP-Crn axis in Drosophila. Liu Chen,Zhou Zizhang,Yao Xia,Chen Ping,Sun Man,Su Miya,Chang Cunjie,Yan Jun,Jiang Jin,Zhang Qing Cell research Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays vital roles in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its misregulation causes congenital diseases and several types of cancer. Suppressor of Fused (Su(fu)) is a conserved inhibitory component of the Hh signaling pathway, but how it is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in Drosophila Hh signaling promotes downregulation of Su(fu) through its target protein HIB (Hh-induced BTB protein). Interestingly, although HIB-mediated downregulation of Su(fu) depends on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul3, HIB does not directly regulate Su(fu) protein stability. Through an RNAi-based candidate gene screen, we identify the spliceosome factor Crooked neck (Crn) as a regulator of Su(fu) level. Epistasis analysis indicates that HIB downregulates Su(fu) through Crn. Furthermore, we provide evidence that HIB retains Crn in the nucleus, leading to reduced Su(fu) protein level. Finally, we show that SPOP, the mammalian homologue of HIB, can substitute HIB to downregulate Su(fu) level in Drosophila. Our study suggests that Hh regulates both Ci and Su(fu) levels through its target HIB, thus uncovering a novel feedback mechanism that regulates Hh signal transduction. The dual function of HIB may provide a buffering mechanism to fine-tune Hh pathway activity. 10.1038/cr.2014.29
    Endometrial cancer-associated mutants of SPOP are defective in regulating estrogen receptor-α protein turnover. Zhang P,Gao K,Jin X,Ma J,Peng J,Wumaier R,Tang Y,Zhang Y,An J,Yan Q,Dong Y,Huang H,Yu L,Wang C Cell death & disease Increasing amounts of evidence strongly suggests that dysregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system is closely associated with cancer pathogenesis. Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is an adapter protein of the CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. It selectively recruits substrates for their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Recently, several exome-sequencing studies of endometrial cancer revealed high frequency somatic mutations in SPOP (5.7-10%). However, how SPOP mutations contribute to endometrial cancer remains unknown. Here, we identified estrogen receptor-α (ERα), a major endometrial cancer promoter, as a substrate for the SPOP-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. SPOP specifically recognizes multiple Ser/Thr (S/T)-rich degrons located in the AF2 domain of ERα, and triggers ERα degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. SPOP depletion by siRNAs promotes endometrial cells growth. Strikingly, endometrial cancer-associated mutants of SPOP are defective in regulating ERα degradation and ubiquitination. Furthermore, we found that SPOP participates in estrogen-induced ERα degradation and transactivation. Our study revealed novel molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ERα protein homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions, and provided insights in understanding the relationship between SPOP mutations and the development of endometrial cancer. 10.1038/cddis.2015.47
    Prostate cancer-associated mutation in SPOP impairs its ability to target Cdc20 for poly-ubiquitination and degradation. Wu Fei,Dai Xiangpeng,Gan Wenjian,Wan Lixin,Li Min,Mitsiades Nicholas,Wei Wenyi,Ding Qiang,Zhang Jinfang Cancer letters Recent studies revealed that mutations in SPOP (Speckle-type POZ protein) occur in up to 15% of patients with prostate cancer. However, the physiological role of SPOP in regulating prostate tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we identified the Cdc20 oncoprotein as a novel ubiquitin substrate of SPOP. As such, pharmacological inhibition of Cullin-based E3 ligases by MLN4924 could stabilize endogenous Cdc20 in cells. Furthermore, we found that Cullin 3, and, to a less extent, Cullin 1, specifically interacted with Cdc20. Depletion of Cullin 3, but not Cullin 1, could upregulate the abudance of Cdc20 largely via prolonging Cdc20 half-life. Moreover, SPOP, the adaptor protein of Cullin 3 family E3 ligase, specifically interacted with Cdc20, and promoted the poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Cdc20 in a degron-dependent manner. Importantly, prostate cancer-derived SPOP mutants failed to interact with Cdc20 to promote its degradation. As a result, SPOP-deficient prostate cancer cells with elevated Cdc20 expression became resistant to a pharmacological Cdc20 inhibitor. Therefore, our results revealed a novel role of SPOP in tumorigenesis in part by promoting the degradation of the Cdc20 oncoprotein. 10.1016/j.canlet.2016.10.021
    Spop promotes skeletal development and homeostasis by positively regulating Ihh signaling. Cai Hongchen,Liu Aimin Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) regulates chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation through the Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors. Previous in vitro studies suggested that Speckle-type POZ protein (Spop), part of the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase complex, targets Gli2 and Gli3 for degradation and negatively regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. In this study, we found defects in chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation in Spop-null mutant mice. Strikingly, both the full-length and repressor forms of Gli3, but not Gli2, were up-regulated in Spop mutants, and Ihh target genes Patched 1 (Ptch1) and parathyroid hormone-like peptide (Pthlh) were down-regulated, indicating compromised Hh signaling. Consistent with this finding, reducing Gli3 dosage greatly rescued the Spop mutant skeletal defects. We further show that Spop directly targets the Gli3 repressor for ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we demonstrate in a conditional mutant that loss of Spop results in brachydactyly and osteopenia, which can be rescued by reducing the dosage of Gli3. In summary, Spop is an important positive regulator of Ihh signaling and skeletal development. 10.1073/pnas.1612520114
