Combretastatin A4 Nanoparticles Combined with Hypoxia-Sensitive Imiquimod: A New Paradigm for the Modulation of Host Immunological Responses during Cancer Treatment. Shen Na,Wu Jing,Yang Chenguang,Yu Haiyang,Yang Shengcai,Li Tete,Chen Jingtao,Tang Zhaohui,Chen Xuesi Nano letters Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) have great potential in cancer treatment. However, in addition to their direct tumoral vascular collapse effect, VDAs activate host immunological responses, which can remarkably impair their anticancer efficacy. Here, a VDA nanomedicine, poly(l-glutamic acid)--methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/combretastatin A4 (CA4-NPs), is found to induce the intratumor infiltration of immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), thereby curtailing anticancer immunity. To overcome this problem, hypoxia-sensitive imiquimod (hs-IMQ) is developed, which is selectively activated into imiquimod (IMQ) in treated tumors following the catalysis of CA4-NPs-induced nitroreductase (NTR). The combination of hs-IMQ and CA4-NPs causes a 6.3-fold enhancement of active IMQ concentration in tumors, as compared to hs-IMQ treatment alone. The -generated IMQ alters the tumor microenvironment from a state of immunosuppression to immune activation. Hs-IMQ achieves this effect through the conversion of immature pDCs into their active form, leading to the robust infiltration and priming of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in treated tumors. Thus, the CA4-NPs and hs-IMQ combination treatment synergistically inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. This work offers new approaches to harness intratumor pDCs to reverse the immune suppression resulting from VDA treatment. These findings additionally provide a mechanistic rationale for the use of VDAs in combination with TLR agonists to trigger immune activation and enhance anticancer efficacy. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03214
    Targeted Codelivery of an Antigen and Dual Agonists by Hybrid Nanoparticles for Enhanced Cancer Immunotherapy. Zhang Linhua,Wu Shengjie,Qin Yu,Fan Fan,Zhang Zhiming,Huang Chenlu,Ji Weihang,Lu Lu,Wang Chun,Sun Hongfan,Leng Xigang,Kong Deling,Zhu Dunwan Nano letters Among approaches of current cancer immunotherapy, a dendritic cell (DC)-targeted vaccine based on nanotechnology could be a promising way to efficiently induce potent immune responses. To enhance DC targeting and vaccine efficiency, we included imiquimod (IMQ), a toll-like receptor 7/8 (TLR 7/8) agonist, and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 agonist, to synthesize lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using PCL-PEG-PCL and DOTAP (IMNPs) as well as DSPE-PEG-mannose (MAN-IMNPS). The spatiotemporal delivery of MPLA (within the outer lipid layer) to extracellular TLR4 and IMQ (in the hydrophobic core of NPs) to intracellular TLR7/8 can activate DCs synergistically to improve vaccine efficacy. Ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen was readily absorbed by positively charged DOTAP and showed a quick release . Our results demonstrated that this novel nanovaccine enhanced cellular uptake, cytokine production, and maturation of DCs. Compared with the quick metabolism of free OVA-agonists, the depot effect of OVA-IMNPs was observed, whereas MAN-OVA-IMNPs promoted trafficking to secondary lymphoid organs. After immunization with a subcutaneous injection, the nanovaccine, especially MAN-OVA-IMNPs, induced more antigen-specific CD8 T cells, greater lymphocyte activation, stronger cross-presentation, and more generation of memory T cells, antibody, IFN-γ, and granzyme B. Prophylactic vaccination of MAN-OVA-IMNPs significantly delayed tumor development and prolonged the survival in mice. The therapeutic tumor challenge indicated that MAN-OVA-IMNPs prohibited tumor progression more efficiently than other formulations, and the combination with an immune checkpoint blockade further enhanced antitumor effects. Hence, the DC-targeted vaccine codelivery with IMQ and MPLA adjuvants by hybrid cationic nanoparticles in a spatiotemporal manner is a promising multifunctional antigen delivery system in cancer immunotherapy. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00030
    Antibody-mediated delivery of viral epitopes to tumors harnesses CMV-specific T cells for cancer therapy. Millar David G,Ramjiawan Rakesh R,Kawaguchi Kosuke,Gupta Nisha,Chen Jiang,Zhang Songfa,Nojiri Takashi,Ho William W,Aoki Shuichi,Jung Keehoon,Chen Ivy,Shi Feng,Heather James M,Shigeta Kohei,Morton Laura T,Sepulveda Sean,Wan Li,Joseph Ricky,Minogue Eleanor,Khatri Ashok,Bardia Aditya,Ellisen Leif W,Corcoran Ryan B,Hata Aaron N,Pai Sara I,Jain Rakesh K,Fukumura Dai,Duda Dan G,Cobbold Mark Nature biotechnology Several cancer immunotherapy approaches, such as immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy, boost T-cell activity against the tumor, but these strategies are not effective in the absence of T cells specific for displayed tumor antigens. Here we outline an immunotherapy in which endogenous T cells specific for a noncancer antigen are retargeted to attack tumors. The approach relies on the use of antibody-peptide epitope conjugates (APECs) to deliver suitable antigens to the tumor surface for presention by HLA-I. To retarget cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8 T cells against tumors, we used APECs containing CMV-derived epitopes conjugated to tumor-targeting antibodies via metalloprotease-sensitive linkers. These APECs redirect pre-existing CMV immunity against tumor cells in vitro and in mouse cancer models. In vitro, APECs activated specifically CMV-reactive effector T cells whereas a bispecific T-cell engager activated both effector and regulatory T cells. Our approach may provide an effective alternative in cancers that are not amenable to checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies. 10.1038/s41587-019-0404-8
    In Situ Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Effective Cancer Immunotherapy. Yang Weijing,Zhu Guizhi,Wang Sheng,Yu Guocan,Yang Zhen,Lin Lisen,Zhou Zijian,Liu Yijing,Dai Yunlu,Zhang Fuwu,Shen Zheyu,Liu Yuan,He Zhimei,Lau Joseph,Niu Gang,Kiesewetter Dale O,Hu Shuo,Chen Xiaoyuan ACS nano A cancer vaccine is an important form of immunotherapy. Given their effectiveness for antigen processing and presentation, dendritic cells (DCs) have been exploited in the development of a therapeutic vaccine. Herein, a versatile polymersomal nanoformulation that enables generation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and simultaneously serves as adjuvant for an in situ DC vaccine is reported. The chimeric cross-linked polymersome (CCPS) is acquired from self-assembly of a triblock copolymer, polyethylene glycol-poly(methyl methyacrylate- co-2-amino ethyl methacrylate (thiol/amine))-poly 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PEG-P(MMA- co-AEMA (SH/NH)-PDMA). CCPS can encapsulate low-dose doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) and 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH), a photosensitizer to facilitate photodynamic therapy (PDT) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This combination is able to enhance the population of TAAs and DC recruitment, eliciting an immune response cascade. In addition, CCPS with primary and tertiary amines act as adjuvant, both of which can stimulate DCs recruited to form an in situ DC vaccine after combination with TAAs for MC38 colorectal cancer treatment. In vivo results indicate that the all-in-one polymersomal nanoformulation (CCPS/HPPH/DOX) increases mature DCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs) and CD8 T cells in tumor tissues to inhibit primary and distant MC38 tumor growth following a single intravenous injection with a low dose of DOX and HPPH. 10.1021/acsnano.8b08346
    An anti-glypican 3/CD3 bispecific T cell-redirecting antibody for treatment of solid tumors. Ishiguro Takahiro,Sano Yuji,Komatsu Shun-Ichiro,Kamata-Sakurai Mika,Kaneko Akihisa,Kinoshita Yasuko,Shiraiwa Hirotake,Azuma Yumiko,Tsunenari Toshiaki,Kayukawa Yoko,Sonobe Yukiko,Ono Natsuki,Sakata Kiyoaki,Fujii Toshihiko,Miyazaki Yoko,Noguchi Mizuho,Endo Mika,Harada Asako,Frings Werner,Fujii Etsuko,Nanba Eitaro,Narita Atsushi,Sakamoto Akihisa,Wakabayashi Tetsuya,Konishi Hiroko,Segawa Hiroaki,Igawa Tomoyuki,Tsushima Takashi,Mutoh Hironori,Nishito Yukari,Takahashi Mina,Stewart Lorraine,ElGabry Ehab,Kawabe Yoshiki,Ishigai Masaki,Chiba Shuichi,Aoki Masahiro,Hattori Kunihiro,Nezu Junichi Science translational medicine Cancer care is being revolutionized by immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cell transfer, and cell vaccines. The bispecific T cell-redirecting antibody (TRAB) is one such promising immunotherapy, which can redirect T cells to tumor cells by engaging CD3 on a T cell and an antigen on a tumor cell. Because T cells can be redirected to tumor cells regardless of the specificity of T cell receptors, TRAB is considered efficacious for less immunogenic tumors lacking enough neoantigens. Its clinical efficacy has been exemplified by blinatumomab, a bispecific T cell engager targeting CD19 and CD3, which has shown marked clinical responses against hematological malignancies. However, the success of TRAB in solid tumors has been hampered by the lack of a target molecule with sufficient tumor selectivity to avoid "on-target off-tumor" toxicity. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a highly tumor-specific antigen that is expressed during fetal development but is strictly suppressed in normal adult tissues. We developed ERY974, a whole humanized immunoglobulin G-structured TRAB harboring a common light chain, which bispecifically binds to GPC3 and CD3. Using a mouse model with reconstituted human immune cells, we revealed that ERY974 is highly effective in killing various types of tumors that have GPC3 expression comparable to that in clinical tumors. ERY974 also induced a robust antitumor efficacy even against tumors with nonimmunogenic features, which are difficult to treat by inhibiting immune checkpoints such as PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4). Immune monitoring revealed that ERY974 converted the poorly inflamed tumor microenvironment to a highly inflamed microenvironment. Toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys showed transient cytokine elevation, but this was manageable and reversible. No organ toxicity was evident. These data provide a rationale for clinical testing of ERY974 for the treatment of patients with GPC3-positive solid tumors. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal4291
    An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma. Ott Patrick A,Hu Zhuting,Keskin Derin B,Shukla Sachet A,Sun Jing,Bozym David J,Zhang Wandi,Luoma Adrienne,Giobbie-Hurder Anita,Peter Lauren,Chen Christina,Olive Oriol,Carter Todd A,Li Shuqiang,Lieb David J,Eisenhaure Thomas,Gjini Evisa,Stevens Jonathan,Lane William J,Javeri Indu,Nellaiappan Kaliappanadar,Salazar Andres M,Daley Heather,Seaman Michael,Buchbinder Elizabeth I,Yoon Charles H,Harden Maegan,Lennon Niall,Gabriel Stacey,Rodig Scott J,Barouch Dan H,Aster Jon C,Getz Gad,Wucherpfennig Kai,Neuberg Donna,Ritz Jerome,Lander Eric S,Fritsch Edward F,Hacohen Nir,Wu Catherine J Nature Effective anti-tumour immunity in humans has been associated with the presence of T cells directed at cancer neoantigens, a class of HLA-bound peptides that arise from tumour-specific mutations. They are highly immunogenic because they are not present in normal tissues and hence bypass central thymic tolerance. Although neoantigens were long-envisioned as optimal targets for an anti-tumour immune response, their systematic discovery and evaluation only became feasible with the recent availability of massively parallel sequencing for detection of all coding mutations within tumours, and of machine learning approaches to reliably predict those mutated peptides with high-affinity binding of autologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. We hypothesized that vaccination with neoantigens can both expand pre-existing neoantigen-specific T-cell populations and induce a broader repertoire of new T-cell specificities in cancer patients, tipping the intra-tumoural balance in favour of enhanced tumour control. Here we demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity of a vaccine that targets up to 20 predicted personal tumour neoantigens. Vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells targeted 58 (60%) and 15 (16%) of the 97 unique neoantigens used across patients, respectively. These T cells discriminated mutated from wild-type antigens, and in some cases directly recognized autologous tumour. Of six vaccinated patients, four had no recurrence at 25 months after vaccination, while two with recurrent disease were subsequently treated with anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed cell death-1) therapy and experienced complete tumour regression, with expansion of the repertoire of neoantigen-specific T cells. These data provide a strong rationale for further development of this approach, alone and in combination with checkpoint blockade or other immunotherapies. 10.1038/nature22991
    Dendritic cell vaccines based on immunogenic cell death elicit danger signals and T cell-driven rejection of high-grade glioma. Garg Abhishek D,Vandenberk Lien,Koks Carolien,Verschuere Tina,Boon Louis,Van Gool Stefaan W,Agostinis Patrizia Science translational medicine The promise of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has been established by two decades of translational research. Of the four malignancies most targeted with clinical DC immunotherapy, high-grade glioma (HGG) has shown the highest susceptibility. HGG-induced immunosuppression is a roadblock to immunotherapy, but may be overcome by the application of T helper 1 (T(H)1) immunity-biased, next-generation, DC immunotherapy. To this end, we combined DC immunotherapy with immunogenic cell death (ICD; a modality shown to induce T(H)1 immunity) induced by hypericin-based photodynamic therapy. In an orthotopic HGG mouse model involving prophylactic/curative setups, both biologically and clinically relevant versions of ICD-based DC vaccines provided strong anti-HGG survival benefit. We found that the ability of DC vaccines to elicit HGG rejection was significantly blunted if cancer cell-associated reactive oxygen species and emanating danger signals were blocked either singly or concomitantly, showing hierarchical effect on immunogenicity, or if DCs, DC-associated MyD88 signal, or the adaptive immune system (especially CD8(+) T cells) were depleted. In a curative setting, ICD-based DC vaccines synergized with standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide) to increase survival of HGG-bearing mice by ~300%, resulting in ~50% long-term survivors. Additionally, DC vaccines also induced an immunostimulatory shift in the brain immune contexture from regulatory T cells to T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells. Analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma cohort confirmed that increased intratumor prevalence of T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells linked genetic signatures was associated with good patient prognosis. Therefore, pending final preclinical checks, ICD-based vaccines can be clinically translated for glioma treatment. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aae0105
