The role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
Park Yoon Jeong,Choe Sung Sik,Sohn Jee Hyung,Kim Jae Bum
Obesity is closely associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. One hallmark characteristics of obesity is chronic inflammation that is coordinately controlled by complex signaling networks in adipose tissues. Compelling evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its related signaling pathways play crucial roles in the progression of chronic inflammation in obesity. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is an anabolic pathway that utilizes the glucoses to generate molecular building blocks and reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH. In particular, NADPH acts as one of the key modulators in the control of ROS through providing an electron for both ROS generation and scavenging. Recently, we have reported that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP, is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Mechanistically, G6PD potentiates generation of ROS that augments pro-inflammatory responses in adipose tissue macrophages, leading to systemic insulin resistance. Here, we provide an overview of cell type- specific roles of G6PD in the regulation of ROS balance as well as additional details on the significance of G6PD that contributes to pro-oxidant NADPH generation in obesity-related chronic inflammation and insulin resistance.
The role of macrophages in obesity-associated islet inflammation and β-cell abnormalities.
Ying Wei,Fu Wenxian,Lee Yun Sok,Olefsky Jerrold M
Nature reviews. Endocrinology
Chronic, unresolved tissue inflammation is a well-described feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. In this context, adipose tissue and liver inflammation have been particularly well studied; however, abundant evidence demonstrates that inflammatory processes are also activated in pancreatic islets from obese animals and humans with obesity and/or T2DM. In this Review, we focus on the characteristics of immune cell-mediated inflammation in islets and the consequences of this with respect to β-cell function. In contrast to type 1 diabetes mellitus, the dominant immune cell type causing inflammation in obese and T2DM islets is the macrophage. The increased macrophage accumulation in T2DM islets primarily arises through local proliferation of resident macrophages, which then provide signals (such as platelet-derived growth factor) that drive β-cell hyperplasia (a classic feature of obesity). In addition, islet macrophages also impair the insulin secretory capacity of β-cells. Through these mechanisms, islet-resident macrophages underlie the inflammatory response in obesity and mechanistically participate in the β-cell hyperplasia and dysfunction that characterizes this insulin-resistant state. These findings point to the possibility of therapeutics that target islet inflammation to elicit beneficial effects on β-cell function and glycaemia.
Role of Testosterone in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.
M Webb Carolyn,Collins Peter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent non-communicable cause of death worldwide. Testosterone is a sex hormone that is predominant in males but also occurs in lower concentrations in females. It has effects directly on the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system and on the heart, as well as effects on risk factors for CVD. Serum testosterone concentrations are known to decrease with age and reduced testosterone levels are linked to premature coronary artery disease, unfavourable effects on CVD risk factors and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality independent of age. A significant number of men with heart failure demonstrate reduced serum testosterone concentrations and there is early evidence suggesting that low testosterone levels affect cardiac repolarisation. Any association between endogenous testosterone concentrations and CVD in women has yet to be established. Testosterone replacement is used to treat men with hypogonadism but also has cardiovascular effects. This review will present the current evidence, expert opinion and controversies around the role of testosterone in the pathophysiology of CVD and surrounding the use of testosterone treatment and its effects on the cardiovascular system and CVD.
Testosterone as a marker of coronary artery disease severity in middle aged males.
Gururani Kunal,Jose John,George Paul V
Indian heart journal
Historically, higher levels of serum testosterone were presumed deleterious to the cardiovascular system. In the last two decades, studies have suggested that low testosterone levels are associated with increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including dyslipidemia and diabetes. This is a cross sectional study. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between serum testosterone levels and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum testosterone levels were also correlated with flow mediated dilation of brachial artery (BAFMD) - an indicator of endothelial function. Consecutive male patients, aged 40-60 years, admitted for coronary angiography (CAG) with symptoms suggestive of CAD, were included in the study. Out of the 92 patients included in the study, 32 patients had normal coronaries and 60 had CAD on coronary angiography. Severity of CAD was determined by Gensini coronary score. The group with CAD had significantly lower levels of total serum testosterone (363±147.1 vs 532.09±150.5ng/dl, p<0.001), free testosterone (7.1215±3.012 vs 10.4419±2.75ng/dl, p<0.001) and bioavailable testosterone (166.17±64.810 vs 247.94±62.504ng/dl, p<0.001) when compared to controls. Adjusting for the traditional risk factors for CAD, a multiple linear regression analysis showed that low testosterone was an independent predictor of severity of CAD (β=-0.007, p<0.001). This study also showed that levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone correlated positively with BAFMD %.
Testosterone and Cardiovascular Health.
Elagizi Andrew,Köhler Tobias S,Lavie Carl J
Mayo Clinic proceedings
There is an ongoing debate in the medical community regarding the effects of testosterone on cardiovascular (CV) health. For decades, there has been conflicting evidence regarding the association of endogenous testosterone levels and CV disease (CVD) events that has resulted in much debate and confusion among health care providers and patients alike. Testosterone therapy has become increasingly widespread, and after the emergence of studies that reported increased CVD events in patients receiving testosterone therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a warning statement about testosterone and its potential risk regarding CV health. Some of these studies were later found to be critically flawed, and some experts, including the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and an expert panel regarding testosterone deficiency and its treatment, reported that some of the FDA statements regarding testosterone therapy were lacking scientific evidence. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the relationship between testosterone (endogenous and supplemental) and CV health. A literature review was conducted via search using PubMed and specific journal databases, including the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Key search terms included testosterone and cardiovascular health, coronary artery disease, heart failure, androgen deprivation therapy, intima-media thickness, and adrenal androgens. Initial study selection was limited to publications within the past 10 years (January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2016); however, key publications outside of this time frame were selected if they provided important quantitative data or historical perspectives for the review of this topic. The search was further supplemented by reviewing references in selected articles.
Testosterone to oestradiol ratio reflects systemic and plaque inflammation and predicts future cardiovascular events in men with severe atherosclerosis.
van Koeverden Ian D,de Bakker Marie,Haitjema Saskia,van der Laan Sander W,de Vries Jean-Paul P M,Hoefer Imo E,de Borst Gert J,Pasterkamp Gerard,den Ruijter Hester M
Aims:The effects of testosterone on cardiovascular disease (CVD) as reported in literature have been ambiguous. Recently, the interplay between testosterone and oestradiol as assessed by testosterone/oestradiol (T/E2) ratio was suggested to be better informative on the normal physiological balance. Considering the role in CVD, we hypothesized that a low T/E2 ratio in men with CVD is associated with increased inflammation, a more unstable plaque and a worse cardiovascular outcome. Methods and results:Testosterone and oestradiol concentrations were determined in blood samples of 611 male carotid endarterectomy patients included in the Athero-Express Biobank Study. T/E2 ratio was associated with baseline characteristics, atherosclerotic plaque specimens, inflammatory biomarkers, and 3 year follow-up information. Patients with low T/E2 ratio had more unfavourable inflammatory profiles compared with patients with high T/E2 as observed by higher levels of C-reactive protein [2.81 μg/mL vs. 1.22 μg/mL (P < 0.001)] and higher leucocyte counts [8.98*109/L vs. 7.75*109/L (P = 0.001)] in blood. In atherosclerotic plaques, a negative association between T/E2 ratio and number of neutrophils [B = -0.366 (P = 0.012)], plaque calcifications [OR: 0.816 (P = 0.044)], interleukin-6 (IL-6) [B = -0.15 (P = 0.009)], and IL-6 receptor [B = -0.13 (P = 0.024)] was found. Furthermore, in multivariate Cox regression analysis, low T/E2 ratio was independently associated with an increased risk for major cardiovascular events (MACE) during 3 year follow-up [hazard ratio 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.76), P = 0.043]. In men with elevated body mass index (BMI), these effects were strongest. Conclusion:In male patients with manifest atherosclerotic disease, low T/E2 ratio was associated with increased systemic inflammation, increased inflammatory plaque proteins, and an increased risk of future MACE as compared to men with normal T/E2 ratio. These effects are strongest in men with elevated BMI and are expected to be affected by aromatase activity in white fat tissues. Normalization of T/E2 ratio may be considered as target for the secondary prevention of CVD in men.
