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    Serotoninergic neuroenteric modulators. Talley N J Lancet (London, England) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common and can be disabling. Several drugs that modulate serotonin (5HT) and other neurotransmitters in the gut (neuroenteric modulators) have either become available or are in development, but progress has been slowed by toxicity. Blockade of 5HT(3) receptors slows colonic transit, increases fluid absorption and increases left colon compliance. Alosetron, a potent 5HT(3) receptor antagonist, has, in women but not in men, a clinically significant but modest therapeutic gain over placebo in the relief of abdominal pain and discomfort and bowel-habit disturbance (but not bloating) in diarrhoea-predominant IBS. However, the drug unexpectedly was associated with ischaemic colitis and, very rarely, severe constipation-induced complications, and alosetron has been withdrawn. Cilansetron may have similar efficacy in men and women. 5HT(4) receptor stimulation results in accelerated colonic transit, and tegaserod, a partial 5HT(4) receptor agonist, has modest but clinically significant advantage over placebo in constipation-predominant IBS; the benefit seems to be confined to females. Long-term published data are lacking and safety concerns have been raised. Prucalopride, a full 5HT(4) agonist that has been promising in idiopathic chronic constipation, may also be limited by toxicity. Other 5HT receptor antagonists and agonists are under development for IBS. However, for modulators of single receptors to achieve a substantial therapeutic gain, and to do so safely, drug targets based on the pathophysiology of IBS need to be better defined. 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)07103-3
    Motility of the intact human colon. Bloom A A,LoPresti P,Farrar J T Gastroenterology
    Efficacy and Tolerability of Guanylate Cyclase-C Agonists for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Shah Eric D,Kim Hyungjin Myra,Schoenfeld Philip The American journal of gastroenterology OBJECTIVES:Linaclotide and plecanatide are guanylate cyclase-C (GCC) agonists for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GCC agonists based on data from multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS:We searched PubMED, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, clinicaltrials.gov, major conference abstracts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites, and United States Securities and Exchange Commission filings of drug sponsors to identify RCTs of CIC or IBS-C patients. We assessed efficacy based on FDA-approved composite responder endpoints, diarrhea as an adverse event, and study withdrawal owing to diarrhea for each therapy. Trial results were pooled using DerSimonian and Laird random effects model of meta-analysis and exact logistic regression when appropriate with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-regression was performed to compare outcomes between therapies adjusting for placebo event rate. RESULTS:Eight linaclotide trials (five CIC; three IBS-C) and seven plecanatide trials (four CIC; three IBS-C) evaluating 10,369 patients met inclusion criteria. FDA publications documented that different definitions for diarrhea were used in linaclotide vs. plecanatide trials. Both drugs were efficacious in treating CIC (linaclotide 72 μg (Odds ratio (OR)=3.11, 95% CI 1.81-5.34); linaclotide 145 μg (OR=3.25, 2.15-4.91); plecanatide 3 mg (OR=1.99, 1.57-2.51)) and IBS-C (linaclotide 290 μg (OR=2.43, 1.48-3.98); plecanatide 3 mg (OR=1.87, 1.47-2.38); plecanatide 6 mg (OR=1.92, 1.48-2.48)). Diarrhea occurred in excess of placebo in treating CIC (linaclotide 72 μg (OR=3.07, 1.97-4.77); linaclotide 145 μg (OR=3.70, 2.69-5.10); plecanatide 3 mg (OR=3.86, 1.83-8.12)) and IBS-C (linaclotide 290 μg (OR=8.02, 5.20-12.37); plecanatide 3 mg (OR=5.55, 1.62-19.00); plecanatide 6 mg (OR=4.13, 1.57-10.83)). Based on meta-regression, there were no statistically significant differences between therapies in odds ratios for efficacy, diarrhea, or diarrhea-related study withdrawals. CONCLUSIONS:Both linaclotide and plecanatide demonstrate similar efficacy and tolerability in treating IBS-C and CIC. No differences in odds of diarrhea were seen between linaclotide and plecanatide. 10.1038/ajg.2017.495