    The TLR7 Agonist Imiquimod Triggers Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer Cells. Shieh Jeng-Jer,Huang Shi-Wei Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology 10.1093/annonc/mdx621.031
    Extra-Large Pore Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Enabling Co-Delivery of High Amounts of Protein Antigen and Toll-like Receptor 9 Agonist for Enhanced Cancer Vaccine Efficacy. Cha Bong Geun,Jeong Ji Hoon,Kim Jaeyun ACS central science Cancer vaccine aims to invoke antitumor adaptive immune responses to detect and eliminate tumors. However, the current dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer vaccines have several limitations that are mostly derived from the culture of patient DCs. To circumvent the limitations, direct activation and maturation of host DCs using antigen-carrying materials, without the need for isolation of DCs from patients, are required. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of extra-large pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (XL-MSNs) and their use as a prophylactic cancer vaccine through the delivery of cancer antigen and danger signal to host DCs in the draining lymph nodes. Extra-large pores of approximately 25 nm and additional surface modification of XL-MSNs resulted in significantly higher loading of antigen protein and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist compared with conventional small-pore MSNs. study showed the enhanced activation and antigen presentation of DCs and increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. study demonstrated efficient targeting of XL-MSNs co-delivering antigen and TLR9 agonist to draining lymph nodes, induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and suppression of tumor growth after vaccination. Furthermore, significant prevention of tumor growth after tumor rechallenge of the vaccinated tumor-free mice resulted, which was supported by a high level of memory T cells. These findings suggest that mesoporous silica nanoparticles with extra-large pores can be used as an attractive platform for cancer vaccines. 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00035
    Combination of Plant Virus Nanoparticle-Based in Situ Vaccination with Chemotherapy Potentiates Antitumor Response. Lee Karin L,Murray Abner A,Le Duc H T,Sheen Mee Rie,Shukla Sourabh,Commandeur Ulrich,Fiering Steven,Steinmetz Nicole F Nano letters Immunotherapeutics are gaining more traction in the armamentarium used to combat cancer. Specifically, in situ vaccination strategies have gained interest because of their ability to alter the tumor microenvironment to an antitumor state. Herein, we investigate whether flexuous plant virus-based nanoparticles formed by the potato virus X (PVX) can be used as an immunotherapeutic for in situ vaccine monotherapy. We further developed dual chemo-immunotherapeutics by incorporating doxorubicin (DOX) into PVX yielding a dual-functional nanoparticle (PVX-DOX) or by coadministration of the two therapeutic regimes, PVX immunotherapy and DOX chemotherapy (PVX+DOX). In the context of B16F10 melanoma, PVX was able to elicit delayed tumor progression when administered as an intratumoral in situ vaccine. Furthermore, the coadministration of DOX via PVX+DOX enhanced the response of the PVX monotherapy through increased survival, which was also represented in the enhanced antitumor cytokine/chemokine profile stimulated by PVX+DOX when compared to PVX or DOX alone. Importantly, coadministered PVX+DOX was better for in situ vaccination than PVX loaded with DOX (PVX-DOX). Whereas the nanomedicine field strives to design multifunctional nanoparticles that integrate several functions and therapeutic regimens into a single nanoparticle, our data suggest a paradigm shift; some therapeutics may need to be administered separately to synergize and achieve the most potent therapeutic outcome. Altogether, our studies show that development of plant viral nanoparticles for in situ vaccines for treatment is a possibility, and dual mechanistic therapeutics can increase efficacy. Nonetheless, combining immunotherapeutics with cytolytic chemotherapy requires detailed investigation to inform optimal integration of cytolytic and immunotherapies and maximize synergy and efficacy. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00107
    Enhanced Cancer Vaccination by In Situ Nanomicelle-Generating Dissolving Microneedles. Kim Nak Won,Kim Sun-Young,Lee Jung Eun,Yin Yue,Lee Jong Han,Lim Su Yeon,Kim E Seul,Duong Huu Thuy Trang,Kim Hong Kee,Kim Sohyun,Kim Jung-Eun,Lee Doo Sung,Kim Jaeyoon,Lee Min Sang,Lim Yong Taik,Jeong Ji Hoon ACS nano Efficient delivery of tumor antigens and immunostimulatory adjuvants into lymph nodes is crucial for the maturation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which subsequently induce adaptive antitumor immunity. A dissolving microneedle (MN) has been considered as an attractive method for transcutaneous immunization due to its superior ability to deliver vaccines through the stratum corneum in a minimally invasive manner. However, because dissolving MNs are mostly prepared using water-soluble sugars or polymers for their rapid dissolution in intradermal fluid after administration, they are often difficult to formulate with poorly water-soluble vaccine components. Here, we develop amphiphilic triblock copolymer-based dissolving MNs in situ that generate nanomicelles (NMCs) upon their dissolution after cutaneous application, which facilitate the efficient encapsulation of poorly water-soluble Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist (R848) and the delivery of hydrophilic antigens. The sizes of NMCs range from 30 to 40 nm, which is suitable for the efficient delivery of R848 and antigens to lymph nodes and promotion of cellular uptake by APCs, minimizing systemic exposure of the R848. Application of MNs containing tumor model antigen (OVA) and R848 to the skin of EG7-OVA tumor-bearing mice induced a significant level of antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity, resulting in significant antitumor activity. 10.1021/acsnano.8b04146
    Targeting myeloid cells using nanoparticles to improve cancer immunotherapy. Amoozgar Zohreh,Goldberg Michael S Advanced drug delivery reviews While nanoparticles have traditionally been used to deliver cytotoxic drugs directly to tumors to induce cancer cell death, emerging data suggest that nanoparticles are likely to generate a larger impact on oncology through the delivery of agents that can stimulate antitumor immunity. Tumor-targeted nanocarriers have generally been used to localize chemotherapeutics to tumors and thus decrease off-target toxicity while enhancing efficacy. Challengingly, tumor heterogeneity and evolution render tumor-intrinsic approaches likely to succumb to relapse. The immune system offers exquisite specificity, cytocidal potency, and long-term activity that leverage an adaptive memory response. For this reason, the ability to manipulate immune cell specificity and function would be desirable, and nanoparticles represent an exciting means by which to perform such manipulation. Dendritic cells and tumor-associated macrophages are cells of the myeloid lineage that function as natural phagocytes, so they naturally take up nanoparticles. Dendritic cells direct the specificity and potency of cellular immune responses that can be targeted for cancer vaccines. Herein, we discuss the specific criteria needed for efficient vaccine design, including but not limited to the route of administration, size, morphology, surface charge, targeting ligands, and nanoparticle composition. In contrast, tumor-associated macrophages are critical mediators of immunosuppression whose trans-migratory abilities can be exploited to localize therapeutics to the tumor core and which can be directly targeted for elimination or for repolarization to a tumor suppressive phenotype. It is likely that a combination of targeting dendritic cells to stimulate antitumor immunity and tumor-associated macrophages to reduce immune suppression will impart significant benefits and result in durable antitumor responses. 10.1016/j.addr.2014.09.007
    Immunogenicity study of Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or nonreducing end of the tumor antigen. Lee Hsin-Yu,Chen Chien-Yu,Tsai Tsung-I,Li Shiou-Ting,Lin Kun-Hsien,Cheng Yang-Yu,Ren Chien-Tai,Cheng Ting-Jen R,Wu Chung-Yi,Wong Chi-Huey Journal of the American Chemical Society Globo H-based therapeutic cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of late stage breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. In this study, we explored Globo H analogue antigens with an attempt to enhance the antigenic properties in vaccine design. The Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or nonreducing end were synthesized using chemoenzymatic methods, and these modified Globo H antigens were then conjugated with the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), and combined with a glycolipid C34 as an adjuvant designed to induce a class switch to form the vaccine candidates. After Balb/c mice injection, the immune response was studied by a glycan array and the results showed that modification at the C-6 position of reducing end glucose of Globo H with the fluoro, azido, or phenyl group elicited IgG antibody response to specifically recognize Globo H (GH) and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) (also called Gb5) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4). However, only the modification of Globo H with the azido group at the C-6 position of the nonreducing end fucose could elicit a strong IgG immune response. Moreover, the antibodies induced by these vaccines were shown to recognize GH expressing tumor cells (MCF-7) and mediate the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Our data suggest a new potential approach to cancer vaccine development. 10.1021/ja508040d
    Epitope-optimized alpha-fetoprotein genetic vaccines prevent carcinogen-induced murine autochthonous hepatocellular carcinoma. Hong Yuan,Peng Yibing,Guo Z Sheng,Guevara-Patino Jose,Pang Junfeng,Butterfield Lisa H,Mivechi Nahid F,Munn David H,Bartlett David L,He Yukai Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Immunization with effective cancer vaccines can offer a much needed adjuvant therapy to fill the treatment gap after liver resection to prevent relapse of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, current HCC cancer vaccines are mostly based on native shared-self/tumor antigens that are only able to induce weak immune responses. In this study we investigated whether the HCC-associated self/tumor antigen of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) could be engineered to create an effective vaccine to break immune tolerance and potently activate CD8 T cells to prevent clinically relevant carcinogen-induced autochthonous HCC in mice. We found that the approach of computer-guided methodical epitope-optimization created a highly immunogenic AFP and that immunization with lentivector expressing the epitope-optimized AFP, but not wild-type AFP, potently activated CD8 T cells. Critically, the activated CD8 T cells not only cross-recognized short synthetic wild-type AFP peptides, but also recognized and killed tumor cells expressing wild-type AFP protein. Immunization with lentivector expressing optimized AFP, but not native AFP, completely protected mice from tumor challenge and reduced the incidence of carcinogen-induced autochthonous HCC. In addition, prime-boost immunization with the optimized AFP significantly increased the frequency of AFP-specific memory CD8 T cells in the liver that were highly effective against emerging HCC tumor cells, further enhancing the tumor prevention of carcinogen-induced autochthonous HCC. CONCLUSIONS:Epitope-optimization is required to break immune tolerance and potently activate AFP-specific CD8 T cells, generating effective antitumor effect to prevent clinically relevant carcinogen-induced autochthonous HCC in mice. Our study provides a practical roadmap to develop effective human HCC vaccines that may result in an improved outcome compared to the current HCC vaccines based on wild-type AFP. 10.1002/hep.26893
    A fully synthetic four-component antitumor vaccine consisting of a mucin glycopeptide antigen combined with three different T-helper-cell epitopes. Palitzsch Björn,Hartmann Sebastian,Stergiou Natascha,Glaffig Markus,Schmitt Edgar,Kunz Horst Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) In a new concept of fully synthetic vaccines, the role of T-helper cells is emphasized. Here, a synthetic antitumor vaccine consisting of a diglycosylated tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptide as the B-cell epitope was covalently cross-linked with three different T-helper-cell epitopes via squaric acid ligation of two linear (glyco)peptides. In mice this four-component vaccine administered without external immune-stimulating promoters elicit titers of MUC1-specific antibodies that were about eight times higher than those induced by a vaccine containing only one T-helper-cell epitope. The promising results indicate that multiple activation of different T-helper cells is useful for applications in which increased immunogenicity is required. In personalized medicine, in particular, this flexible construction of a vaccine can serve as a role model, for example, when T-helper-cell epitopes are needed that match human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in different patients. 10.1002/anie.201406843