Nrf2 deletion from adipocytes, but not hepatocytes, potentiates systemic metabolic dysfunction after long-term high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.
Chartoumpekis Dionysios V,Palliyaguru Dushani L,Wakabayashi Nobunao,Fazzari Marco,Khoo Nicholas K H,Schopfer Francisco J,Sipula Ian,Yagishita Yoko,Michalopoulos George K,O'Doherty Robert M,Kensler Thomas W
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, but evidence of its cross talk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protects from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. To further investigate the effect of the disruption of Nrf2 on obesity in a tissue-specific manner, we focused on adipocytes and hepatocytes with targeted deletion of Nrf2. To this end, mice with cell-specific deletion of Nrf2 in adipocytes (ANKO) or hepatocytes (HeNKO) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and showed similar increases in body weight and body fat content. ANKO mice showed a partially deteriorated glucose tolerance, higher fasting glucose levels, and higher levels of cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids compared with their Control counterparts. The HeNKO mice, though, had lower insulin levels and trended toward improved insulin sensitivity without having any difference in liver triglyceride accumulation. This study compared for the first time two conditional Nrf2 knockout models in adipocytes and in hepatocytes during HFD-induced obesity. None of these models could completely recapitulate the unexpected protection against obesity observed in the whole body Nrf2 knockout mice, but this study points out the differential roles that Nrf2 may play, beyond cytoprotection, in different target tissues and rather suggests systemic activation of the Nrf2 pathway as an effective means of prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
is responsible for the sex differences in hepatic mRNA expression in hepatic steatosis of mice fed a Western diet.
Herrera-Marcos Luis V,Sancho-Knapik Sara,Gabás-Rivera Clara,Barranquero Cristina,Gascón Sonia,Romanos Eduardo,Martínez-Beamonte Roberto,Navarro María A,Surra Joaquín C,Arnal Carmen,García-de-Jalón José A,Rodríguez-Yoldi María J,Tena-Sempere Manuel,Sánchez-Ramos Cristina,Monsalve María,Osada Jesús
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Hepatic fat-specific protein 27 [cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation effector protein C ()/] mRNA levels have been associated with hepatic lipid droplet extent under certain circumstances. To address its hepatic expression under different dietary conditions and in both sexes, apolipoprotein E ()deficient mice were subjected to different experimental conditions for 11 wk to test the influence of cholesterol, Western diet, squalene, oleanolic acid, sex, and surgical castration on mRNA expression. Dietary cholesterol increased hepatic expression, an effect that was suppressed when cholesterol was combined with saturated fat as represented by Western diet feeding. Using the latter diet, neither oleanolic acid nor squalene modified its expression. Females showed lower levels of hepatic expression than males when they were fed Western diets, a result that was translated into a lesser amount of CIDEC/FSP27 protein in lipid droplets and microsomes. This was also confirmed in low-density lipoprotein receptor ()-deficient mice. Incubation with estradiol resulted in decreased expression in AML12 cells. Whereas male surgical castration did not modify the expression, ovariectomized females did show increased levels compared with control females. Females also showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (), suppressed by ovariectomy, and the values were significantly and inversely associated with those of . When -deficient mice were used, the sex differences in expression disappeared. Therefore, hepatic expression has a complex regulation influenced by diet and sex hormonal milieu. The mRNA sex differences are controlled by .
Characterization of Lipid and Lipid Droplet Metabolism in Human HCC.
Berndt Nikolaus,Eckstein Johannes,Heucke Niklas,Gajowski Robert,Stockmann Martin,Meierhofer David,Holzhütter Hermann-Georg
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults and the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. While previous metabolic studies of HCC have mainly focused on the glucose metabolism (Warburg effect), less attention has been paid to tumor-specific features of the lipid metabolism. Here, we applied a computational approach to analyze major pathways of fatty acid utilization in individual HCC. To this end, we used protein intensity profiles of eleven human HCCs to parameterize tumor-specific kinetic models of cellular lipid metabolism including formation, enlargement, and degradation of lipid droplets (LDs). Our analysis reveals significant inter-tumor differences in the lipid metabolism. The majority of HCCs show a reduced uptake of fatty acids and decreased rate of β-oxidation, however, some HCCs display a completely different metabolic phenotype characterized by high rates of β-oxidation. Despite reduced fatty acid uptake in the majority of HCCs, the content of triacylglycerol is significantly enlarged compared to the tumor-adjacent tissue. This is due to tumor-specific expression profiles of regulatory proteins decorating the surface of LDs and controlling their turnover. Our simulations suggest that HCCs characterized by a very high content of triglycerides comprise regulatory peculiarities that render them susceptible to selective drug targeting without affecting healthy tissue.
FGF21-FGFR1 Coordinates Phospholipid Homeostasis, Lipid Droplet Function, and ER Stress in Obesity.
Ye Min,Lu Weiqin,Wang Xiaojie,Wang Cong,Abbruzzese James L,Liang Guang,Li Xiaokun,Luo Yongde
The antiobese and antidiabetic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis by targeting the βKlotho-FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) binary complex in adipose tissue adipocytes. Because lipid droplet is the organelle responsible for storing lipid energy in adipocytes, it is the plausible target of FGF21 action. However, the impact of the FGF21-βKlotho-FGFR1 signaling pathway on the functions of the lipid droplet is not clearly understood. Using our mouse models of adipocyte-specific FGFR1 ablation and hepatic overexpression of FGF21 with diet-induced obesity established previously, we analyzed the alterations of the pathways involved in energy and substrate metabolism that is attributable to the dynamic functions of the lipid droplet. In addition to the previous reports showing that FGFR1 deficiency abrogated lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and energy expenditure promoted by the elevated FGF21 signal, we observed that the deficiency up-regulated the biosynthesis and remodeling of membrane phospholipids that are important for the biogenesis and expansion of the droplet, whereas the enhanced FGF21 signal constrained the biosynthesis of phospholipids. As a result, the loss of adipose FGFR1 led to a sustained droplet expansion and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, whereas the enhanced FGF21 signal suppressed them in obesogenesis. These new findings reveal that the FGF21-βKlotho-FGFR1 signaling axis plays roles in maintaining phospholipid homeostasis and the dynamic functions of the lipid droplet, whereas protecting against ER stress, and suggest a potential link of phospholipid biosynthesis, lipid droplet dynamics, ER stress, and energy homeostasis in adipose tissue coordinated by this signaling axis.