    Activation of intestinal Cl- secretion by lubiprostone requires the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Bijvelds Marcel J C,Bot Alice G M,Escher Johanna C,De Jonge Hugo R Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Lubiprostone alleviates constipation by stimulating intestinal fluid secretion, purportedly through activation of ClC-2-type Cl(-) channels. Intestinal obstruction is also a recurrent cause of distress in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel activity. Because ClC-2 recruitment might be beneficial to CF patients, we investigated lubiprostone's mode of action. METHODS:Cl(-) transport was measured in an Ussing chamber, in 3 model systems: (1) T84 colonocytes, (2) intestinal epithelium of wild-type and CF mice, and (3) intestinal epithelium of CF patients and controls. RESULTS:In T84 monolayers, lubiprostone induced a robust secretory response. Selective permeabilization of the basolateral plasma membrane revealed that lubiprostone activated an apical Cl(-) conductance. The lubiprostone response was attenuated by H89, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and lubiprostone precluded responsiveness to the cAMP agonist forskolin. CFTR blockage by CFTRinh172, but not ClC-2 blockage by CdCl(2), inhibited the lubiprostone response. Lubiprostone induced a CdCl(2)-insensitive secretory response in mouse intestine, but failed to induce intestinal Cl(-) secretion in Cftr-null mice. Correspondingly, lubiprostone induced a secretory response in human intestinal epithelium, but not in tissue of CF patients. The EP(4)-type prostanoid receptor antagonist L-161,982 blocked the lubiprostone response in all 3 models studied. In T84 cells, lubiprostone induced a rise in cAMP levels that was sensitive to EP(4)-receptor blockage. CONCLUSIONS:Lubiprostone enhances intestinal Cl(-) and fluid secretion via prostanoid receptor signaling, triggering activation of CFTR. Therefore, it is of limited use for treatment of CF-related intestinal disease. 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.05.037
    MicroRNA 29 targets nuclear factor-κB-repressing factor and Claudin 1 to increase intestinal permeability. Zhou QiQi,Costinean Stefan,Croce Carlo M,Brasier Alan R,Merwat Shehzad,Larson Scott A,Basra Sarpreet,Verne G Nicholas Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Some patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) have intestinal hyperpermeability, which contributes to their diarrhea and abdominal pain. MicroRNA 29 (MIR29) regulates intestinal permeability in patients with IBS-D. We investigated and searched for targets of MIR29 and investigated the effects of disrupting Mir29 in mice. METHODS:We investigated expression MIR29A and B in intestinal biopsies collected during endoscopy from patients with IBS (n = 183) and without IBS (controls) (n = 36). Levels were correlated with disease phenotype. We also generated and studied Mir29(-/-) mice, in which expression of Mir29a and b, but not c, is lost. Colitis was induced by administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; intestinal tissues were collected and permeability was assessed. Microarray analysis was performed using tissues from Mir29(-/-) mice. Changes in levels of target genes were measured in human colonic epithelial cells and small intestinal epithelial cells after knockdown of MIR29 with anti-MIRs. RESULTS:Intestinal tissues from patients with IBS-D (but not IBS with constipation or controls) had increased levels of MIR29A and B, but reduced levels of Claudin-1 (CLDN1) and nuclear factor-κB-repressing factor (NKRF). Induction of colitis and water avoidance stress increased levels of Mir29a and Mir29b and intestinal permeability in wild-type mice; these increased intestinal permeability in colons of far fewer Mir29(-/-) mice. In microarray and knockdown experiments, MIR29A and B were found to reduce levels of NKRF and CLDN1 messenger RNA, and alter levels of other messenger RNAs that regulate intestinal permeability. CONCLUSIONS:Based on experiments in knockout mice and analyses of intestinal tissue samples from patients with IBS-D, MIR29 targets and reduces expression of CLDN1 and NKRF to increase intestinal permeability. Strategies to block MIR29 might be developed to restore intestinal permeability in patients with IBS-D. 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.09.037