    Engineering patient-specific cancer immunotherapies. Scheetz Lindsay,Park Kyung Soo,Li Qiao,Lowenstein Pedro R,Castro Maria G,Schwendeman Anna,Moon James J Nature biomedical engineering Research into the immunological processes implicated in cancer has yielded a basis for the range of immunotherapies that are now considered the fourth pillar of cancer treatment (alongside surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). For some aggressive cancers, such as advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, combination immunotherapies have resulted in unprecedented treatment efficacy for responding patients, and have become frontline therapies. Individualized immunotherapy, enabled by the identification of patient-specific mutations, neoantigens and biomarkers, and facilitated by advances in genomics and proteomics, promises to broaden the responder patient population. In this Perspective, we give an overview of immunotherapies leveraging engineering approaches, including the design of biomaterials, delivery strategies and nanotechnology solutions, for the realization of individualized cancer treatments such as nanoparticle vaccines customized with neoantigens, cell therapies based on patient-derived dendritic cells and T cells, and combinations of theranostic strategies. Developments in precision cancer immunotherapy will increasingly rely on the adoption of engineering principles. 10.1038/s41551-019-0436-x
    A facile approach to enhance antigen response for personalized cancer vaccination. Li Aileen Weiwei,Sobral Miguel C,Badrinath Soumya,Choi Youngjin,Graveline Amanda,Stafford Alexander G,Weaver James C,Dellacherie Maxence O,Shih Ting-Yu,Ali Omar A,Kim Jaeyun,Wucherpfennig Kai W,Mooney David J Nature materials Existing strategies to enhance peptide immunogenicity for cancer vaccination generally require direct peptide alteration, which, beyond practical issues, may impact peptide presentation and result in vaccine variability. Here, we report a simple adsorption approach using polyethyleneimine (PEI) in a mesoporous silica microrod (MSR) vaccine to enhance antigen immunogenicity. The MSR-PEI vaccine significantly enhanced host dendritic cell activation and T-cell response over the existing MSR vaccine and bolus vaccine formulations. Impressively, a single injection of the MSR-PEI vaccine using an E7 peptide completely eradicated large, established TC-1 tumours in about 80% of mice and generated immunological memory. When immunized with a pool of B16F10 or CT26 neoantigens, the MSR-PEI vaccine eradicated established lung metastases, controlled tumour growth and synergized with anti-CTLA4 therapy. Our findings from three independent tumour models suggest that the MSR-PEI vaccine approach may serve as a facile and powerful multi-antigen platform to enable robust personalized cancer vaccination. 10.1038/s41563-018-0028-2
    A totally synthetic, self-assembling, adjuvant-free MUC1 glycopeptide vaccine for cancer therapy. Huang Zhi-Hua,Shi Lei,Ma Jing-Wen,Sun Zhan-Yi,Cai Hui,Chen Yong-Xiang,Zhao Yu-Fen,Li Yan-Mei Journal of the American Chemical Society In the development of vaccines for epithelial tumors, the key targets are MUC1 proteins, which have a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) bearing tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), such as Tn and STn. A major obstacle in vaccine development is the low immunogenicity of the short MUC1 peptide. To overcome this obstacle, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated several totally synthetic self-adjuvanting vaccine candidates with self-assembly domains. These vaccine candidates aggregated into fibrils and displayed multivalent B-cell epitopes under mild conditions. Glycosylation of Tn antigen on the Thr residue of PDTRP sequence in MUC1 VNTR led to effective immune response. These vaccines elicited a high level antibody response without any adjuvant and induced antibodies that recognized human breast tumor cells. These vaccines appeared to act through a T-cell independent pathway and were associated with the activation of cytotoxic T cells. These fully synthetic, molecularly defined vaccine candidates had several features that hold promise for anticancer therapy. 10.1021/ja211725s
    Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer. Sahin Ugur,Derhovanessian Evelyna,Miller Matthias,Kloke Björn-Philipp,Simon Petra,Löwer Martin,Bukur Valesca,Tadmor Arbel D,Luxemburger Ulrich,Schrörs Barbara,Omokoko Tana,Vormehr Mathias,Albrecht Christian,Paruzynski Anna,Kuhn Andreas N,Buck Janina,Heesch Sandra,Schreeb Katharina H,Müller Felicitas,Ortseifer Inga,Vogler Isabel,Godehardt Eva,Attig Sebastian,Rae Richard,Breitkreuz Andrea,Tolliver Claudia,Suchan Martin,Martic Goran,Hohberger Alexander,Sorn Patrick,Diekmann Jan,Ciesla Janko,Waksmann Olga,Brück Alexandra-Kemmer,Witt Meike,Zillgen Martina,Rothermel Andree,Kasemann Barbara,Langer David,Bolte Stefanie,Diken Mustafa,Kreiter Sebastian,Nemecek Romina,Gebhardt Christoffer,Grabbe Stephan,Höller Christoph,Utikal Jochen,Huber Christoph,Loquai Carmen,Türeci Özlem Nature T cells directed against mutant neo-epitopes drive cancer immunity. However, spontaneous immune recognition of mutations is inefficient. We recently introduced the concept of individualized mutanome vaccines and implemented an RNA-based poly-neo-epitope approach to mobilize immunity against a spectrum of cancer mutations. Here we report the first-in-human application of this concept in melanoma. We set up a process comprising comprehensive identification of individual mutations, computational prediction of neo-epitopes, and design and manufacturing of a vaccine unique for each patient. All patients developed T cell responses against multiple vaccine neo-epitopes at up to high single-digit percentages. Vaccine-induced T cell infiltration and neo-epitope-specific killing of autologous tumour cells were shown in post-vaccination resected metastases from two patients. The cumulative rate of metastatic events was highly significantly reduced after the start of vaccination, resulting in a sustained progression-free survival. Two of the five patients with metastatic disease experienced vaccine-related objective responses. One of these patients had a late relapse owing to outgrowth of β2-microglobulin-deficient melanoma cells as an acquired resistance mechanism. A third patient developed a complete response to vaccination in combination with PD-1 blockade therapy. Our study demonstrates that individual mutations can be exploited, thereby opening a path to personalized immunotherapy for patients with cancer. 10.1038/nature23003
    The Mevalonate Pathway Is a Druggable Target for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery. Xia Yun,Xie Yonghua,Yu Zhengsen,Xiao Hongying,Jiang Guimei,Zhou Xiaoying,Yang Yunyun,Li Xin,Zhao Meng,Li Liping,Zheng Mingke,Han Shuai,Zong Zhaoyun,Meng Xianbin,Deng Haiteng,Ye Huahu,Fa Yunzhi,Wu Haitao,Oldfield Eric,Hu Xiaoyu,Liu Wanli,Shi Yan,Zhang Yonghui Cell Motivated by the clinical observation that interruption of the mevalonate pathway stimulates immune responses, we hypothesized that this pathway may function as a druggable target for vaccine adjuvant discovery. We found that lipophilic statin drugs and rationally designed bisphosphonates that target three distinct enzymes in the mevalonate pathway have potent adjuvant activities in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. These inhibitors function independently of conventional "danger sensing." Instead, they inhibit the geranylgeranylation of small GTPases, including Rab5 in antigen-presenting cells, resulting in arrested endosomal maturation, prolonged antigen retention, enhanced antigen presentation, and T cell activation. Additionally, inhibiting the mevalonate pathway enhances antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity, inducing both Th1 and cytolytic T cell responses. As demonstrated in multiple mouse cancer models, the mevalonate pathway inhibitors are robust for cancer vaccinations and synergize with anti-PD-1 antibodies. Our research thus defines the mevalonate pathway as a druggable target for vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.070
    Lipid Nanoparticle Assisted mRNA Delivery for Potent Cancer Immunotherapy. Oberli Matthias A,Reichmuth Andreas M,Dorkin J Robert,Mitchell Michael J,Fenton Owen S,Jaklenec Ana,Anderson Daniel G,Langer Robert,Blankschtein Daniel Nano letters The induction of a strong cytotoxic T cell response is an important prerequisite for successful immunotherapy against many viral diseases and tumors. Nucleotide vaccines, including mRNA vaccines with their intracellular antigen synthesis, have been shown to be potent activators of a cytotoxic immune response. The intracellular delivery of mRNA vaccines to the cytosol of antigen presenting immune cells is still not sufficiently well understood. Here, we report on the development of a lipid nanoparticle formulation for the delivery of mRNA vaccines to induce a cytotoxic CD 8 T cell response. We show transfection of dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested in an aggressive B16F10 melanoma model. We found a strong CD 8 T cell activation after a single immunization. Treatment of B16F10 melanoma tumors with lipid nanoparticles containing mRNA coding for the tumor-associated antigens gp100 and TRP2 resulted in tumor shrinkage and extended the overall survival of the treated mice. The immune response can be further increased by the incorporation of the adjuvant LPS. In conclusion, the lipid nanoparticle formulation presented here is a promising vector for mRNA vaccine delivery, one that is capable of inducing a strong cytotoxic T cell response. Further optimization, including the incorporation of different adjuvants, will likely enhance the potency of the vaccine. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03329
    Personalized peptide vaccine-induced immune response associated with long-term survival of a metastatic cholangiocarcinoma patient. Löffler Markus W,Chandran P Anoop,Laske Karoline,Schroeder Christopher,Bonzheim Irina,Walzer Mathias,Hilke Franz J,Trautwein Nico,Kowalewski Daniel J,Schuster Heiko,Günder Marc,Carcamo Yañez Viviana A,Mohr Christopher,Sturm Marc,Nguyen Huu-Phuc,Riess Olaf,Bauer Peter,Nahnsen Sven,Nadalin Silvio,Zieker Derek,Glatzle Jörg,Thiel Karolin,Schneiderhan-Marra Nicole,Clasen Stephan,Bösmüller Hans,Fend Falko,Kohlbacher Oliver,Gouttefangeas Cécile,Stevanović Stefan,Königsrainer Alfred,Rammensee Hans-Georg Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:We report a novel experimental immunotherapeutic approach in a patient with metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In the 5year course of the disease, the initial tumor mass, two local recurrences and a lung metastasis were surgically removed. Lacking alternative treatment options, aiming at the induction of anti-tumor T cells responses, we initiated a personalized multi-peptide vaccination, based on in-depth analysis of tumor antigens (immunopeptidome) and sequencing. METHODS:Tumors were characterized by immunohistochemistry, next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry of HLA ligands. RESULTS:Although several tumor-specific neo-epitopes were predicted in silico, none could be validated by mass spectrometry. Instead, a personalized multi-peptide vaccine containing non-mutated tumor-associated epitopes was designed and applied. Immunomonitoring showed vaccine-induced T cell responses to three out of seven peptides administered. The pulmonary metastasis resected after start of vaccination showed strong immune cell infiltration and perforin positivity, in contrast to the previous lesions. The patient remains clinically healthy, without any radiologically detectable tumors since March 2013 and the vaccination is continued. CONCLUSIONS:This remarkable clinical course encourages formal clinical studies on adjuvant personalized peptide vaccination in cholangiocarcinoma. LAY SUMMARY:Metastatic cholangiocarcinomas, cancers that originate from the liver bile ducts, have very limited treatment options and a fatal prognosis. We describe a novel therapeutic approach in such a patient using a personalized multi-peptide vaccine. This vaccine, developed based on the characterization of the patient's tumor, evoked detectable anti-tumor immune responses, associating with long-term tumor-free survival. 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.06.027
    Cytomembrane nanovaccines show therapeutic effects by mimicking tumor cells and antigen presenting cells. Liu Wen-Long,Zou Mei-Zhen,Liu Tao,Zeng Jin-Yue,Li Xue,Yu Wu-Yang,Li Chu-Xin,Ye Jing-Jie,Song Wen,Feng Jun,Zhang Xian-Zheng Nature communications Most cancer vaccines are unsuccessful in eliciting clinically relevant effects. Without using exogenous antigens and adoptive cells, we show a concept of utilizing biologically reprogrammed cytomembranes of the fused cells (FCs) derived from dendritic cells (DCs) and cancer cells as tumor vaccines. The fusion of immunologically interrelated two types of cells results in strong expression of the whole tumor antigen complexes and the immunological co-stimulatory molecules on cytomembranes (FMs), allowing the nanoparticle-supported FM (NP@FM) to function like antigen presenting cells (APCs) for T cell immunoactivation. Moreover, tumor-antigen bearing NP@FM can be bio-recognized by DCs to induce DC-mediated T cell immunoactivation. The combination of these two immunoactivation pathways offers powerful antitumor immunoresponse. Through mimicking both APCs and cancer cells, this cytomembrane vaccine strategy can develop various vaccines toward multiple tumor types and provide chances for accommodating diverse functions originating from the supporters. 10.1038/s41467-019-11157-1
    Synthetic multivalent glycopeptide-lipopeptide antitumor vaccines: impact of the cluster effect on the killing of tumor cells. Cai Hui,Sun Zhan-Yi,Chen Mei-Sha,Zhao Yu-Fen,Kunz Horst,Li Yan-Mei Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Multivalent synthetic vaccines were obtained by solid-phase synthesis of tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptide antigens and their coupling to a Pam3 Cys lipopeptide through click reactions. These vaccines elicited immune responses in mice without the use of any external adjuvant. The vaccine containing four copies of a MUC1 sialyl-TN antigen showed a significant cluster effect. It induced in mice prevailing IgG2a antibodies, which bind to MCF-7 breast tumor cells and initiate the killing of these tumor cells by activation of the complement-dependent cytotoxicity complex. 10.1002/anie.201308875