Pathophysiology of lipid droplet proteins in liver diseases.
Carr Rotonya M,Ahima Rexford S
Experimental cell research
Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) are present in most cell types, and consist of a core comprising neutral lipids, mainly triglycerides and sterol esters, surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. LDs are heterogeneous in their structure, chemical composition, and tissue distribution. LDs are coated by several proteins, including perilipins and other structural proteins, lipogenic enzymes, lipases and membrane-trafficking proteins. Five proteins of the perilipin (PLIN) family (PLIN1 (perilipin), PLIN2 (adipose differentiation-related protein), PLIN3 (tail-interacting protein of 47kDa), PLIN4 (S3-12), and PLIN5 (myocardial lipid droplet protein)), are associated with LD formation. More recently, the CIDE family of proteins, hypoxia-inducible protein 2 (HIG2), and patanin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) have also gained attention in hepatic LD biology. Evidence suggests that LD proteins are involved in the pathophysiology of fatty liver diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. This review article will focus on how hepatic LDs and their associated proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of three chronic liver conditions: hepatitis C virus infection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease.
The Role of Adipose Tissue Mitochondria: Regulation of Mitochondrial Function for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases.
Lee Jae Ho,Park Anna,Oh Kyoung-Jin,Lee Sang Chul,Kim Won Kon,Bae Kwang-Hee
International journal of molecular sciences
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues, including adipose tissues. The two main types of adipose tissues are the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT primarily stores excess energy, whereas BAT is predominantly responsible for energy expenditure by non-shivering thermogenesis through the mitochondria. WAT in response to appropriate stimuli such as cold exposure and β-adrenergic agonist undergoes browning wherein it acts as BAT, which is characterized by the presence of a higher number of mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes has been reported to have strong correlation with metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dysfunction of mitochondria results in detrimental effects on adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, oxidative capacity, and thermogenesis, which consequently lead to metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial function can be improved by using thiazolidinedione, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and dietary natural compounds; by performing exercise; and by controlling caloric restriction, thereby maintaining the metabolic homeostasis by inducing adaptive thermogenesis of BAT and browning of WAT. In this review, we focus on and summarize the molecular regulation involved in the improvement of mitochondrial function in adipose tissues so that strategies can be developed to treat metabolic diseases.
Circulating sex steroids coregulate adipose tissue immune cell populations in healthy men.
Rubinow Katya B,Chao Jing H,Hagman Derek,Kratz Mario,Van Yserloo Brian,Gaikwad Nilesh W,Amory John K,Page Stephanie T
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Male hypogonadism results in changes in body composition characterized by increases in fat mass. Resident immune cells influence energy metabolism in adipose tissue and could promote increased adiposity through paracrine effects. We hypothesized that manipulation of circulating sex steroid levels in healthy men would alter adipose tissue immune cell populations. Subjects ( = 44 men, 19-55 yr of age) received 4 wk of treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist acyline with daily administration of ) placebo gel, ) 1.25 g testosterone gel (1.62%), ) 5 g testosterone gel, or ) 5 g testosterone gel with an aromatase inhibitor. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed at baseline and end-of-treatment, and adipose tissue immune cells, gene expression, and intra-adipose estrogen levels were quantified. Change in serum total testosterone level correlated inversely with change in the number of CD3 (β = -0.36, = 0.04), CD4 (β = -0.34, = 0.04), and CD8 (β = -0.33, = 0.05) T cells within adipose tissue. Change in serum 17β-estradiol level correlated inversely with change in the number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) (β = -0.34, = 0.05). A negative association also was found between change in serum testosterone and change in CD11c ATMs (β = -0.41, = 0.01). Overall, sex steroid deprivation was associated with increases in adipose tissue T cells and ATMs. No associations were found between changes in serum sex steroid levels and changes in adipose tissue gene expression. Circulating sex steroid levels may regulate adipose tissue immune cell populations. These exploratory findings highlight a possible novel mechanism that could contribute to increased metabolic risk in hypogonadal men.
Regulation of immunometabolism in adipose tissue.
Kumari Manju,Heeren Joerg,Scheja Ludger
Seminars in immunopathology
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Initiation and progression of inflammatory signaling in fat pads is complex, broad, and often functions in a tissue/cell type-specific manner. We have also realized the importance of location, coordinated role of tissue cross-talk, and physiological state of the fat pad in these processes. There has been significant progress in understanding how adipose tissue regulates these crucial processes and maintains metabolic homeostasis such as identification of fat depot-specific regulation of energy metabolism, mediators of macrophage polarization, role of gut-derived antigens, and consequences of diet and calorie restriction on adipose tissue metabolic and thermogenic potential.
Metformin treatment prevents SREBP2-mediated cholesterol uptake and improves lipid homeostasis during oxidative stress-induced atherosclerosis.
Gopoju Raja,Panangipalli Sravya,Kotamraju Srigiridhar
Free radical biology & medicine
Lipids are responsible for the atheromatous plaque formation during atherosclerosis by their deposition in the subendothelial intima of the aorta, leading to infarction. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), regulating cholesterol homeostasis, is suggested to play a pivotal role during the early incidence of atherosclerosis through dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that oxidative stress stimulates SREBP2-mediated cholesterol uptake via low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), rather than cholesterol synthesis, in mouse vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) and THP-1 monocytes. The enhancement of mature form of SREBP2 (SREBP2-M) during oxidative stress was associated with the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In contrast, inhibition of either SREBP2 by fatostatin or LDLR by siLDLR resulted in decreased cholesterol levels during oxidative stress. Thereby confirming the role of SREBP2 in cholesterol regulation via LDLR. Metformin-mediated activation of AMPK was able to significantly abrogate cholesterol uptake by inhibiting SREBP2-M. Interestingly, although metformin administration attenuated angiotensin (Ang)-II-impaired lipid homeostasis in both aorta and liver tissues of ApoE mice, the results indicate that SREBP2 through LDLR regulates lipid homeostasis in aorta but not in liver tissue. Taken together, AMPK activation inhibits oxidative stress-mediated SREBP2-dependent cholesterol uptake, and moreover, metformin-induced prevention of atheromatic events are in part due to its ability to regulate the SREBP2-LDLR axis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Affects Lipid Metabolism in Atherosclerosis Via CHOP Activation and Over-Expression of miR-33.