    The receptor TGR5 mediates the prokinetic actions of intestinal bile acids and is required for normal defecation in mice. Alemi Farzad,Poole Daniel P,Chiu Jonathan,Schoonjans Kristina,Cattaruzza Fiore,Grider John R,Bunnett Nigel W,Corvera Carlos U Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Abnormal delivery of bile acids (BAs) to the colon as a result of disease or therapy causes constipation or diarrhea by unknown mechanisms. The G protein-coupled BA receptor TGR5 (or GPBAR1) is expressed by enteric neurons and endocrine cells, which regulate motility and secretion. METHODS:We analyzed gastrointestinal and colon transit, as well as defecation frequency and water content, in wild-type, knockout, and transgenic mice (trg5-wt, tgr5-ko, and tgr5-tg, respectively). We analyzed colon tissues for contractility, peristalsis, and transmitter release. RESULTS:Deoxycholic acid inhibited contractility of colonic longitudinal muscle from tgr5-wt but not tgr5-ko mice. Application of deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, or oleanolic acid (a selective agonist of TGR5) to the mucosa of tgr5-wt mice caused oral contraction and caudal relaxation, indicating peristalsis. BAs stimulated release of the peristaltic transmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine and calcitonin gene-related peptide; antagonists of these transmitters suppressed BA-induced peristalsis, consistent with localization of TGR5 to enterochromaffin cells and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. tgr5-ko mice did not undergo peristalsis or transmitter release in response to BAs. Mechanically induced peristalsis and transmitter release were not affected by deletion of tgr5. Whole-gut transit was 1.4-fold slower in tgr5-ko than tgr5-wt or tgr5-tg mice, whereas colonic transit was 2.2-fold faster in tgr5-tg mice. Defecation frequency was reduced 2.6-fold in tgr5-ko and increased 1.4-fold in tgr5-tg mice compared with tgr5-wt mice. Water content in stool was lower (37%) in tgr5-ko than tgr5-tg (58%) or tgr5-wt mice (62%). CONCLUSIONS:The receptor TGR5 mediates the effects of BAs on colonic motility, and deficiency of TGR5 causes constipation in mice. These findings might mediate the long-known laxative properties of BAs, and TGR5 might be a therapeutic target for digestive diseases. 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.09.055
    Na+-dependent bile acid transport in the ileum: the balance between diarrhea and constipation. van Tilburg A J,de Rooij F W,van Blankenstein M,van den Berg J W,Bosman-Jacobs E P Gastroenterology Ileal Na+-dependent bile acid transport was quantified in vitro as the uptake of 3H-taurocholate into brush-border membrane vesicles. Vesicles were prepared from ileal biopsies of 158 patients placed in 10 diagnostic categories. Active bile acid transport (expressed as picomoles taurocholate uptake per milligram brush-border membrane protein per 15 s, median and interquartile ranges indicated) did not differ significantly in 6 categories: irritable bowel syndrome (71, 35-97; n = 21), colon polyps (42, 30-89; n = 29), colitis (62, 33-91; n = 31), postvagotomy or postcholecystectomy (69, 37-97; n = 11), diarrhea without increased bile acid loss (58, 48-85; n = 12), and lack of gastrointestinal pathology (74, 45-103; n = 22). A decreased active bile acid transport was found in 3 categories: ileal disease (4, 1-36; n = 11), partial ileal resection (5, 1-35; n = 5), and constipation (41, 22-50; n = 8). Bile acid transport was increased in patients with bile acid-losing diarrhea with endoscopically and histologically normal ilea (111, 94-135; n = 8). These findings indicate that a low fecal bile acid loss, presumed to be present in constipated patients, is associated with a low Na+-dependent ileal bile acid transport and a high bile acid loss is associated with a high active bile acid transport. Ileal bile acid transport might be regulated by the availability of bile acids to the ileal enterocytes. 10.1016/0016-5085(90)91286-f
    Serotonin signalling in the gut--functions, dysfunctions and therapeutic targets. Mawe Gary M,Hoffman Jill M Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Serotonin (5-HT) has been recognized for decades as an important signalling molecule in the gut, but it is still revealing its secrets. Novel gastrointestinal functions of 5-HT continue to be discovered, as well as distant actions of gut-derived 5-HT, and we are learning how 5-HT signalling is altered in gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional functions of 5-HT involving intrinsic reflexes include stimulation of propulsive and segmentation motility patterns, epithelial secretion and vasodilation. Activation of extrinsic vagal and spinal afferent fibres results in slowed gastric emptying, pancreatic secretion, satiation, pain and discomfort, as well as nausea and vomiting. Within the gut, 5-HT also exerts nonconventional actions such as promoting inflammation and serving as a trophic factor to promote the development and maintenance of neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal. Platelet 5-HT, originating in the gut, promotes haemostasis, influences bone development and serves many other functions. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been used to treat functional disorders with diarrhoea or constipation, respectively, and the synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase has also been targeted. Emerging evidence suggests that exploiting epithelial targets with nonabsorbable serotonergic agents could provide safe and effective therapies. We provide an overview of these serotonergic actions and treatment strategies. 10.1038/nrgastro.2013.105
    Response to a behavioural treatment, biofeedback, in constipated patients is associated with improved gut transit and autonomic innervation. Emmanuel A V,Kamm M A Gut BACKGROUND:Although behavioural treatment (biofeedback) successfully treats the pelvic floor abnormalities in patients with idiopathic constipation, many patients also normalise their impaired bowel frequency. We postulated that a response may be associated with altered cerebral outflow via extrinsic autonomic nerves to the gut. We investigated whether treatment changes extrinsic innervation, using mucosal laser Doppler flowmetry, whether autonomic changes are gut specific, and whether it changes gut transit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty nine patients (44 female, mean age 39 years) with idiopathic constipation were studied before and after biofeedback treatment (mean five sessions). Rectal mucosal blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry to assess direct extrinsic gut nerve autonomic activity. To assess general autonomic activity, RR (interval between successive R waves on the electrocardiogram) variability, Valsalva ratio, orthostatic adjustment ratio, and phase II:IV blood pressure ratio (II:IV) of the Valsalva manoeuvre were measured. All autonomic tests were compared with those of 26 healthy volunteers (19 female, mean age 37 years). RESULTS:Twenty nine of 49 patients were symptomatically improved. Treatment reduced those with < or =3 bowel actions per week (27 v 9, pre v post), need to strain (26 v 9), and laxative or suppository use (34 v 9). Biofeedback reduced retained markers by 32% in those with slow transit and by 20% in those with normal transit. Twenty two had slow transit before treatment-14 felt symptomatic improvement of whom 13 developed normal transit. There was a significantly greater increase in rectal mucosal blood flow in patients who subjectively improved compared with those who did not (29% v 7%; p<0.03) and in those with improved bowel frequency (33% v 9%, increased v unchanged bowel frequency; p<0.05). Thirty five patients had abnormal RR variability and 33 an abnormal Valsalva ratio; one had an abnormal orthostatic adjustment ratio and one an abnormal II:IV ratio. None of the general cardiorespiratory autonomic reflexes was changed by treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Biofeedback treatment affects more than the pelvic floor. Successful outcome after biofeedback treatment is associated with improved activity of the direct cerebral innervation to the gut and improved gut transit. This effect is gut specific; cardiovascular autonomic reflexes were not altered. 10.1136/gut.49.2.214
    Non-conventional features of peripheral serotonin signalling - the gut and beyond. Spohn Stephanie N,Mawe Gary M Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Serotonin was first discovered in the gut, and its conventional actions as an intercellular signalling molecule in the intrinsic and extrinsic enteric reflexes are well recognized, as are a number of serotonin signalling pharmacotherapeutic targets for treatment of nausea, diarrhoea or constipation. The latest discoveries have greatly broadened our understanding of non-conventional actions of peripheral serotonin within the gastrointestinal tract and in a number of other tissues. For example, it is now clear that bacteria within the lumen of the bowel influence serotonin synthesis and release by enterochromaffin cells. Also, serotonin can act both