    Targeting dendritic cells with nano-particulate PLGA cancer vaccine formulations. Hamdy Samar,Haddadi Azita,Hung Ryan W,Lavasanifar Afsaneh Advanced drug delivery reviews Development of safe and effective cancer vaccine formulation is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The recognition of the crucial role of dendritic cells (DCs) in initiating anti-tumor immunity has led to the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs as an attempt for developing potent, specific and lasting anti-tumor T cell responses. The main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the application of poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) as cancer vaccine delivery system and highlight their potential in the development of future therapeutic cancer vaccines. PLGA-NPs containing antigens along with immunostimulatory molecules (adjuvants) can not only target antigen actively to DCs, but also provide immune activation and rescue impaired DCs from tumor-induced immuosupression. 10.1016/j.addr.2011.05.021
    Nanogel-based immunologically stealth vaccine targets macrophages in the medulla of lymph node and induces potent antitumor immunity. Muraoka Daisuke,Harada Naozumi,Hayashi Tae,Tahara Yoshiro,Momose Fumiyasu,Sawada Shin-ichi,Mukai Sada-atsu,Akiyoshi Kazunari,Shiku Hiroshi ACS nano Because existing therapeutic cancer vaccines provide only a limited clinical benefit, a different vaccination strategy is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy. We developed a nanoparticulate cancer vaccine by encapsulating a synthetic long peptide antigen within an immunologically inert nanoparticulate hydrogel (nanogel) of cholesteryl pullulan (CHP). After subcutaneous injection to mice, the nanogel-based vaccine was efficiently transported to the draining lymph node, and was preferentially engulfed by medullary macrophages but was not sensed by other macrophages and dendritic cells (so-called "immunologically stealth mode"). Although the function of medullary macrophages in T cell immunity has been unexplored so far, these macrophages effectively cross-primed the vaccine-specific CD8(+) T cells in the presence of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist as an adjuvant. The nanogel-based vaccine significantly inhibited in vivo tumor growth in the prophylactic and therapeutic settings, compared to another vaccine formulation using a conventional delivery system, incomplete Freund's adjuvant. We also revealed that lymph node macrophages were highly responsive to TLR stimulation, which may underlie the potency of the macrophage-oriented, nanogel-based vaccine. These results indicate that targeting medullary macrophages using the immunologically stealth nanoparticulate delivery system is an effective vaccine strategy. 10.1021/nn502975r
    Immunogenic Cell Death Amplified by Co-localized Adjuvant Delivery for Cancer Immunotherapy. Fan Yuchen,Kuai Rui,Xu Yao,Ochyl Lukasz J,Irvine Darrell J,Moon James J Nano letters Despite their potential, conventional whole-cell cancer vaccines prepared by freeze-thawing or irradiation have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. Recent studies have indicated that cancer cells treated with certain chemotherapeutics, such as mitoxantrone, can undergo immunogenic cell death (ICD) and initiate antitumor immune responses. However, it remains unclear how to exploit ICD for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we present a new material-based strategy for converting immunogenically dying tumor cells into a powerful platform for cancer vaccination and demonstrate their therapeutic potential in murine models of melanoma and colon carcinoma. We have generated immunogenically dying tumor cells surface-modified with adjuvant-loaded nanoparticles. Dying tumor cells laden with adjuvant nanodepots efficiently promote activation and antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells in vitro and elicit robust antigen-specific CD8α T-cells in vivo. Furthermore, whole tumor-cell vaccination combined with immune checkpoint blockade leads to complete tumor regression in ∼78% of CT26 tumor-bearing mice and establishes long-term immunity against tumor recurrence. Our strategy presented here may open new doors to "personalized" cancer immunotherapy tailored to individual patient's tumor cells. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03218
    Association Between High-Avidity T-Cell Receptors, Induced by α-Fetoprotein-Derived Peptides, and Anti-Tumor Effects in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Nakagawa Hidetoshi,Mizukoshi Eishiro,Kobayashi Eiji,Tamai Toshikatsu,Hamana Hiroshi,Ozawa Tatsuhiko,Kishi Hiroyuki,Kitahara Masaaki,Yamashita Tatsuya,Arai Kuniaki,Terashima Takeshi,Iida Noriho,Fushimi Kazumi,Muraguchi Atsushi,Kaneko Shuichi Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) are measured for surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AFP-derived peptides as an anti-tumor vaccine for patients with advanced HCC, and characterized induction of AFP-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs). METHODS:We performed a prospective study of 15 patients with HCC seen at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan from March 2010 through March 2012. Each patient was given a subcutaneous injection of 3 mg AFP-derived peptides (AFP and AFP) in an emulsion with incomplete Freund's adjuvant every other week for at least 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated every 8 weeks by radiologic imaging; adverse events and toxicities were categorized and graded using the common terminology criteria for adverse events. Criteria for discontinuation included unacceptable toxicities and disease progression defined as progressive disease using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria. Patients' immune responses were monitored using an interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Peptide-specific TCRs were assessed using a rapid TCR cloning and evaluation system. The observation period was 730 days. A complete response was defined as the disappearance of all tumors; stable disease was defined as tumors whose total diameter remained between >70% and <120% of the baseline measurement, without new lesions. RESULTS:We did not observe any serious adverse reactions to the peptides, which were well tolerated. Of the 15 patients who received at least 3 injections, 5 (33%) had an immune response to the peptides. One of the 15 patients had a complete response and disease stabilized in 8 patients. In 4 of the 15 patients, we detected AFP-specific CD8 T cells; we cloned 14 different TCRs with different avidities for the peptide. A TCR with the highest avidity was observed in the patient who achieved a complete response for more than 2 years. CONCLUSIONS:In a phase 1 trial, administration of AFP-derived peptides to 15 patients with HCC did not cause adverse events and produced T cells with receptors that reacted to the peptides; 1 patient had a complete response and tumor growth slowed in 8 patients. T cells from the patient with a complete response expressed a highly functional TCR induced by the peptide vaccines. UMIN-CTR no: UMIN000003514. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.02.001
    Amplified Cancer Immunotherapy of a Surface-Engineered Antigenic Microparticle Vaccine by Synergistically Modulating Tumor Microenvironment. Zhao Hongjuan,Zhao Beibei,Wu Lixia,Xiao Huifang,Ding Kaili,Zheng Cuixia,Song Qingling,Sun Lingling,Wang Lei,Zhang Zhenzhong ACS nano Efficient cancer vaccines not only require the co-delivery of potent antigens and highly immunostimulatory adjuvants to initiate robust tumor-specific host immune response but also solve the spatiotemporal consistency of host immunity and tumor microenvironment (TME) immunomodulation. Here, we designed a biomaterials-based strategy for converting tumor-derived antigenic microparticles (T-MPs) into a cancer vaccine to meet this conundrum and demonstrated its therapeutic potential in multiple murine tumor models. The internal cavity of T-MPs was employed to store nano-FeO (FeO/T-MPs), and then dense adjuvant CpG-loaded liposome arrays (CpG/Lipo) were tethered on the surface of FeO/T-MP through mild surface engineering to get a vaccine (FeO/T-MPs-CpG/Lipo), demonstrating that co-delivery of FeO/T-MPs and CpG/Lipo to antigen presenting cells (APCs) could elicit strong tumor antigen-specific host immune response. Meanwhile, vaccines distributed in the TME could reverse infiltrated tumor-associated macrophages into a tumor-suppressive M1 phenotype by nano-FeO, amazingly induce abundant infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transform a "cold" tumor into a "hot" tumor. Furthermore, amplified antitumor immunity was realized by the combination of an FeO/T-MPs-CpG/Lipo vaccine and immune checkpoint PD-L1 blockade, specifically inhibiting ∼83% of the progression of B16F10-bearing mice and extending the median survival time to 3 months. Overall, this study synergistically modulates the tumor immunosuppressive network and host antitumor immunity in a spatiotemporal manner, which suggests a general cell-engineering strategy tailored to a personalized vaccine from autologous cancer cell materials of each individual patient. 10.1021/acsnano.9b03288
    Engineering nanoparticle-coated bacteria as oral DNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Hu Qinglian,Wu Min,Fang Chun,Cheng Changyong,Zhao Mengmeng,Fang Weihuan,Chu Paul K,Ping Yuan,Tang Guping Nano letters Live attenuated bacteria are of increasing importance in biotechnology and medicine in the emerging field of cancer immunotherapy. Oral DNA vaccination mediated by live attenuated bacteria often suffers from low infection efficiency due to various biological barriers during the infection process. To this end, we herein report, for the first time, a new strategy to engineer cationic nanoparticle-coated bacterial vectors that can efficiently deliver oral DNA vaccine for efficacious cancer immunotherapy. By coating live attenuated bacteria with synthetic nanoparticles self-assembled from cationic polymers and plasmid DNA, the protective nanoparticle coating layer is able to facilitate bacteria to effectively escape phagosomes, significantly enhance the acid tolerance of bacteria in stomach and intestines, and greatly promote dissemination of bacteria into blood circulation after oral administration. Most importantly, oral delivery of DNA vaccines encoding autologous vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by this hybrid vector showed remarkable T cell activation and cytokine production. Successful inhibition of tumor growth was also achieved by efficient oral delivery of VEGFR2 with nanoparticle-coated bacterial vectors due to angiogenesis suppression in the tumor vasculature and tumor necrosis. This proof-of-concept work demonstrates that coating live bacterial cells with synthetic nanoparticles represents a promising strategy to engineer efficient and versatile DNA vaccines for the era of immunotherapy. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00570
    IDO1 inhibition potentiates vaccine-induced immunity against pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Blair Alex B,Kleponis Jennifer,Thomas Dwayne L,Muth Stephen T,Murphy Adrian G,Kim Victoria,Zheng Lei The Journal of clinical investigation Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents an immune quiescent tumor that is resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Previously, our group has shown that a GM-CSF-secreting allogenic pancreatic tumor cell vaccine (GVAX) may prime the tumor microenvironment by inducing intratumoral T cell infiltration. Here, we show that untreated PDACs express minimal indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1); however, GVAX therapy induced IDO1 expression on tumor epithelia as well as vaccine-induced tertiary lymphoid aggregates. IDO1 expression plays a role in regulating the polarization of Th1, Th17, and possibly T regulatory cells in PDAC tumors. IDO1 inhibitor enhanced antitumor efficacy of GVAX in a murine model of PDACs. The combination of vaccine and IDO1 inhibitor enhanced intratumoral T cell infiltration and function, but adding anti-PD-L1 antibody to the combination did not offer further synergy and in fact may have had a negative interaction, decreasing the number of intratumoral effector T cells. Additionally, IDO1 inhibitor in the presence of vaccine therapy did not significantly modulate intratumoral myeloid-derived suppressor cells quantitatively, but diminished their suppressive effect on CD8+ proliferation. Our study supports the combination of IDO1 inhibitor and vaccine therapy; however, it does not support the combination of IDO1 inhibitor and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody for T cell-inflamed tumors such as PDACs treated with vaccine therapy. 10.1172/JCI124077
    A Synthetic Glycopeptide Vaccine for the Induction of a Monoclonal Antibody that Differentiates between Normal and Tumor Mammary Cells and Enables the Diagnosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer. Palitzsch Björn,Gaidzik Nikola,Stergiou Natascha,Stahn Sonja,Hartmann Sebastian,Gerlitzki Bastian,Teusch Nicole,Flemming Peer,Schmitt Edgar,Kunz Horst Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) In studies within the realm of cancer immunotherapy, the synthesis of exactly specified tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens is shown to be a key strategy for obtaining a highly selective biological reagent, that is, a monoclonal antibody that completely differentiates between tumor and normal epithelial cells and specifically marks the tumor cells in pancreas tumors. Mucin MUC1, which is overexpressed in many prevalent cancers, was identified as a promising target for this strategy. Tumor-associated MUC1 differs significantly from that expressed by normal cells, in particular by altered glycosylation. Structurally defined tumor-associated MUC1 cannot be isolated from tumor cells. We synthesized MUC1-glycopeptide vaccines and analyzed their structure-activity relationships in immunizations; a monoclonal antibody that specifically distinguishes between human normal and tumor epithelial cells was thus generated. 10.1002/anie.201509935