Sun Yan,Zhang Dai,Liu Xiaoli,Li Xuesong,Liu Fang,Yu Yi,Jia Shuo,Zhou Yujie,Zhao Yingxin
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
BACKGROUND/AIMS:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important event in atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that ER stress deregulates cholesterol metabolism via multiple pathways. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ER stress and lipid metabolism and to verify that upregulation of miR-33 is involved in this process. METHODS:An atherosclerosis model was established in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed a Western diet, and THP-1 derived macrophages were used in this study. Hematoxylin-eosin and Oil Red O staining were used to quantify the atherosclerotic plaques. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate labeled oxidized low-density lipoprotein binding assay and a Cholesterol Efflux Fluorometric Assay Kit were used to observe cholesterol uptake and efflux. The mRNA and protein levels of biomarkers associated with ER stress and cholesterol metabolism in atherosclerotic plaques and macrophages were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to observe alterations of ABCA1 localization. Small interfering RNAs were used to knock down CHOP and miR-33 in macrophages to alter CHOP and miR-33 expression. RESULTS:Atherosclerotic lesions and systemic lipid levels were ameliorated after inhibition of ER stress (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) in vivo. In vitro studies confirmed that ER stress regulated the lipid catabolism of macrophages by promoting cholesterol uptake, inhibiting cholesterol efflux, and modulating the expression of related transporters. CHOP contributed to lipid metabolism disorder following ER stress. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-33 was involved in ER stress that induced lipid metabolism disorder in macrophages. These findings support a model of ER stress induction by oxidized low-density lipoprotein that affects macrophage lipid catabolism disorder. CONCLUSION:Our data shed new light on the relationship between ER stress and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro, and confirm that upregulation of miR-33 is involved in this process. The relationship between ER stress and miR-33 represents a novel target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis: the interplay between lipids and immune cells.
Schaftenaar Frank,Frodermann Vanessa,Kuiper Johan,Lutgens Esther
Current opinion in lipidology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The underlying cause of the majority of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis. In the past, atherosclerosis was considered to be the result of passive lipid accumulation in the vessel wall. However, today's picture of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is much more complex, with a key role for immune cells and inflammation in conjunction with hyperlipidemia, especially elevated (modified) LDL levels. Knowledge on immune cells and immune responses in atherosclerosis has progressed tremendously over the past decades, and the same is true for the role of lipid metabolism and the different lipid components. However, it is largely unknown how lipids and the immune system interact. In this review, we will describe the effect of lipids on immune cell development and function, and the effects of immune cells on lipid metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS:Recently, novel data have emerged that show that immune cells are affected, and behave differently in a hyperlipidemic environment. Moreover, immune cells have reported to be able to affect lipid metabolism. SUMMARY:In this review, we will summarize the latest findings on the interactions between lipids and the immune system, and we will discuss the potential consequences of these novel insights for future therapies for atherosclerosis.
Intercepting the Lipid-Induced Integrated Stress Response Reduces Atherosclerosis.
Onat Umut I,Yildirim Asli D,Tufanli Özlem,Çimen Ismail,Kocatürk Begüm,Veli Zehra,Hamid Syed M,Shimada Kenichi,Chen Shuang,Sin Jon,Shah Prediman K,Gottlieb Roberta A,Arditi Moshe,Erbay Ebru
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
BACKGROUND:Eukaryotic cells can respond to diverse stimuli by converging at serine-51 phosphorylation on eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and activate the integrated stress response (ISR). This is a key step in translational control and must be tightly regulated; however, persistent eIF2α phosphorylation is observed in mouse and human atheroma. OBJECTIVES:Potent ISR inhibitors that modulate neurodegenerative disorders have been identified. Here, the authors evaluated the potential benefits of intercepting ISR in a chronic metabolic and inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis. METHODS:The authors investigated ISR's role in lipid-induced inflammasome activation and atherogenesis by taking advantage of 3 different small molecules and the ATP-analog sensitive kinase allele technology to intercept ISR at multiple molecular nodes. RESULTS:The results show lipid-activated eIF2α signaling induces a mitochondrial protease, Lon protease 1 (LONP1), that degrades phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 and blocks Parkin-mediated mitophagy, resulting in greater mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammasome activation, and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, ISR inhibitors suppress hyperlipidemia-induced inflammasome activation and inflammation, and reduce atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS:These results reveal endoplasmic reticulum controls mitochondrial clearance by activating eIF2α-LONP1 signaling, contributing to an amplified oxidative stress response that triggers robust inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β secretion by dietary fats. These findings underscore the intricate exchange of information and coordination of both organelles' responses to lipids is important for metabolic health. Modulation of ISR to alleviate organelle stress can prevent inflammasome activation by dietary fats and may be a strategy to reduce lipid-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis.
XX sex chromosome complement promotes atherosclerosis in mice.
AlSiraj Yasir,Chen Xuqi,Thatcher Sean E,Temel Ryan E,Cai Lei,Blalock Eric,Katz Wendy,Ali Heba M,Petriello Michael,Deng Pan,Morris Andrew J,Wang Xuping,Lusis Aldons J,Arnold Arthur P,Reue Karen,Thompson Katherine,Tso Patrick,Cassis Lisa A
Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating a primary effect of sex chromosomes. Small intestine expression of enzymes involved in lipid absorption and chylomicron assembly are greater in XX male and female mice with higher intestinal lipids. Together, our results show that an XX sex chromosome complement promotes the bioavailability of dietary fat to accelerate atherosclerosis.
Energy-stress-mediated AMPK activation inhibits ferroptosis.
Lee Hyemin,Zandkarimi Fereshteh,Zhang Yilei,Meena Jitendra Kumar,Kim Jongchan,Zhuang Li,Tyagi Siddhartha,Ma Li,Westbrook Thomas F,Steinberg Gregory R,Nakada Daisuke,Stockwell Brent R,Gan Boyi
Nature cell biology
Energy stress depletes ATP and induces cell death. Here we identify an unexpected inhibitory role of energy stress on ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death induced by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. We found that ferroptotic cell death and lipid peroxidation can be inhibited by treatments that induce or mimic energy stress. Inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status, largely abolishes the protective effects of energy stress on ferroptosis in vitro and on ferroptosis-associated renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Cancer cells with high basal AMPK activation are resistant to ferroptosis and AMPK inactivation sensitizes these cells to ferroptosis. Functional and lipidomic analyses further link AMPK regulation of ferroptosis to AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Our study demonstrates that energy stress inhibits ferroptosis partly through AMPK and reveals an unexpected coupling between ferroptosis and AMPK-mediated energy-stress signalling.
NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis is indispensable for adipose tissue plasticity and development of obesity.
Nielsen Karen Nørgaard,Peics Julia,Ma Tao,Karavaeva Iuliia,Dall Morten,Chubanava Sabina,Basse Astrid L,Dmytriyeva Oksana,Treebak Jonas T,Gerhart-Hines Zachary
OBJECTIVE:The ability of adipose tissue to expand and contract in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Given the nutrient scarcity that mammals faced for millions of years, programs involved in this adipose plasticity were likely evolved to be highly efficient in promoting lipid storage. Ironically, this previously advantageous feature may now represent a metabolic liability given the caloric excess of modern society. We speculate that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis exemplifies this concept. Indeed NAD/NADH metabolism in fat tissue has been previously linked with obesity, yet whether it plays a causal role in diet-induced adiposity is unknown. Here we investigated how the NAD biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) supports adipose plasticity and the pathological progression to obesity. METHODS:We utilized a newly generated Nampt loss-of-function model to investigate the tissue-specific and systemic metabolic consequences of adipose NAD deficiency. Energy expenditure, glycemic control, tissue structure, and gene expression were assessed in the contexts of a high dietary fat burden as well as the transition back to normal chow diet. RESULTS:Fat-specific Nampt knockout (FANKO) mice were completely resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. This was driven in part by reduced food intake. Furthermore, HFD-fed FANKO mice were unable to undergo healthy expansion of adipose tissue mass, and adipose depots were rendered fibrotic with markedly reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Yet, surprisingly, HFD-fed FANKO mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance compared to control littermates. Removing the HFD burden largely reversed adipose fibrosis and dysfunction in FANKO animals whereas the improved glucose tolerance persisted. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that adipose NAMPT plays an essential role in handling dietary lipid to modulate fat tissue plasticity, food intake, and systemic glucose homeostasis.