as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling molecule in the intestinal mucosa via activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT or 5-HT receptors, respectively). For decades, serotonin receptors have been known to exist in a variety of tissues other than the gut, but studies have now provided strong evidence for physiological roles of serotonin in several important processes, including haematopoiesis, metabolic homeostasis and bone metabolism. Furthermore, evidence for serotonin synthesis in peripheral tissues outside of the gut is emerging. In this Review, we expand the discussion beyond gastrointestinal functions to highlight the roles of peripheral serotonin in colitis, haematopoiesis, energy and bone metabolism, and how serotonin is influenced by the gut microbiota. 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.51
    Is constipation caused by a loss of colonic interstitial cells of Cajal? Hasler William L Gastroenterology 10.1016/s0016-5085(03)00829-1
    Gut Microbiota-Produced Tryptamine Activates an Epithelial G-Protein-Coupled Receptor to Increase Colonic Secretion. Bhattarai Yogesh,Williams Brianna B,Battaglioli Eric J,Whitaker Weston R,Till Lisa,Grover Madhusudan,Linden David R,Akiba Yasutada,Kandimalla Karunya K,Zachos Nicholas C,Kaunitz Jonathan D,Sonnenburg Justin L,Fischbach Michael A,Farrugia Gianrico,Kashyap Purna C Cell host & microbe Tryptamine, a tryptophan-derived monoamine similar to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is produced by gut bacteria and is abundant in human and rodent feces. However, the physiologic effect of tryptamine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here, we show that the biological effects of tryptamine are mediated through the 5-HT receptor (5-HTR), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) uniquely expressed in the colonic epithelium. Tryptamine increases both ionic flux across the colonic epithelium and fluid secretion in colonoids from germ-free (GF) and humanized (ex-GF colonized with human stool) mice, consistent with increased intestinal secretion. The secretory effect of tryptamine is dependent on 5-HTR activation and is blocked by 5-HTR antagonist and absent in 5-HTR mice. GF mice colonized by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron engineered to produce tryptamine exhibit accelerated GI transit. Our study demonstrates an aspect of host physiology under control of a bacterial metabolite that can be exploited as a therapeutic modality. VIDEO ABSTRACT. 10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.004
    Severe defects in absorptive ion transport in distal colons of mice that lack ClC-2 channels. Catalán Marcelo A,Flores Carlos A,González-Begne Mireya,Zhang Yan,Sepúlveda Francisco V,Melvin James E Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The fluid secretion model predicts that intestinal obstruction disorders can be alleviated by promoting epithelial Cl(-) secretion. The adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-activated anion channel CFTR mediates Cl(-)-dependent fluid secretion in the intestine. Although the role of the ClC-2 channel has not been determined in the intestine, this voltage-gated Cl(-) channel might compensate for the secretory defects observed in patients with cystic fibrosis and other chronic constipation disorders. We investigated whether mice that lack ClC-2 channels (Clcn2(-/-)) have defects in intestinal ion transport. METHODS:Immunolocalization and immunoblot analyses were used to determine the cellular localization and the amount of ClC-2 expressed in mouse early distal colon (EDC) and late distal colon (LDC). Colon sheets from wild-type and Clcn2(-/-) littermates were mounted in Ussing chambers to determine transepithelial bioelectrical parameters and Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) fluxes. RESULTS:Expression of ClC-2 was higher in the basolateral membrane of surface cells in the EDC compared with the LDC, with little expression in crypts. Neither cAMP nor Ca(2+)-induced secretion of Cl(-) was affected in the EDC or LDC of Clcn2(-/-) mice, whereas the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current was increased approximately 3-fold in Clcn2(-/-) EDC compared with control littermates. Conversely, electroneutral Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) absorption was dramatically reduced in colons of Clcn2(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS:Basolateral ClC-2 channels are required for colonic electroneutral absorption of NaCl and KCl. The increase in the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current in Clcn2(-/-) mice revealed a compensatory mechanism that is activated in the colons of mice that lack the ClC-2 channel. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.10.037