    Keratinocyte growth factor enhances DNA plasmid tumor vaccine responses after murine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Jenq Robert R,King Christopher G,Volk Christine,Suh David,Smith Odette M,Rao Uttam K,Yim Nury L,Holland Amanda M,Lu Sydney X,Zakrzewski Johannes L,Goldberg Gabrielle L,Diab Adi,Alpdogan Onder,Penack Olaf,Na Il-Kang,Kappel Lucy W,Wolchok Jedd D,Houghton Alan N,Perales Miguel-Angel,van den Brink Marcel R M Blood Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is given exogenously to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) recipients, supports thymic epithelial cells and increases thymic output of naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that this improved T-cell reconstitution leads to enhanced responses to DNA plasmid tumor vaccination. Tumor-bearing mice treated with KGF and DNA vaccination have improved long-term survival and decreased tumor burden after allo-BMT. When assayed before vaccination, KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients have increased numbers of peripheral T cells, including CD8(+) T cells with vaccine-recognition potential. In response to vaccination, KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients, compared with control subjects, generate increased numbers of tumor-specific CD8(+) cells, as well as increased numbers of CD8(+) cells producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We also found unanticipated benefits to antitumor immunity with the administration of KGF. KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients have an improved ratio of T effector cells to regulatory T cells, a larger fraction of effector cells that display a central memory phenotype, and effector cells that are derived from a broader T-cell-receptor repertoire. In conclusion, our data suggest that KGF can function as a potent vaccine adjuvant after allo-BMT through its effects on posttransplantation T-cell reconstitution. 10.1182/blood-2008-05-155697
    Synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen RM2 from prostate cancer. Chuang Hong-Yang,Ren Chien-Tai,Chao Chung-An,Wu Chung-Yi,Shivatare Sachin S,Cheng Ting-Jen R,Wu Chung-Yi,Wong Chi-Huey Journal of the American Chemical Society We have successfully developed a [1+2+3] one-pot strategy to synthesize the RM2 antigen hexasaccharide that was proposed to be a prostate tumor antigen. The structure of the synthetic product was verified by NMR analysis and antibody binding assay using a glycan microarray. In addition, the synthetic antigen was conjugated to a mutated diphtheria toxin (DT, CRM197) with different copy numbers and adjuvant combinations to form the vaccine candidates. After vaccination in mice, we used glycan microarrays to monitor their immune response, and the results indicated that, when one molecule of DT was incorporated with 4.7 molecules of RM2 on average (DT-RM4.7) and adjuvanted with the glycolipid C34, the combination exhibited the strongest anti-RM2 IgG titer. Moreover, the induced mouse antibodies mediated effective complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against the prostate cancer cell line LNCap. 10.1021/ja403609x
    Surgical Tumor-Derived Personalized Photothermal Vaccine Formulation for Cancer Immunotherapy. Ye Xinyu,Liang Xin,Chen Qian,Miao Qianwei,Chen Xiuli,Zhang Xudong,Mei Lin ACS nano Personalized cancer vaccines show great potential in cancer immunotherapy by inducing an effective and durable antitumor response. However, the limitation of neoantigen identification, low immunogenicity, and weak immune response hamper the development of personalized cancer vaccines. The surgically removed tumor contains tumor antigens specific to the patient, which provides a promising source for personalized cancer vaccines. Here, we utilized the surgically removed tumor to prepare a personalized photothermal vaccine combined with the PD-1 checkpoint blockade antibody to prevent tumor relapse and metastasis. Black phosphorus quantum dot nanovesicles (BPQD-CCNVs) coated with surgically removed tumor cell membrane were prepared and loaded into a thermosensitive hydrogel containing GM-CSF and LPS. The sustained release of GM-CSF from the hypodermic injection of Gel-BPQD-CCNVs effectively recruited dendritic cells to capture tumor antigen. NIR irradiation and LPS stimulated the expansion and activation of DCs, which then traveled to the lymph nodes to present antigen to CD8 T cells. Moreover, the combination with PD-1 antibody significantly enhanced tumor-specific CD8 T cell elimination of the surgical residual and lung metastatic tumor. Hence, our work may provide a promising strategy for the clinical development of a personalized cancer vaccine. 10.1021/acsnano.8b07371
    Injectable cryogel-based whole-cell cancer vaccines. Bencherif Sidi A,Warren Sands R,Ali Omar A,Li Weiwei A,Lewin Sarah A,Braschler Thomas M,Shih Ting-Yu,Verbeke Catia S,Bhatta Deen,Dranoff Glenn,Mooney David J Nature communications A biomaterial-based vaccination system that uses minimal extracorporeal manipulation could provide in situ enhancement of dendritic cell (DC) numbers, a physical space where DCs interface with transplanted tumour cells, and an immunogenic context. Here we encapsulate GM-CSF, serving as a DC enhancement factor, and CpG ODN, serving as a DC activating factor, into sponge-like macroporous cryogels. These cryogels are injected subcutaneously into mice to localize transplanted tumour cells and deliver immunomodulatory factors in a controlled spatio-temporal manner. These vaccines elicit local infiltrates composed of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs, with the subsequent induction of potent, durable and specific anti-tumour T-cell responses in a melanoma model. These cryogels can be delivered in a minimally invasive manner, bypass the need for genetic modification of transplanted cancer cells and provide sustained release of immunomodulators. Altogether, these findings indicate the potential for cryogels to serve as a platform for cancer cell vaccinations. 10.1038/ncomms8556
    Mesoporous Silica as a Versatile Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy. Nguyen Thanh Loc,Choi Youngjin,Kim Jaeyun Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Immunotherapy has been recognized for decades as a promising therapeutic method for cancer treatment. To enhance host immune responses against cancer, antigen-presenting cells (APCs; e.g., dendritic cells) or T cells are educated using immunomodulatory agents including tumor-associated antigens and adjuvants, and manipulated to induce a cascading adaptive immune response targeting tumor cells. Mesoporous silica materials are promising candidates to improve cancer immunotherapy based on their attractive properties that include high porosity, high biocompatibility, facile surface modification, and self-adjuvanticity. Here, the recent progress on mesoporous-silica-based immunotherapies based on two material forms is summarized: 1) mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which can be internalized into APCs, and 2) micrometer-sized mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) that can form a 3D space to recruit APCs. Subcutaneously injected MSN-based cancer vaccines can be taken up by peripheral APCs or by APCs in lymphoid organs to educate the immune system against cancer cells. MSR cancer vaccines can recruit immune cells into the MSR scaffold to induce cancer-specific immunity. Both vaccine systems successfully stimulate the adaptive immune response to eradicate cancer in vivo. Thus, mesoporous silica has potential value as a material platform for the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. 10.1002/adma.201803953
    Induction of resident memory T cells enhances the efficacy of cancer vaccine. Nizard Mevyn,Roussel Hélène,Diniz Mariana O,Karaki Soumaya,Tran Thi,Voron Thibault,Dransart Estelle,Sandoval Federico,Riquet Marc,Rance Bastien,Marcheteau Elie,Fabre Elizabeth,Mandavit Marion,Terme Magali,Blanc Charlotte,Escudie Jean-Baptiste,Gibault Laure,Barthes Françoise Le Pimpec,Granier Clemence,Ferreira Luis C S,Badoual Cecile,Johannes Ludger,Tartour Eric Nature communications Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in tissue and do not recirculate. Although they are considered as early immune effectors in infectious diseases, their role in cancer immunosurveillance remains unknown. In a preclinical model of head and neck cancer, we show that intranasal vaccination with a mucosal vector, the B subunit of Shiga toxin, induces local Trm and inhibits tumour growth. As Trm do not recirculate, we demonstrate their crucial role in the efficacy of cancer vaccine with parabiosis experiments. Blockade of TFGβ decreases the induction of Trm after mucosal vaccine immunization, resulting in the lower efficacy of cancer vaccine. In order to extrapolate this role of Trm in humans, we show that the number of Trm correlates with a better overall survival in lung cancer in multivariate analysis. The induction of Trm may represent a new surrogate biomarker for the efficacy of cancer vaccine. This study also argues for the development of vaccine strategies designed to elicit them. 10.1038/ncomms15221
    Syntheses and Immunological Evaluation of Self-Adjuvanting Clustered N-Acetyl and N-Propionyl Sialyl-Tn Combined with a T-helper Cell Epitope as Antitumor Vaccine Candidates. Chang Tsung-Che,Manabe Yoshiyuki,Fujimoto Yukari,Ohshima Shino,Kametani Yoshie,Kabayama Kazuya,Nimura Yuka,Lin Chun-Cheng,Fukase Koichi Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) rarely observed on healthy tissues. We synthesized two fully synthetic N-acetyl and N-propionyl STn trimer (triSTn) vaccines possessing a T-helper epitope and a TLR2 agonist, since the clustered STn antigens are highly expressed on many cancer cells. Immunization of both vaccines in mice induced the anti-triSTn IgG antibodies, which recognized triSTn-expressing cell lines PANC-1 and HepG2. The N-propionyl triSTn vaccine induced the triSTn-specific IgGs, while IgGs induced by the N-acetyl triSTn vaccine were less specific. These results illustrated that N-propionyl triSTn is a valuable unnatural TACA for anticancer vaccines. 10.1002/anie.201804437
    Protective Epitope Discovery and Design of MUC1-based Vaccine for Effective Tumor Protections in Immunotolerant Mice. Wu Xuanjun,Yin Zhaojun,McKay Craig,Pett Christian,Yu Jin,Schorlemer Manuel,Gohl Trevor,Sungsuwan Suttipun,Ramadan Sherif,Baniel Claire,Allmon Anthony,Das Rupali,Westerlind Ulrika,Finn M G,Huang Xuefei Journal of the American Chemical Society Human mucin-1 (MUC1) is a highly attractive antigen for the development of anticancer vaccines. However, in human clinical trials of multiple MUC1 based vaccines, despite the generation of anti-MUC1 antibodies, the antibodies often failed to exhibit much binding to tumor presumably due to the challenges in inducing protective immune responses in the immunotolerant environment. To design effective MUC1 based vaccines functioning in immunotolerant hosts, vaccine constructs were first synthesized by covalently linking the powerful bacteriophage Qβ carrier with MUC1 glycopeptides containing 20-22 amino acid residues covering one full length of the tandem repeat region of MUC1. However, IgG antibodies elicited by these first generation constructs in tolerant human MUC1 transgenic (Tg) mice did not bind tumor cells strongly. To overcome this, a peptide array has been synthesized. By profiling binding selectivities of antibodies, the long MUC1 glycopeptide was found to contain immunodominant but nonprotective epitopes. Critical insights were obtained into the identity of the key protective epitope. Redesign of the vaccine focusing on the protective epitope led to a new Qβ-MUC1 construct, which was capable of inducing higher levels of anti-MUC1 IgG antibodies in MUC1.Tg mice to react strongly with and kill a wide range of tumor cells compared to the construct containing the gold standard protein carrier, i.e., keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Vaccination with this new Qβ-MUC1 conjugate led to significant protection of MUC1.Tg mice in both metastatic and solid tumor models. The antibodies exhibited remarkable selectivities toward human breast cancer tissues, suggesting its high translational potential. 10.1021/jacs.8b08473
    Designer vaccine nanodiscs for personalized cancer immunotherapy. Kuai Rui,Ochyl Lukasz J,Bahjat Keith S,Schwendeman Anna,Moon James J Nature materials Despite the tremendous potential of peptide-based cancer vaccines, their efficacy has been limited in humans. Recent innovations in tumour exome sequencing have signalled the new era of personalized immunotherapy with patient-specific neoantigens, but a general methodology for stimulating strong CD8α cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses remains lacking. Here we demonstrate that high-density lipoprotein-mimicking nanodiscs coupled with antigen (Ag) peptides and adjuvants can markedly improve Ag/adjuvant co-delivery to lymphoid organs and sustain Ag presentation on dendritic cells. Strikingly, nanodiscs elicited up to 47-fold greater frequencies of neoantigen-specific CTLs than soluble vaccines and even 31-fold greater than perhaps the strongest adjuvant in clinical trials (that is, CpG in Montanide). Moreover, multi-epitope vaccination generated broad-spectrum T-cell responses that potently inhibited tumour growth. Nanodiscs eliminated established MC-38 and B16F10 tumours when combined with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy. These findings represent a new powerful approach for cancer immunotherapy and suggest a general strategy for personalized nanomedicine. 10.1038/nmat4822