A conjugated fatty acid present at high levels in bitter melon seed favorably affects lipid metabolism in hepatocytes by increasing NAD(+)/NADH ratio and activating PPARα, AMPK and SIRT1 signaling pathway.
Chen Gou-Chun,Su Hui-Min,Lin Yu-Shun,Tsou Po-Yen,Chyuan Jong-Ho,Chao Pei-Min
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
α-Eleostearic acid (α-ESA), or the cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid, is a special fatty acid present at high levels in bitter melon seed oil. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of α-ESA on hepatic lipid metabolism. Using H4IIEC3 hepatoma cell line, we showed that α-ESA significantly lowered intracellular triglyceride accumulation compared to α-linolenic acid (LN), used as a fatty acid control, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of α-ESA on enzyme activities and mRNA profiles in H4IIEC3 cells suggested that enhanced fatty acid oxidation and lowered lipogenesis were involved in α-ESA-mediated triglyceride lowering effects. In addition, α-ESA triggered AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation without altering sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein levels. When cells were treated with vehicle control (VC), LN alone (LN; 100μmol/L) or in combination with α-ESA (LN+α-ESA; 75+25μmol/L) for 24h, acetylation of forkhead box protein O1 was decreased, while the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, mRNA levels of NAMPT and PTGR1 and enzyme activity of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase were increased by LN+α-ESA treatment compared to treatment with LN alone, suggesting that α-ESA activates SIRT1 by increasing NAD(+) synthesis and NAD(P)H consumption. The antisteatosis effect of α-ESA was confirmed in mice treated with a high-sucrose diet supplemented with 1% α-ESA for 5weeks. We conclude that α-ESA favorably affects hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing cellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio and activating PPARα, AMPK and SIRT1 signaling pathways.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain.
Zambelli Vanessa O,Gross Eric R,Chen Che-Hong,Gutierrez Vanessa P,Cury Yara,Mochly-Rosen Daria
Science translational medicine
Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R(2) = 0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde- and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was even beneficial when given after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic, cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance.
Aldehyde dedydrogenase-2 plays a beneficial role in ameliorating chronic alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through regulation of autophagy.
Guo Rui,Xu Xihui,Babcock Sara A,Zhang Yingmei,Ren Jun
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) plays a critical role in the detoxification of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. This study was designed to examine the impact of global ALDH2 overexpression on alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. METHODS:Wild type Friend virus B (FVB) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were placed on a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 weeks. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin and cholesterol, hepatic triglyceride, steatosis, fat metabolism-related proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), autophagy and autophagy signalling were examined. The role of autophagy was evaluated in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1)-transfected human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (VA-13) treated with or without the autophagy inducer rapamycin and lysosomal inhibitors. RESULTS:Chronic alcohol intake led to elevated AST-, ALT-levels, bilirubin, AST/ALT ratio, cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides and hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by H&E and Oil Red O staining. Hepatic fat deposition was associated with disturbed levels of fat metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, SCD1), upregulated interleukin-6, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase, oxidative stress, and loss of autophagy, effects which were attenuated or ablated by the ALDH2 transgene. Moreover, ethanol (100 mM) and acetaldehyde (100 and 500 μM) increased levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and suppressed autophagy in VA-13 cells, effects which were markedly alleviated by rapamycin. In addition, lysosomal inhibitors mimicked ethanol-induced p62 accumulation with little additive effect with ethanol. Ethanol significantly suppressed LC3 conversion in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, our results revealed that ALDH2 plays a beneficial role in ameliorating chronic alcohol intake-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through regulation of autophagy.
Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondria-Enriched Fraction Isolated from the Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice Treated with Alda-1, an Activator of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH2).
Stachowicz Aneta,Olszanecki Rafał,Suski Maciej,Głombik Katarzyna,Basta-Kaim Agnieszka,Adamek Dariusz,Korbut Ryszard
International journal of molecular sciences
The role of different genotypes of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is widely recognized. It has been shown that altered functioning of apoE may promote 4-hydroxynonenal modification of mitochondrial proteins, which may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, aggravation of oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an enzyme considered to perform protective function in mitochondria by the detoxification of the end products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynonenal and other reactive aldehydes. The goal of our study was to apply a differential proteomics approach in concert with molecular and morphological techniques to elucidate the changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE) mice upon treatment with Alda-1-a small molecular weight activator of ALDH2. Despite the lack of significant morphological changes in the brain of apoE mice as compared to age-matched wild type animals, the proteomic and molecular approach revealed many changes in the expression of genes and proteins, indicating the impairment of energy metabolism, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis in brains of apoE mice. Importantly, prolonged treatment of apoE mice with Alda-1 led to the beneficial changes in the expression of genes and proteins related to neuroplasticity and mitochondrial function. The pattern of alterations implies mitoprotective action of Alda-1, however, the accurate functional consequences of the revealed changes require further research.
Aldh2 Attenuates Stem Cell Factor/Kit-Dependent Signaling and Activation in Mast Cells.
Kim Do-Kyun,Cho Young-Eun,Song Byoung-Joon,Kawamoto Toshihiro,Metcalfe Dean D,Olivera Ana
International journal of molecular sciences
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) metabolizes endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and protects cells against oxidative injury. Inactivating genetic polymorphisms in humans are common and associate with alcohol flush reactions. However, whether mast cell Aldh2 activity impacts normal mast cell responses is unknown. Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from knockout mice, we found evidence for a role of mast cell Aldh2 in Kit-mediated responses. Aldh2-deficient mast cells showed enhanced Kit tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and activity after stimulation with its ligand (stem cell factor) and augmentation of downstream signaling pathways, including Stat4, MAPKs, and Akt. The activity of the phosphatase Shp-1, which attenuates Kit activity, was reduced in mast cells, along with an increase in reactive oxygen species, known to regulate Shp-1. Reduced Shp-1 activity concomitant with sustained Kit signaling resulted in greater proliferation following Kit engagement, and increased mediator and cytokine release when mast cells were co-stimulated via Kit and FcεRI. However, FcεRI-mediated signaling and responses were unaffected. Therefore, our findings reveal a functional role for mast cell intrinsic Aldh2 in the control of Kit activation and Kit-mediated responses, which may lead to a better understanding of mast cell reactivity in conditions related to ALDH2 polymorphisms.
Impact of macrophage toll-like receptor 4 deficiency on macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and the artery wall in mice.