    Tumor suppressor SPOP ubiquitinates and degrades EglN2 to compromise growth of prostate cancer cells. Zhang Linli,Peng Shan,Dai Xiangpeng,Gan Wenjian,Nie Xin,Wei Wenyi,Hu Guoqing,Guo Jianping Cancer letters EglN prolyl hydroxylases, a family of oxygen-sensing enzymes, hydroxylate distinct proteins to modulate diverse physiopathological signals. Aberrant regulations of EglNs result in multiple human diseases, including cancer. Different from EglN1 which function largely depends on the role of hypoxia-induce factor alpha (HIFα) in tumors, the functional significance and the upstream regulatory mechanisms of EglN2, especially in prostate cancer setting, remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that dysregulation of EglN2 facilitated prostate cancer growth both in cells and in vivo. Notably, EglN2 was identified highly expressed in human prostate cancer tissues. Mechanically, Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase SPOP, a well-characterized tumor suppressor in prostate cancer, could recognize and destruct EglN2. Meanwhile, androgen receptor (AR), playing a pivotal role in progression and development of prostate cancer, could transcriptionally up-regulate EglN2. Pathologically, SPOP loss-of-function mutations or AR amplification, frequently occurring in prostate cancers, could significantly accumulate EglN2 abundance. Therefore, our study not only underlines an oncogenic role of EglN2 in prostate cancer, but also highlights SPOP as a tumor suppressor to down-regulate EglN2 in prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.01.003
    SPOP tips the balance of BETs in cancer. Fennell Katie A,Dawson Mark A Nature medicine 10.1038/nm.4398
    Corrigendum: The CUL3-SPOP-DAXX axis is a novel regulator of VEGFR2 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Sakaue Tomohisa,Sakakibara Iori,Uesugi Takahiro,Fujisaki Ayako,Nakashiro Koh-Ichi,Hamakawa Hiroyuki,Kubota Eiji,Joh Takashi,Imai Yuuki,Izutani Hironori,Higashiyama Shigeki Scientific reports This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep42845. 10.1038/srep46915
    BTB domain-containing speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) serves as an adaptor of Daxx for ubiquitination by Cul3-based ubiquitin ligase. Kwon Jeong Eun,La Muhnho,Oh Kyu Hee,Oh Young Mi,Kim Gi Ryang,Seol Jae Hong,Baek Sung Hee,Chiba Tomoki,Tanaka Keiji,Bang Ok Sun,Joe Cheol O,Chung Chin Ha The Journal of biological chemistry Daxx is a multifunctional protein that regulates a variety of cellular processes, including transcription, cell cycle, and apoptosis. SPOP is a BTB (Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex) protein that constitutes Cul3-based ubiquitin ligases. Here we show that SPOP serves as an adaptor of Daxx for the ubiquitination by Cul3-based ubiquitin ligase and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Expression of SPOP with Cul3 markedly reduced Daxx level, and this degradation was blocked by SPOP-specific short hairpin RNAs. Inhibition of the proteasome by MG132 caused the prevention of Daxx degradation in parallel with the accumulation of ubiquitinated Daxx. Expression of SPOP with Cul3 reversed Daxx-mediated repression of ETS1- and p53-dependent transcription, and short hairpin RNA-mediated knock down of SPOP blocked the recovery of their transcriptional activation. Furthermore, Daxx degradation led to the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the increase in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labeling-positive apoptotic cells. These results suggest that SPOP/Cul3-ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in the control of Daxx level and, thus, in the regulation of Daxx-mediated cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and apoptosis. 10.1074/jbc.M600204200
    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is destabilized by the Cul3-SPOP E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Kim Bogyou,Nam Hye Jin,Pyo Ki Eun,Jang Min Jung,Kim Ik Soo,Kim Dongha,Boo Kyungjin,Lee Seung Hoon,Yoon Jong-Bok,Baek Sung Hee,Kim Jung Hwa Biochemical and biophysical research communications Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses metastasis without affecting primary tumorigenesis. The regulatory mechanism of BRMS1 at the protein level has not been revealed until recently. Here, we found that cullin 3 (Cul3), a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a new binding partner of BRMS1 and the interaction between BRMS1 and Cul3 is mediated by the SPOP adaptor protein. Intriguingly, BRMS1 turns out to be a potent substrate that is ubiquitinated by the Cul3-SPOP complex. Knockdown of SPOP increases the level of BRMS1 protein and represses the expression of BRMS1 repressive target genes such as OPN and uPA in breast cancer cells. These results suggest that the novel regulatory mechanism of BRMS1 by Cul3-SPOP complex is important for breast cancer progression. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.10.154