    Albumin/vaccine nanocomplexes that assemble in vivo for combination cancer immunotherapy. Zhu Guizhi,Lynn Geoffrey M,Jacobson Orit,Chen Kai,Liu Yi,Zhang Huimin,Ma Ying,Zhang Fuwu,Tian Rui,Ni Qianqian,Cheng Siyuan,Wang Zhantong,Lu Nan,Yung Bryant C,Wang Zhe,Lang Lixin,Fu Xiao,Jin Albert,Weiss Ido D,Vishwasrao Harshad,Niu Gang,Shroff Hari,Klinman Dennis M,Seder Robert A,Chen Xiaoyuan Nature communications Subunit vaccines have been investigated in over 1000 clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy, but have shown limited efficacy. Nanovaccines may improve efficacy but have rarely been clinically translated. By conjugating molecular vaccines with Evans blue (EB) into albumin-binding vaccines (AlbiVax), here we develop clinically promising albumin/AlbiVax nanocomplexes that self-assemble in vivo from AlbiVax and endogenous albumin for efficient vaccine delivery and potent cancer immunotherapy. PET pharmacoimaging, super-resolution microscopies, and flow cytometry reveal almost 100-fold more efficient co-delivery of CpG and antigens (Ags) to lymph nodes (LNs) by albumin/AlbiVax than benchmark incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Albumin/AlbiVax elicits ~10 times more frequent peripheral antigen-specific CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes with immune memory than IFA-emulsifying vaccines. Albumin/AlbiVax specifically inhibits progression of established primary or metastatic EG7.OVA, B16F10, and MC38 tumors; combination with anti-PD-1 and/or Abraxane further potentiates immunotherapy and eradicates most MC38 tumors. Albumin/AlbiVax nanocomplexes are thus a robust platform for combination cancer immunotherapy. 10.1038/s41467-017-02191-y
    Engineering Dendritic-Cell-Based Vaccines and PD-1 Blockade in Self-Assembled Peptide Nanofibrous Hydrogel to Amplify Antitumor T-Cell Immunity. Yang Pengxiang,Song Huijuan,Qin Yibo,Huang Pingsheng,Zhang Chuangnian,Kong Deling,Wang Weiwei Nano letters Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly used in cancer vaccines due to their ability to regulate T-cell immunity. Major limitations associated with the present DC adoptive transfer immunotherapy are low cell viability and transient duration of transplanted DCs at the vaccination site and the lack of recruitment of host DCs, leading to unsatisfactory T-cell immune response. Here, we developed a novel vaccine nodule comprising a simple physical mixture of the peptide nanofibrous hydrogel, anti-PD-1 antibodies, DCs, and tumor antigens. Upon subcutaneous injection, the vaccine nodule maintained the viability and biological function including the antigen uptake and maturation of encapsulated DCs and simultaneously recruited a number of host DCs and promoted the drainage of activated DCs to lymph nodes, resulting in enhanced proliferation of antigen-specific splenocytes and provoking potent cellular immune responses. Compared with adoptive transfer of DCs and subcutaneous administration of antigen vaccine, such a vaccine nodule shows superior antitumor immunotherapy efficiency in both prophylactic and therapeutic tumor models including delayed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival due to effective stimulation of antitumor T-cell immunity and increased infiltration of activated CD8 effector T-cells in the tumor. Our findings provide a simple and robust vaccination strategy for DC-based vaccines and also a unique vaccine product for stimulating and enhancing T-cell immunity, holding great promise for immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01406
    Adenoviral vaccine targeting multiple neoantigens as strategy to eradicate large tumors combined with checkpoint blockade. D'Alise Anna Morena,Leoni Guido,Cotugno Gabriella,Troise Fulvia,Langone Francesca,Fichera Imma,De Lucia Maria,Avalle Lidia,Vitale Rosa,Leuzzi Adriano,Bignone Veronica,Di Matteo Elena,Tucci Fabio Giovanni,Poli Valeria,Lahm Armin,Catanese Maria Teresa,Folgori Antonella,Colloca Stefano,Nicosia Alfredo,Scarselli Elisa Nature communications Neoantigens (nAgs) are promising tumor antigens for cancer vaccination with the potential of inducing robust and selective T cell responses. Genetic vaccines based on Adenoviruses derived from non-human Great Apes (GAd) elicit strong and effective T cell-mediated immunity in humans. Here, we investigate for the first time the potency and efficacy of a novel GAd encoding multiple neoantigens. Prophylactic or early therapeutic vaccination with GAd efficiently control tumor growth in mice. In contrast, combination of the vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors is required to eradicate large tumors. Gene expression profile of tumors in regression shows abundance of activated tumor infiltrating T cells with a more diversified TCR repertoire in animals treated with GAd and anti-PD1 compared to anti-PD1. Data suggest that effectiveness of vaccination in the presence of high tumor burden correlates with the breadth of nAgs-specific T cells and requires concomitant reversal of tumor suppression by checkpoint blockade. 10.1038/s41467-019-10594-2
    Development of Globo-H cancer vaccine. Danishefsky Samuel J,Shue Youe-Kong,Chang Michael N,Wong Chi-Huey Accounts of chemical research The development of anticancer vaccines requires the identification of unique epitope markers, preferably expressed exclusively on the surface of cancer cells. This Account describes the path of development of a carbohydrate-based vaccine for metastatic breast cancer, including the selection and synthesis of Globo-H as the target, the development of the vaccine conjugate and adjuvant design, the study of the immune response and consideration of class switch, and the analysis of Globo-H distribution on the surface of various cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and normal cells. The first synthesis of Globo-H was accomplished through the use of glycal chemistry; this approach delivered sufficient material for evaluation in phase I human trials. The development of a programmable one-pot synthesis method rendered the synthesis more practical and enabled the midstage proof-of-concept phase II trial and late-stage phase III trial. Finally, enzymatic synthesis of Globo-H coupled with cofactor regeneration was used for the late-stage multicenter trials and manufacture of the product. Along this path of development, it was discovered that the vaccine induced antibodies to target not only Globo-H, but also SSEA3 and SSEA4. Moreover, these three glycolipids were found to be uniquely expressed not only on the cell surface of breast cancer but on 15 additional cancer types, suggesting the broad application of this vaccine in cancer treatment and perhaps cancer prevention. In addition, a new glycolipid adjuvant was designed to target the CD1d receptor on dendritic cells and B cells for presentation to and activation of T cells to modulate the immune response and induce a class switch from IgM to IgG, thereby overcoming the common problem of carbohydrate-based vaccines that often induce mainly IgM antibodies. As demonstrated in this vaccine development, the chemical approach to the synthesis and conjugation of carbohydrate-based immunogens provides the flexibility for access to various structures and linkers to identify optimal compositions for development. The enzymatic method was then introduced to enable the practical synthesis of the vaccine candidate for clinical development and commercialization. Overall, this Account illustrates the path of development of a cancer vaccine, from selection of a unique glycan marker on breast cancer cells and the cancer stem cells as target to the use of chemistry in combination with immunology and cancer biology to enable the design and development of the Globo-H vaccine to target three specific glycan markers exclusively expressed on the cell surface of a number of different types of cancer. 10.1021/ar5004187
    STING agonist formulated cancer vaccines can cure established tumors resistant to PD-1 blockade. Fu Juan,Kanne David B,Leong Meredith,Glickman Laura Hix,McWhirter Sarah M,Lemmens Edward,Mechette Ken,Leong Justin J,Lauer Peter,Liu Weiqun,Sivick Kelsey E,Zeng Qi,Soares Kevin C,Zheng Lei,Portnoy Daniel A,Woodward Joshua J,Pardoll Drew M,Dubensky Thomas W,Kim Young Science translational medicine Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a cytosolic receptor that senses both exogenous and endogenous cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), activating TBK1/IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3), NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), and STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) signaling pathways to induce robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine responses. CDN ligands were formulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing cellular cancer vaccines--termed STINGVAX--that demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor efficacy in multiple therapeutic models of established cancer. We found that rationally designed synthetic CDN derivative molecules, including one with an Rp,Rp dithio diastereomer and noncanonical c[A(2',5')pA(3',5')p] phosphate bridge structure, enhanced antitumor efficacy of STINGVAX in multiple aggressive therapeutic models of established cancer in mice. Antitumor activity was STING-dependent and correlated with increased activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Tumors from STINGVAX-treated mice demonstrated marked PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1) up-regulation, which was associated with tumor-infiltrating CD8(+)IFNγ(+) T cells. When combined with PD-1 (programmed death 1) blockade, STINGVAX induced regression of palpable, poorly immunogenic tumors that did not respond to PD-1 blockade alone. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa4306
    'Multicopy multivalent' glycopolymer-stabilized gold nanoparticles as potential synthetic cancer vaccines. Parry Alison L,Clemson Natasha A,Ellis James,Bernhard Stefan S R,Davis Benjamin G,Cameron Neil R Journal of the American Chemical Society Mucin-related carbohydrates are overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, providing a disease-specific target for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe the design and construction of peptide-free multivalent glycosylated nanoscale constructs as potential synthetic cancer vaccines that generate significant titers of antibodies selective for aberrant mucin glycans. A polymerizable version of the Tn-antigen glycan was prepared and converted into well-defined glycopolymers by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The polymers were then conjugated to gold nanoparticles, yielding 'multicopy-multivalent' nanoscale glycoconjugates. Immunological studies indicated that these nanomaterials generated strong and long-lasting production of antibodies that are selective to the Tn-antigen glycan and cross-reactive toward mucin proteins displaying Tn. The results demonstrate proof-of-concept of a simple and modular approach toward synthetic anticancer vaccines based on multivalent glycosylated nanomaterials without the need for a typical vaccine protein component. 10.1021/ja4046857
    Enhancement of DNA tumor vaccine efficacy by gene gun-mediated codelivery of threshold amounts of plasmid-encoded helper antigen. Leitner Wolfgang W,Baker Matthew C,Berenberg Thomas L,Lu Michael C,Yannie P Josef,Udey Mark C Blood Nucleic acid-based vaccines are effective in infectious disease models but have yielded disappointing results in tumor models when tumor-associated self-antigens are used. Incorporation of helper epitopes from foreign antigens into tumor vaccines might enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines without increasing toxicity. However, generation of fusion constructs encoding both tumor and helper antigens may be difficult, and resulting proteins have unpredictable physical and immunologic properties. Furthermore, simultaneous production of equal amounts of highly immunogenic helper and weakly immunogenic tumor antigens in situ could favor development of responses against the helper antigen rather than the antigen of interest. We assessed the ability of 2 helper antigens (beta-galactosidase or fragment C of tetanus toxin) encoded by one plasmid to augment responses to a self-antigen (lymphoma-associated T-cell receptor) encoded by a separate plasmid after codelivery into skin by gene gun. This approach allowed adjustment of the relative ratios of helper and tumor antigen plasmids to optimize helper effects. Incorporation of threshold (minimally immunogenic) amounts of helper antigen plasmid into a DNA vaccine regimen dramatically increased T cell-dependent protective immunity initiated by plasmid-encoded tumor-associated T-cell receptor antigen. This simple strategy can easily be incorporated into future vaccine trials in experimental animals and possibly in humans. 10.1182/blood-2008-01-136267
    Delivery of mRNA vaccines with heterocyclic lipids increases anti-tumor efficacy by STING-mediated immune cell activation. Miao Lei,Li Linxian,Huang Yuxuan,Delcassian Derfogail,Chahal Jasdave,Han Jinsong,Shi Yunhua,Sadtler Kaitlyn,Gao Wenting,Lin Jiaqi,Doloff Joshua C,Langer Robert,Anderson Daniel G Nature biotechnology Therapeutic messenger RNA vaccines enable delivery of whole antigens, which can be advantageous over peptide vaccines. However, optimal efficacy requires both intracellular delivery, to allow antigen translation, and appropriate immune activation. Here, we developed a combinatorial library of ionizable lipid-like materials to identify mRNA delivery vehicles that facilitate mRNA delivery in vivo and provide potent and specific immune activation. Using a three-dimensional multi-component reaction system, we synthesized and evaluated the vaccine potential of over 1,000 lipid formulations. The top candidate formulations induced a robust immune response, and were able to inhibit tumor growth and prolong survival in melanoma and human papillomavirus E7 in vivo tumor models. The top-performing lipids share a common structure: an unsaturated lipid tail, a dihydroimidazole linker and cyclic amine head groups. These formulations induce antigen-presenting cell maturation via the intracellular stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, rather than through Toll-like receptors, and result in limited systemic cytokine expression and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. 10.1038/s41587-019-0247-3