Coenen K R,Gruen M L,Lee-Young R S,Puglisi M J,Wasserman D H,Hasty A H
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor for saturated fatty acids (SFAs), global deficiency of which has been shown to protect against inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Because macrophages express Tlr4 and are important in insulin resistance and atherosclerotic lesion formation due to their infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the artery wall, respectively, we hypothesised that deficiency of macrophage TLR4 could protect against these disorders. METHODS:Bone marrow transplantation of agouti, LDL-receptor deficient (A(y)/a; Ldlr (-/-)) mice with marrow from either C57BL/6 or Tlr4 (-/-) mice was performed. Recipient mice with Tlr4 (+/+) marrow (MthetaTLR4(+/+)) or with Tlr4 (-/-) marrow (MthetaTLR4(-/-)) were then placed on one of four diets: (1) low fat; (2) high fat; (3) high fat rich in SFAs (HF(SFA)); and (4) HF(SFA) supplemented with fish oil. RESULTS:There were no differences in body composition or plasma lipids between MthetaTLR4(+/+) and MthetaTLR4(-/-) mice on any of the diets. However, we observed a decrease in some macrophage and inflammatory markers in WAT of female low fat-fed MthetaTLR4(-/-) mice compared with MthetaTLR4(+/+) mice. MthetaTLR4(-/-) mice fed low-fat diet also displayed decreased atherosclerotic lesion area. There were no differences in macrophage accrual in WAT or atherosclerosis between MthetaTLR4(+/+) and MthetaTLR4(-/-) mice fed any of the high-fat diets. Finally, no difference was seen in insulin sensitivity between MthetaTLR4(+/+) and MthetaTLR4(-/-) mice fed the HF(SFA) diet. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:These data suggest that under certain dietary conditions, macrophage expression of Tlr4 can be an important mediator of macrophage accumulation in WAT and the artery wall.
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerosis.
Kipari Tiina,Hadoke Patrick W F,Iqbal Javaid,Man Tak-Yung,Miller Eileen,Coutinho Agnes E,Zhang Zhenguang,Sullivan Katie M,Mitic Tijana,Livingstone Dawn E W,Schrecker Christopher,Samuel Kay,White Christopher I,Bouhlel M Amine,Chinetti-Gbaguidi Giulia,Staels Bart,Andrew Ruth,Walker Brian R,Savill John S,Chapman Karen E,Seckl Jonathan R
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11β-HSD1) converts inert cortisone into active cortisol, amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid action. 11β-HSD1 deficiency improves cardiovascular risk factors in obesity but exacerbates acute inflammation. To determine the effects of 11β-HSD1 deficiency on atherosclerosis and its inflammation, atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice were treated with a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor or crossed with 11β-HSD1-KO mice to generate double knockouts (DKOs) and challenged with an atherogenic Western diet. 11β-HSD1 inhibition or deficiency attenuated atherosclerosis (74-76%) without deleterious effects on plaque structure. This occurred without affecting plasma lipids or glucose, suggesting independence from classical metabolic risk factors. KO plaques were not more inflamed and indeed had 36% less T-cell infiltration, associated with 38% reduced circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and 36% lower lesional vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Bone marrow (BM) cells are key to the atheroprotection, since transplantation of DKO BM to irradiated ApoE-KO mice reduced atherosclerosis by 51%. 11β-HSD1-null macrophages show 76% enhanced cholesterol ester export. Thus, 11β-HSD1 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis without exaggerated lesional inflammation independent of metabolic risk factors. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors promise novel antiatherosclerosis effects over and above their benefits for metabolic risk factors via effects on BM cells, plausibly macrophages.
The adipokine Retnla modulates cholesterol homeostasis in hyperlipidemic mice.
Lee Mi-Ran,Lim Chae-ji,Lee You-Han,Park Jong-Gil,Sonn Seong Keun,Lee Mi-Ni,Jung In-Hyuk,Jeong Se-Jin,Jeon Sejin,Lee Myoungsook,Oh Ki Sook,Yang Young,Kim Jae Bum,Choi Hueng-Sik,Jeong Woojin,Jeong Tae-Sook,Yoon Won Kee,Kim Hyoung Chin,Choi Jae-Hoon,Oh Goo Taeg
Hyperlipidemia is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and can be regulated by adipokines. Expression of the adipokine resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla) is regulated by food intake; whether Retnla has a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is unknown. Here we report that Retnla has a cholesterol-lowering effect and protects against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. On a high-fat diet, Retnla deficiency promotes hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, whereas Retnla overexpression reverses these effects and improves the serum lipoprotein profile, with decreased cholesterol in the very low-density lipoprotein fraction concomitant with reduced serum apolipoprotein B levels. We show that Retnla upregulates cholesterol-7-α-hydroxylase, a key hepatic enzyme in the cholesterol catabolic pathway, through induction of its transcriptional activator liver receptor homologue-1, leading to increased excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids. These findings define Retnla as a novel therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis.
Deficiency of adipose differentiation-related protein impairs foam cell formation and protects against atherosclerosis.
Paul Antoni,Chang Benny Hung-Junn,Li Lan,Yechoor Vijay K,Chan Lawrence
Foam cells are a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether foam cell formation per se protects against atherosclerosis or fuels it. In this study, we investigated the role of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP), a major lipid droplet protein (LDP), in the regulation of foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. We show that ADFP expression facilitates foam cell formation induced by modified lipoproteins in mouse macrophages in vitro. We show further that Adfp gene inactivation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice reduces the number of lipid droplets in foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions and protects the mice against atherosclerosis. Moreover, transplantation of ADFP-null bone marrow-derived cells effectively attenuated atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Deficiency of ADFP did not cause a detectable compensatory increase in the other PAT domain proteins in macrophages in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistically, ADFP enables the macrophage to maintain its lipid content by hindering lipid efflux. We detected no significant difference in lesion composition or in multiple parameters of inflammation in macrophages or in their phagocytic activity between mice with and without ADFP. In conclusion, Adfp inactivation in ApoE(-/-) background protects against atherosclerosis and appears to be a relatively pure model of impaired foam cell formation.
The effect of dietary cholesterol on macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: implications for systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis.
Subramanian Savitha,Chait Alan
Current opinion in lipidology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:It is well recognized that adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation and local inflammation. This review summarizes current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol on adipose tissue macrophage accrual, systemic inflammation and its potential link to atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS:Based upon epidemiological data and animal studies, both obesity and dietary cholesterol have been associated with coronary artery disease. However, the effect of dietary cholesterol on adipose tissue has not been widely studied. In an animal model of obesity/metabolic syndrome, feeding a diabetogenic diet high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrate with 0.15% cholesterol added resulted in increased adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, local inflammation and chronic systemic inflammation compared to animals that received the same diet without added cholesterol. There also was an increased macrophage content of atherosclerotic lesions observed in the added cholesterol group. SUMMARY:Mechanisms involved in adipose tissue macrophage accrual continue to be elusive. There are limited data that dietary cholesterol may worsen macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and the artery wall. Cytokines produced by inflamed adipose tissue may lead to inflammatory changes in the liver, which could then play a role in atherogenesis.
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.
Shen Li,Peng Hongchun,Peng Ran,Fan Qingsong,Zhao Shuiping,Xu Danyan,Morisseau Christophe,Chiamvimonvat Nipavan,Hammock Bruce D
Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Adipose tissue deficiency results in severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.
Wang Mengyu,Gao Mingming,Liao Jiawei,Qi Yanfei,Du Ximing,Wang Yuhui,Li Ling,Liu George,Yang Hongyuan
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Adipose tissue can store over 50% of whole-body cholesterol; however, the physiological role of adipose tissue in cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis has not been directly assessed. Here, we examined lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis in a unique mouse model of severe lipodystrophy: the Seipin(-/-) mice, and also in mice deficient in both low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) and Seipin: the Ldlr(-/-)Seipin(-/-) mice. Plasma cholesterol was moderately increased in the Seipin(-/-) mice when fed an atherogenic diet. Strikingly, plasma cholesterol reached ~6000 mg/dl in the Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet, as compared to ~1000 mg/dl in the Ldlr(-/-) mice on the same diet. The Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice also developed spontaneous atherosclerosis on chow diet and severe atherosclerosis on an atherogenic diet. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the hypercholesterolemia of the Seipin(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice, and also alleviated the severity of atherosclerosis. Our results provide direct evidence, for the first time, that the adipose tissue plays a critical role in the clearance of plasma cholesterol. Our results also reveal a previously unappreciated strong link between adipose tissue and LDLR in plasma cholesterol metabolism.
Activation of CXCR7 limits atherosclerosis and improves hyperlipidemia by increasing cholesterol uptake in adipose tissue.
Li Xiaofeng,Zhu Mengyu,Penfold Mark E,Koenen Rory R,Thiemann Anna,Heyll Kathrin,Akhtar Shamima,Koyadan Seena,Wu Zhuojun,Gremse Felix,Kiessling Fabian,van Zandvoort Marc,Schall Thomas J,Weber Christian,Schober Andreas
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 in atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. CXCR7 is the alternative receptor of CXCL12, which regulates stem cell-mediated vascular repair and limits atherosclerosis via its receptor, CXCR4. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wire-induced injury of the carotid artery was performed in mice with a ubiquitous, conditional deletion of CXCR7 and in mice treated with the synthetic CXCR7 ligand CCX771. The effect of CCX771 treatment on atherosclerosis was studied in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Lipoprotein fractions were quantified in the plasma of Apoe(-/-) mice by fast protein liquid chromatography. Uptake of DiI-labeled very low-density lipoprotein to adipose tissue was determined by 2-photon microscopy. We show that genetic deficiency of Cxcr7 increased neointima formation and lesional macrophage accumulation in hyperlipidemic mice after vascular injury. This was related to increased serum cholesterol levels and subsequent hyperlipidemia-induced monocytosis. Conversely, administration of the CXCR7 ligand CCX771 to Apoe(-/-) mice inhibited lesion formation and ameliorated hyperlipidemia after vascular injury and during atherosclerosis. Treatment with CCX771 reduced circulating very low-density lipoprotein levels but not low-density lipoprotein or high-density lipoprotein levels and increased uptake of very low-density lipoprotein into Cxcr7-expressing white adipose tissue. This effect of CCX771 was associated with an enhanced lipase activity and reduced expression of Angptl4 in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS:CXCR7 regulates blood cholesterol by promoting its uptake in adipose tissue. This unexpected cholesterol-lowering effect of CXCR7 is beneficial for atherosclerotic vascular diseases, presumably via amelioration of hyperlipidemia-induced monocytosis, and can be augmented with a synthetic CXCR7 ligand.
Dietary cholesterol effects on adipose tissue inflammation.
Chung Soonkyu,Parks John S
Current opinion in lipidology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Adipose tissue is a critical endocrine and immunological organ that regulates systemic energy homeostasis. During the pathogenesis of obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy is accompanied by adipose tissue inflammation, impeding insulin sensitivity and endocrine function of adipose tissue and other tissues. Adipocyte cholesterol accumulates in proportion to triglyceride as adipocytes undergo hypertrophy. Recent studies suggest that dietary cholesterol contributes to increased adipocyte cholesterol. However, how dietary cholesterol accumulates in adipocytes and its metabolic consequences are poorly understood. This review summarizes recent advances in knowledge of adipocyte cholesterol balance and highlights the emerging role of dietary cholesterol in adipose tissue cholesterol balance, inflammation, and systemic energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS:Perturbation of cholesterol balance in adipocytes alters intracellular cholesterol distribution and modulates adipocyte insulin and proinflammatory signaling. Adipocyte cholesterol levels are maintained by a balance between dietary cholesterol uptake from triglyceride-enriched lipoproteins and cellular cholesterol efflux to HDL. Recent animal studies established a critical role for dietary cholesterol in promoting adipose tissue inflammation, thereby worsening obesity-mediated metabolic complications. SUMMARY:Recent studies identified high dietary cholesterol as a potentiator of adipose tissue inflammation and dysfunction. Reducing excessive dietary cholesterol intake is suggested as a simple, but novel, way to attenuate obesity-associated metabolic diseases.
Aortic cholesterol accumulation correlates with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue inflammation in low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice.
Wang Shu,Miller Bradley,Matthan Nirupa R,Goktas Zeynep,Wu Dayong,Reed Debra B,Yin Xiangling,Grammas Paula,Moustaid-Moussa Naima,Shen Chwan-Li,Lichtenstein Alice H
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
Inflammation is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerotic plaque, yet the involvement of liver and visceral adipose tissue inflammatory status in atherosclerotic lesion development has yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that an atherogenic diet would increase inflammatory response and lipid accumulation in the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) and would correlate with systemic inflammation and aortic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor null (LDLr-/-) mice. For 32 weeks, LDLr-/- mice (n = 10/group) were fed either an atherogenic (high saturated fat and cholesterol) or control (low fat and cholesterol) diet. Hepatic and GAT lipid content and expression of inflammatory factors were measured using standard procedures. Compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC), primarily esterified cholesterol, and GAT triglyceride content. These changes were accompanied by increased expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, CD36, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 and scavenger receptor B class 1, and they decreased the expression of cytochrome P450, family 7 and subfamily a, polypeptide 1 in GAT. Aortic TC content was positively associated with hepatic TC, triglyceride, and GAT triglyceride contents as well as plasma interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations. Although when compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor α production, they were not associated with aortic TC content. These data suggest that the LDLr-/- mice responded to the atherogenic diet by increasing lipid accumulation in the liver and GAT, which may have increased inflammatory response. Aortic TC content was positively associated with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and GAT inflammatory status.
Sex-dependent difference in the relationship between adipose-tissue cholesterol efflux and estradiol concentrations in young healthy humans.
Iqbal Fatima,Durham William J,Melhem Ayyash,Raslan Saleem,Tran Tony T,Wright Traver J,Asghar Rabia,Fujise Ken,Volpi Elena,Sidossis Labros,Abate Nicola,Sheffield-Moore Melinda,Tuvdendorj Demidmaa
International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
BACKGROUND:Impaired adipose tissue function and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been implicated in the development of vascular dementia, and metabolic diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, both the substrate fluxes in adipose tissue and HDL-C concentration differ between men and women. Moreover, adipose tissue cholesterol efflux has been implicated in modulation of HDL-C levels. Thus, we aimed to determine if the association between serum estradiol levels and adipose tissue cholesterol efflux is sex-dependent. METHOD:We evaluated the serum estradiol levels and adipose tissue cholesterol efflux in young healthy men (n=5) and women (n=3). Adipose tissue cholesterol efflux was determined using subcutaneous microdialysis probes. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between the parameters, p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS:Our data demonstrated that serum estradiol levels directly associated with adipose tissue cholesterol efflux; however, the relationships may be sex-dependent. We discussed our results in the context of currently available data regarding sex-dependent variability in adipose tissue function and HDL-C metabolism as a potential contributor to higher rates of vascular dementia in men. Further research is required to understand the sex-dependent and -independent variabilities in adipose tissue metabolism to determine novel targets for interventions to prevent the development of vascular dementia.