    Immunology-Guided Biomaterial Design for Mucosal Cancer Vaccines. Ferber Shiran,Gonzalez Rodrigo J,Cryer Alexander M,von Andrian Ulrich H,Artzi Natalie Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Cancer of mucosal tissues is a major cause of worldwide mortality for which only palliative treatments are available for patients with late-stage disease. Engineered cancer vaccines offer a promising approach for inducing antitumor immunity. The route of vaccination plays a major role in dictating the migratory pattern of lymphocytes, and thus vaccine efficacy in mucosal tissues. Parenteral immunization, specifically subcutaneous and intramuscular, is the most common vaccination route. However, this induces marginal mucosal protection in the absence of tissue-specific imprinting signals. To circumvent this, the mucosal route can be utilized, however degradative mucosal barriers must be overcome. Hence, vaccine administration route and selection of materials able to surmount transport barriers are important considerations in mucosal cancer vaccine design. Here, an overview of mucosal immunity in the context of cancer and mucosal cancer clinical trials is provided. Key considerations are described regarding the design of biomaterial-based vaccines that will afford antitumor immune protection at mucosal surfaces, despite limited knowledge surrounding mucosal vaccination, particularly aided by biomaterials and mechanistic immune-material interactions. Finally, an outlook is given of how future biomaterial-based mucosal cancer vaccines will be shaped by new discoveries in mucosal vaccinology, tumor immunology, immuno-therapeutic screens, and material-immune system interplay. 10.1002/adma.201903847
    Principles of mucin structure: implications for the rational design of cancer vaccines derived from MUC1-glycopeptides. Martínez-Sáez Nuria,Peregrina Jesús M,Corzana Francisco Chemical Society reviews Cancer is currently one of the world's most serious public health problems. Significant efforts are being made to develop new strategies that can eradicate tumours selectively without detrimental effects to healthy cells. One promising approach is focused on the design of vaccines that contain partially glycosylated mucins in their formulation. Although some of these vaccines are in clinical trials, a lack of knowledge about the molecular basis that governs the antigen presentation, and the interactions between antigens and the elicited antibodies has limited their success thus far. This review focuses on the most significant milestones achieved to date in the conformational analysis of tumour-associated MUC1 derivatives both in solution and bound to antibodies. The effect that the carbohydrate scaffold has on the peptide backbone structure and the role of the sugar in molecular recognition by antibodies are emphasised. The outcomes summarised in this review may be a useful guide to develop new antigens for the design of cancer vaccines in the near future. 10.1039/c6cs00858e
    Timed sequential treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and an allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting breast tumor vaccine: a chemotherapy dose-ranging factorial study of safety and immune activation. Emens Leisha A,Asquith Justin M,Leatherman James M,Kobrin Barry J,Petrik Silvia,Laiko Marina,Levi Joy,Daphtary Maithili M,Biedrzycki Barbara,Wolff Antonio C,Stearns Vered,Disis Mary L,Ye Xiaobu,Piantadosi Steven,Fetting John H,Davidson Nancy E,Jaffee Elizabeth M Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) -secreting tumor vaccines have demonstrated bioactivity but may be limited by disease burdens and immune tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that cyclophosphamide (CY) and doxorubicin (DOX) can enhance vaccine-induced immunity in patients with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a 3 x 3 factorial (response surface) dose-ranging study of CY, DOX, and an HER2-positive, allogeneic, GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine in 28 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients received three monthly immunizations, with a boost 6 to 8 months from study entry. Primary objectives included safety and determination of the chemotherapy doses that maximize HER2-specific immunity. RESULTS:Twenty-eight patients received at least one immunization, and 16 patients received four immunizations. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. HER2-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity developed in most patients who received vaccine alone or with 200 mg/m(2) CY. HER2-specific antibody responses were enhanced by 200 mg/m(2) CY and 35 mg/m(2) DOX, but higher CY doses suppressed immunity. Analyses revealed that CY at 200 mg/m(2) and DOX at 35 mg/m(2) is the combination that produced the highest antibody responses. CONCLUSION:First, immunotherapy with an allogeneic, HER2-positive, GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine alone or with CY and DOX is safe and induces HER2-specific immunity in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Second, the immunomodulatory activity of low-dose CY has a narrow therapeutic window, with an optimal dose not exceeding 200 mg/m(2). Third, factorial designs provide an opportunity to identify the most active combination of interacting drugs in patients. Further investigation of the impact of chemotherapy on vaccine-induced immunity is warranted. 10.1200/JCO.2009.23.3494
    Nanoadjuvant-Assembled Tumor Vaccine for Preventing Long-Term Recurrence. Le Quoc-Viet,Suh Juhan,Choi Jin Joo,Park Gyu Thae,Lee Jung Weon,Shim Gayong,Oh Yu-Kyoung ACS nano Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a breakthrough in cancer therapy, a monotherapy approach is not sufficient. Here, we report an immune checkpoint inhibitor-modified nanoparticle for an -assembled tumor vaccine that can activate immune systems in the tumor microenvironment and prevent the long-term recurrence of tumors. Adjuvant-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by entrapping imiquimod (IQ) in photoresponsive polydopamine nanoparticles (IQ/PNs). The surfaces of IQ/PNs were then modified with anti-PDL1 antibody (PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs) for assembly with inactivated tumor cells and immune checkpoint blocking of PDL1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1). The presence of anti-PDL1 antibodies on IQ/PNs increased the binding of nanoparticles to CT26 cancer cells overexpressing PDL1. Subsequent near-infrared (NIR) irradiation induced a greater photothermal anticancer effect against cells treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs than cells treated with plain PNs or unmodified IQ/PNs. To mimic the tumor microenvironment, we cocultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with CT26 cells treated with various nanoparticle formulations and NIR irradiated. This coculture study revealed that NIR-inactivated, PDL1Ab-IQ/PN-bound CT26 cells induced maturation of dendritic cells to the greatest extent. Following a single intravenous administration of different nanoparticle formulations in CT26 tumor-bearing mice, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs showed greater tumor tissue accumulation than unmodified nanoparticles. Subsequent NIR irradiation of mice treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs resulted in tumor ablation. In addition to primary tumor ablation, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs completely prevented the growth of a secondarily challenged CT26 tumor at a distant site, producing 100% survival for up to 150 days. A long-term protection study revealed that treatment with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs followed by NIR irradiation inhibited the growth of distant, secondarily challenged CT26 tumors 150 days after the first tumor inoculation. Moreover, increased infiltration of T cells was observed in tumor tissues treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs and NIR-irradiated, and T cells isolated from splenocytes of mice in which tumor recurrence was prevented showed active killing of CT26 cells. These results suggest that PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs in conjunction with NIR irradiation induce a potent, -assembled, all-in-one tumor vaccine with adjuvant-containing nanoparticle-bound, inactivated tumor cells. Such nanoadjuvant-assembled tumor vaccines can be further developed for long-term prevention of tumor recurrence without the need for chemotherapy. 10.1021/acsnano.9b02071
    NKG2A Blockade Potentiates CD8 T Cell Immunity Induced by Cancer Vaccines. van Montfoort Nadine,Borst Linda,Korrer Michael J,Sluijter Marjolein,Marijt Koen A,Santegoets Saskia J,van Ham Vanessa J,Ehsan Ilina,Charoentong Pornpimol,André Pascale,Wagtmann Nicolai,Welters Marij J P,Kim Young J,Piersma Sytse J,van der Burg Sjoerd H,van Hall Thorbald Cell Tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells were found to frequently express the inhibitory receptor NKG2A, particularly in immune-reactive environments and after therapeutic cancer vaccination. High-dimensional cluster analysis demonstrated that NKG2A marks a unique immune effector subset preferentially co-expressing the tissue-resident CD103 molecule, but not immune checkpoint inhibitors. To examine whether NKG2A represented an adaptive resistance mechanism to cancer vaccination, we blocked the receptor with an antibody and knocked out its ligand Qa-1, the conserved ortholog of HLA-E, in four mouse tumor models. The impact of therapeutic vaccines was greatly potentiated by disruption of the NKG2A/Qa-1 axis even in a PD-1 refractory mouse model. NKG2A blockade therapy operated through CD8 T cells, but not NK cells. These findings indicate that NKG2A-blocking antibodies might improve clinical responses to therapeutic cancer vaccines. 10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.028
    Imaging activated T cells predicts response to cancer vaccines. Alam Israt S,Mayer Aaron T,Sagiv-Barfi Idit,Wang Kezheng,Vermesh Ophir,Czerwinski Debra K,Johnson Emily M,James Michelle L,Levy Ronald,Gambhir Sanjiv S The Journal of clinical investigation In situ cancer vaccines are under active clinical investigation, given their reported ability to eradicate both local and disseminated malignancies. Intratumoral vaccine administration is thought to activate a T cell-mediated immune response, which begins in the treated tumor and cascades systemically. In this study, we describe a PET tracer (64Cu-DOTA-AbOX40) that enabled noninvasive and longitudinal imaging of OX40, a cell-surface marker of T cell activation. We report the spatiotemporal dynamics of T cell activation following in situ vaccination with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in a dual tumor-bearing mouse model. We demonstrate that OX40 imaging was able to predict tumor responses on day 9 after treatment on the basis of tumor tracer uptake on day 2, with greater accuracy than both anatomical and blood-based measurements. These studies provide key insights into global T cell activation following local CpG treatment and indicate that 64Cu-DOTA-AbOX40 is a promising candidate for monitoring clinical cancer immunotherapy strategies. 10.1172/JCI98509
    The effect of polyanhydride chemistry in particle-based cancer vaccines on the magnitude of the anti-tumor immune response. Wafa Emad I,Geary Sean M,Goodman Jonathan T,Narasimhan Balaji,Salem Aliasger K Acta biomaterialia The goal of this research was to study the effect of polyanhydride chemistry on the immune response induced by a prophylactic cancer vaccine based on biodegradable polyanhydride particles. To achieve this goal, different compositions of polyanhydride copolymers based on 1,8-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG), 1,6-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)-hexane (CPH), and sebacic anhydride (SA) were synthesized by melt polycondensation, and polyanhydride copolymer particles encapsulating a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), were then synthesized using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The ability of three different compositions of polyanhydride copolymers (50:50 CPTEG:CPH, 20:80 CPTEG:CPH, and 20:80 CPH:SA) encapsulating OVA to elicit immune responses was investigated. In addition, the impact of unmethylated oligodeoxynucleotides containing deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine dinucleotides (CpG ODN), an immunological adjuvant, on the immune response was also studied. The immune response to cancer vaccines was measured after treatment of C57BL/6J mice with two subcutaneous injections, seven days apart, of 50μg OVA encapsulated in particles composed of different polyanhydride copolymers with or without 25μg CpG ODN. In vivo studies showed that 20:80 CPTEG:CPH particles encapsulating OVA significantly stimulated the highest level of CD8 T lymphocytes, generated the highest serum titers of OVA-specific IgG antibodies, and provided longer protection against tumor challenge with an OVA-expressing thymoma cell line in comparison to formulations made from other polyanhydride copolymers. The results also revealed that vaccination with CpG ODN along with polyanhydride particles encapsulating OVA did not enhance the immunogenicity of OVA. These results accentuate the crucial role of the copolymer composition of polyanhydrides in stimulating the immune response and provide important insights on rationally designing efficacious cancer vaccines. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Compared to soluble cancer vaccine formulations, tumor antigens encapsulated in biodegradable polymeric particles have been shown to sustain antigen release and provide long-term protection against tumor challenge by improving the immune response towards the antigen. Treatment of mice with cancer vaccines based on different polyanhydride copolymers encapsulating OVA resulted in stimulation of tumor-specific immune responses with different magnitudes. This clearly indicates that polyanhydride chemistry plays a substantial role in stimulating the immune response. Vaccination with 20:80 CPTEG:CPH/OVA, the most hydrophobic formulation, stimulated the strongest cellular and humoral immune responses and provided the longest survival outcome without adding any other adjuvant. The most important finding in this study is that the copolymer composition of polyanhydride particle-based vaccines can have a direct effect on the magnitude of the antitumor immune response and should be selected carefully in order to achieve optimal cancer vaccine efficacy. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.01.005
    Breast cancer vaccines delivered by dendritic cell-targeted lentivectors induce potent antitumor immune responses and protect mice from mammary tumor growth. Bryson Paul D,Han Xiaolu,Truong Norman,Wang Pin Vaccine Breast cancer immunotherapy is a potent treatment option, with antibody therapies such as trastuzumab increasing 2-year survival rates by 50%. However, active immunotherapy through vaccination has generally been clinically ineffective. One potential means of improving vaccine therapy is by delivering breast cancer antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) for enhanced antigen presentation. To accomplish this in vivo, we pseudotyped lentiviral vector (LV) vaccines with a modified Sindbis Virus glycoprotein so that they could deliver genes encoding the breast cancer antigen alpha-lactalbumin (Lalba) or erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 or HER2) directly to resident DCs. We hypothesized that utilizing these DC-targeting lentiviral vectors asa breast cancer vaccine could lead to an improved immune response against self-antigens found in breast cancer tumors. Indeed, single injections of the vaccine vectors were able to amplify antigen-specific CD8T cells 4-6-fold over naïve mice, similar to the best published vaccine regimens. Immunization of these mice completely inhibited tumor growth in a foreign antigen environment (LV-ERBB2 in wildtype mice), and it reduced the rate of tumor growth in a self-antigen environment (LV-Lalba in wildtype or LV-ERBB2 in MMTV-huHER2 transgenic). These results show that a single injection with targeted lentiviral vectors can be an effective immunotherapy for breast cancer. Furthermore, they could be combined with other immunotherapeutic regimens to improve outcomes for patients with breast cancer. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.017
    Immunoengineering through cancer vaccines - A personalized and multi-step vaccine approach towards precise cancer immunity. Lybaert Lien,Vermaelen Karim,De Geest Bruno G,Nuhn Lutz Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society During the last decade anti-tumor immune-therapy has opened novel opportunities to efficiently combat cancer progression. The introduction of DC- and CAR T-cell based therapies as well as the successful application of antibody-based inhibitor of immune checkpoints (CTLA-4, PD1 and PDL1) have boosted the field and led to an overall benefit for many patients. In situ cancer vaccination is an attractive strategy to further improve the therapeutic outcome, especially towards a more personalized and individually tailored immune response against the patient's mutanome. Nanoparticle-based delivery platforms can assist in combination treatments e.g. with multiple immune stimulatory signales (PAMPs and DAMPs) to increase the probability of evoking broader and all-embracing cytotoxic and memory T-cell responses. In this review, various approaches and hurdles of cancer vaccination are discussed including the beneficial contributions of the thriving field of nanoparticle design and functionalization, which may further boost the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.09.009
    A feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, trastuzumab, and an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Chen Gang,Gupta Richa,Petrik Silvia,Laiko Marina,Leatherman James M,Asquith Justin M,Daphtary Maithili M,Garrett-Mayer Elizabeth,Davidson Nancy E,Hirt Kellie,Berg Maureen,Uram Jennifer N,Dauses Tianna,Fetting John,Duus Elizabeth M,Atay-Rosenthal Saadet,Ye Xiaobu,Wolff Antonio C,Stearns Vered,Jaffee Elizabeth M,Emens Leisha A Cancer immunology research Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor vaccines are bioactive, but limited by disease burden and immune tolerance. Cyclophosphamide augments vaccine activity in tolerant neu mice and in patients with metastatic breast cancer. HER2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) enhance vaccine activity in neu mice. We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with HER2-specific mAb safely induces relevant HER2-specific immunity in neu mice and patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Adding both cyclophosphamide and the HER2-specific mAb 7.16.4 to vaccination maximized HER2-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity and tumor-free survival in neu transgenic mice. We, therefore, conducted a single-arm feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, an allogeneic HER2+ GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine, and weekly trastuzumab in 20 patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Primary clinical trial objectives were safety and clinical benefit, in which clinical benefit represents complete response + partial response + stable disease. Secondary study objectives were to assess HER2-specific T-cell responses by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and intracellular cytokine staining. Patients received three monthly vaccinations, with a boost 6 to 8 months from trial entry. This combination immunotherapy was safe, with clinical benefit rates at 6 months and 1 year of 55% [95% confidence interval (CI), 32%-77%; P = 0.013] and 40% (95% CI, 19%-64%), respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival durations were 7 months (95% CI, 4-16) and 42 months (95% CI, 22-70), respectively. Increased HER2-specific DTH developed in 7 of 20 patients [of whom 4 had clinical benefit (95% CI, 18-90)], with a trend toward longer progression-free survival and overall survival in DTH responders. Polyfunctional HER2-specific CD8+ T cells progressively expanded across vaccination cycles. Further investigation of cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with trastuzumab is warranted. 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0058
    Surface engineering tumor cells with adjuvant-loaded particles for use as cancer vaccines. Ahmed Kawther K,Geary Sean M,Salem Aliasger K Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Cell surface engineering is an expanding field and whilst extensive research has been performed decorating cell surfaces with biomolecules, the engineering of cell surfaces with particles has been a largely unexploited area. This study reports on the assembly of cell-particle hybrids where irradiated tumor cells were surface engineered with adjuvant-loaded, biodegradable, biocompatible, polymeric particles, with the aim of generating a construct capable of functioning as a therapeutic cancer vaccine. Successfully assembled cell-particle hybrids presented here comprised either melanoma cells or prostate cancer cells stably adorned with Toll-like receptor-9 ligand-loaded particles using streptavidin-biotin cross-linking. Both cell-particle assemblies were tested in vivo for their potential as therapeutic cancer vaccines yielding promising therapeutic results for the prostate cancer model. The ramifications of results obtained for both tumor models are openly discussed. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.12.036
    Local Phototherapy Synergizes with Immunoadjuvant for Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer through Induced Immunogenic Tumor Vaccine. Zhou Feifan,Yang Jingxuan,Zhang Yuqing,Liu Mingyang,Lang Mark L,Li Min,Chen Wei R Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research To develop a synergistic combination therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer, using local phototherapy and immunotherapy, and to determine the efficacy and mechanism of the novel combination therapy using a highly metastatic pancreatic tumor model in mice. Mice bearing Panc02-H7 pancreatic tumors (both subcutaneous and orthotopic) were treated with noninvasive or interventional photothermal therapy, followed by local application of an immunoadjuvant. Tumor growth and animal survival were assessed. Immune cell populations within spleen and tumors were evaluated by FACS and IHC, and cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Up to 75% of mice bearing subcutaneous tumors treated with combination therapy had complete tumor regression. Local photothermal therapy exposed/released damage-associated molecular patterns, which initiated an immunogenic tumor cell death, resulting in infiltration of antigen-presenting cells and Th1 immunity. Concomitant application of immunoadjuvant amplified Th1 immunity, especially the tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, with increased quantity and quality of T cells. Combination therapy also induced tumor-specific immune memory, as demonstrated by resistance to tumor rechallenge and production of memory T cells. For the treatment of orthotopic tumor, the combination therapy significantly reduced the primary tumors and metastases, and prolonged the animal survival time. This study indicated that combination of local phototherapy and immunotherapy induced a systemic immunity against established tumors and metastases in an aggressive, preclinical pancreatic tumor model, leading to a potential clinical method for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1126
    Tumor lysate-loaded Bacterial Ghosts as a tool for optimized production of therapeutic dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines. Dobrovolskienė N,Pašukonienė V,Darinskas A,Kraśko J A,Žilionytė K,Mlynska A,Gudlevičienė Ž,Mišeikytė-Kaubrienė E,Schijns V,Lubitz W,Kudela P,Strioga M Vaccine Cancer immunotherapy with dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines has been used to treat various malignancies for more than two decades, however generally showed a limited clinical success. Among various factors responsible for their modest clinical activity is the lack of universally applied, standardized protocols for the generation of clinical-grade DC vaccines, capable of inducing effective anti-tumor immune responses. We investigated Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) - empty envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria - as a tool for optimized production of DC vaccines. BGs possess various intact cell surface structures, exhibiting strong adjuvant properties required for the induction of DC maturation, whereas their empty internal space can be easily filled with a source tumor antigens, e.g. tumor lysate. Hence BGs emerge as an excellent platform for both the induction of immunogenic DC maturation and loading with tumor antigens in a single-step procedure. We compared the phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, functional activity and ability to induce immunogenic T-cell responses in vitro of human monocyte-derived DCs generated using BG platform and DCs matured with widely used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ cocktail and loaded with tumor lysate. Both approaches induced DC maturation, however BG-based protocol was superior to LPS-based protocol in terms of the ability to induce DCs with a lower tolerogenic potential, resulting in a more robust CD8 T cell activation and their functional activity as well as significantly lower induction of regulatory T cells. These superior parameters are attributed, at least in part, to the ability of BG-matured DCs to resist potential immunosuppressive and pro-tolerogenic activity of various tumor cell lysates, including melanoma, renal carcinoma and glioblastoma. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.016
    PD-1/PD-L1 blockade enhances the efficacy of SA-GM-CSF surface-modified tumor vaccine in prostate cancer. Shi Xiaojun,Zhang Xinji,Li Jinlong,Zhao Hongfan,Mo Lijun,Shi Xianghua,Hu Zhiming,Gao Jimin,Tan Wanlong Cancer letters Program death receptor-1 (PD-1)/program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays an important role in tumor adaptive immune resistance. The streptavidin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (SA-GM-CSF) surface-modified tumor cells vaccine developed through our novel protein-anchor technology could significantly promote the activation of dendritic cells. Although GM-CSF vaccine could significantly increase the number of tumor-specific CD8T-cells, the majority of these CD8T-cells expressed PD-1. Moreover, GM-CSF vaccine up-regulated the PD-L1 expression of tumor cells, resulting in immune resistance. Adding PD-1/PD-L1 blockade to GM-CSF vaccine therapy could significantly increase the population of CD4 T, CD8 T and CD8 IFN-γ T but not CD4 Foxp3 T-cells and induced the highest production of IFN-γ. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade could effectively rescue the tumor-specific T lymphocytes generated by the GM-CSF vaccine, resulting in consistent tumor rejection. Taken together, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade combined with SA-GM-CSF-modified vaccine could effectively induce a strong specific antitumor immune response against prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.07.029
    Correlates of immune and clinical activity of novel cancer vaccines. van der Burg Sjoerd H Seminars in immunology Cancer vaccines are solely meant to amplify the pool of type 1 cytokine oriented CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen and ultimately foster control and destruction of a growing tumor. They are not designed to deal with all aspects of immune ignorance, exclusion, suppression and escape that are generally in place in patients with cancer and may prevent the T cells to enter the tumor or to exert their effector function. This simple fact prompted for a reappraisal of the many recent trials in which therapeutic cancer vaccines have been examined as monotherapy. In this review, I focus on trials examining therapeutic cancer vaccines at different stages of existing disease. The analysis of vaccine-induced immune responses and clinical activity of therapeutic cancer vaccines revealed four levels of evidence for vaccine efficacy. The lowest levels, reflect the many trials in which the strength of the tumor-reactive T cell response of vaccinated patients is associated with better clinical outcome or change in tumor marker. The highest levels indicate occasional regressions of tumors and metastases after vaccination or reflect a stronger clinical impact of vaccine in a randomized trial. A whole series of trials in which vaccine-induced tumor immunity correlates with the clinical impact of cancer vaccines in premalignant diseases, settings of low tumor burden or tumor regressions in patients with cancer, form an attest to the fact that cancer vaccines work. While the current number of true clinical responders in each cancer trial is too low for firm conclusions on immune correlates of clinical reactivity in cancer, extrapolation of the results from vaccinated patients with pre-cancers suggest a requirement of broad type 1 T cell reactivity. 10.1016/j.smim.2018.04.001