COX-2 protects against atherosclerosis independently of local vascular prostacyclin: identification of COX-2 associated pathways implicate Rgl1 and lymphocyte networks.
Kirkby Nicholas S,Lundberg Martina H,Wright William R,Warner Timothy D,Paul-Clark Mark J,Mitchell Jane A
Cyxlo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, including traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with increased cardiovascular side effects, including myocardial infarction. We and others have shown that COX-1 and not COX-2 drives vascular prostacyclin in the healthy cardiovascular system, re-opening the question of how COX-2 might regulate cardiovascular health. In diseased, atherosclerotic vessels, the relative contribution of COX-2 to prostacyclin formation is not clear. Here we have used apoE(-/-)/COX-2(-/-) mice to show that, whilst COX-2 profoundly limits atherosclerosis, this protection is independent of local prostacyclin release. These data further illustrate the need to look for new explanations, targets and pathways to define the COX/NSAID/cardiovascular risk axis. Gene expression profiles in tissues from apoE(-/-)/COX-2(-/-) mice showed increased lymphocyte pathways that were validated by showing increased T-lymphocytes in plaques and elevated plasma Th1-type cytokines. In addition, we identified a novel target gene, rgl1, whose expression was strongly reduced by COX-2 deletion across all examined tissues. This study is the first to demonstrate that COX-2 protects vessels against atherosclerotic lesions independently of local vascular prostacyclin and uses systems biology approaches to identify new mechanisms relevant to development of next generation NSAIDs.
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Nonfoamy Rather Than Foamy Plaque Macrophages Are Proinflammatory in Atherosclerotic Murine Models.
Kim Kyeongdae,Shim Dahee,Lee Jun Seong,Zaitsev Konstantin,Williams Jesse W,Kim Ki-Wook,Jang Man-Young,Seok Jang Hyung,Yun Tae Jin,Lee Seung Hyun,Yoon Won Kee,Prat Annik,Seidah Nabil G,Choi Jungsoon,Lee Seung-Pyo,Yoon Sang-Ho,Nam Jin Wu,Seong Je Kyung,Oh Goo Taeg,Randolph Gwendalyn J,Artyomov Maxim N,Cheong Cheolho,Choi Jae-Hoon
RATIONALE:Monocyte infiltration into the subintimal space and its intracellular lipid accumulation are the most prominent features of atherosclerosis. To understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic disease, we need to understand the characteristics of lipid-laden foamy macrophages in the subintimal space during atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine the transcriptomic profiles of foamy and nonfoamy macrophages isolated from atherosclerotic intima. METHODS AND RESULTS:Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of CD45 leukocytes from murine atherosclerotic aorta revealed that there are macrophage subpopulations with distinct differentially expressed genes involved in various functional pathways. To specifically characterize the intimal foamy macrophages of plaque, we developed a lipid staining-based flow cytometric method for analyzing the lipid-laden foam cells of atherosclerotic aortas. We used the fluorescent lipid probe BODIPY493/503 and assessed side-scattered light as an indication of cellular granularity. BODIPYSSC foamy macrophages were found residing in intima and expressing CD11c. Foamy macrophage accumulation determined by flow cytometry was positively correlated with the severity of atherosclerosis. Bulk RNA sequencing analysis showed that compared with nonfoamy macrophages, foamy macrophages expressed few inflammatory genes but many lipid-processing genes. Intimal nonfoamy macrophages formed the major population expressing IL (interleukin)-1β and many other inflammatory transcripts in atherosclerotic aorta. CONCLUSIONS:RNA sequencing analysis of intimal macrophages from atherosclerotic aorta revealed that lipid-loaded plaque macrophages are not likely the plaque macrophages that drive lesional inflammation.
A vascular biology network model focused on inflammatory processes to investigate atherogenesis and plaque instability.
De León Héctor,Boué Stéphanie,Schlage Walter K,Boukharov Natalia,Westra Jurjen W,Gebel Stephan,VanHooser Aaron,Talikka Marja,Fields R Brett,Veljkovic Emilija,Peck Michael J,Mathis Carole,Hoang Vy,Poussin Carine,Deehan Renee,Stolle Katrin,Hoeng Julia,Peitsch Manuel C
Journal of translational medicine
BACKGROUND:Numerous inflammation-related pathways have been shown to play important roles in atherogenesis. Rapid and efficient assessment of the relative influence of each of those pathways is a challenge in the era of "omics" data generation. The aim of the present work was to develop a network model of inflammation-related molecular pathways underlying vascular disease to assess the degree of translatability of preclinical molecular data to the human clinical setting. METHODS:We constructed and evaluated the Vascular Inflammatory Processes Network (V-IPN), a model representing a collection of vascular processes modulated by inflammatory stimuli that lead to the development of atherosclerosis. RESULTS:Utilizing the V-IPN as a platform for biological discovery, we have identified key vascular processes and mechanisms captured by gene expression profiling data from four independent datasets from human endothelial cells (ECs) and human and murine intact vessels. Primary ECs in culture from multiple donors revealed a richer mapping of mechanisms identified by the V-IPN compared to an immortalized EC line. Furthermore, an evaluation of gene expression datasets from aortas of old ApoE-/- mice (78 weeks) and human coronary arteries with advanced atherosclerotic lesions identified significant commonalities in the two species, as well as several mechanisms specific to human arteries that are consistent with the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. CONCLUSIONS:We have generated a new biological network model of atherogenic processes that demonstrates the power of network analysis to advance integrative, systems biology-based knowledge of cross-species translatability, plaque development and potential mechanisms leading to plaque instability.
Disease-relevant transcriptional signatures identified in individual smooth muscle cells from healthy mouse vessels.
Dobnikar Lina,Taylor Annabel L,Chappell Joel,Oldach Phoebe,Harman Jennifer L,Oerton Erin,Dzierzak Elaine,Bennett Martin R,Spivakov Mikhail,Jørgensen Helle F
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show pronounced heterogeneity across and within vascular beds, with direct implications for their function in injury response and atherosclerosis. Here we combine single-cell transcriptomics with lineage tracing to examine VSMC heterogeneity in healthy mouse vessels. The transcriptional profiles of single VSMCs consistently reflect their region-specific developmental history and show heterogeneous expression of vascular disease-associated genes involved in inflammation, adhesion and migration. We detect a rare population of VSMC-lineage cells that express the multipotent progenitor marker Sca1, progressively downregulate contractile VSMC genes and upregulate genes associated with VSMC response to inflammation and growth factors. We find that Sca1 upregulation is a hallmark of VSMCs undergoing phenotypic switching in vitro and in vivo, and reveal an equivalent population of Sca1-positive VSMC-lineage cells in atherosclerotic plaques. Together, our analyses identify disease-relevant transcriptional signatures in VSMC-lineage cells in healthy blood vessels, with implications for disease susceptibility, diagnosis and prevention.