    Guanylate cyclase-C as a therapeutic target in gastrointestinal disorders. Waldman Scott A,Camilleri Michael Gut Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and IBDs are two of the most prevalent disorders of the GI tract and consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources. Recent studies have shown that membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors lining the GI tract may serve as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of FGIDs and IBDs. GC-C receptor activation by its endogenous paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the resulting intracellular production of its downstream effector cyclic GMP, occurs in a pH-dependent manner and modulates key physiological functions. These include fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, maintenance of the intestinal barrier, anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of epithelial regeneration. Studies of the GC-C paracrine signalling axis have revealed the therapeutic potential of these receptors in treating GI disorders, including chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome-constipation. This review focuses on the evolving understanding of GC-C function in health and disease, and strategies for translating these principles into new treatments for FGIDs and IBDs. 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316029
    Activation of TREK-1 by morphine results in analgesia without adverse side effects. Devilliers Maïly,Busserolles Jérôme,Lolignier Stéphane,Deval Emmanuel,Pereira Vanessa,Alloui Abdelkrim,Christin Marine,Mazet Bruno,Delmas Patrick,Noel Jacques,Lazdunski Michel,Eschalier Alain Nature communications Morphine is the gold-standard pain reliever for severe acute or chronic pain but it also produces adverse side effects that can alter the quality of life of patients and, in some rare cases, jeopardize the vital prognosis. Morphine elicits both therapeutic and adverse effects primarily through the same μ opioid receptor subtype, which makes it difficult to separate the two types of effects. Here we show that beneficial and deleterious effects of morphine are mediated through different signalling pathways downstream from μ opioid receptor. We demonstrate that the TREK-1 K(+) channel is a crucial contributor of morphine-induced analgesia in mice, while it is not involved in morphine-induced constipation, respiratory depression and dependence-three main adverse effects of opioid analgesic therapy. These observations suggest that direct activation of the TREK-1 K(+) channel, acting downstream from the μ opioid receptor, might have strong analgesic effects without opioid-like adverse effects. 10.1038/ncomms3941
    Decreased interstitial cell of cajal volume in patients with slow-transit constipation. He C L,Burgart L,Wang L,Pemberton J,Young-Fadok T,Szurszewski J,Farrugia G Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The cause of slow-transit constipation is incompletely understood. Recent observations suggest a central role for interstitial cells of Cajal in the control of intestinal motility. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of interstitial cells of Cajal in the normal sigmoid colon and in the sigmoid colon from patients with slow transit constipation. METHODS:Sigmoid colonic samples were stained with antibodies to protein gene product 9.5, c-Kit, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Three-dimensional reconstruction of regions of interest was performed using consecutive images collected on a laser scanning confocal microscope and ANALYZE software. RESULTS:Volume of interstitial cells of Cajal was significantly decreased in all layers of sigmoid colonic specimens from patients with slow-transit constipation compared with normal controls. Neuronal structures within the colonic circular smooth muscle layer were also decreased. CONCLUSIONS:A decrease in the volume of interstitial cells of Cajal may play an important role in the pathophysiology of slow-transit constipation. 10.1016/s0016-5085(00)70409-4
    Constipation and its management. Kamm Michael A BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 10.1136/bmj.327.7413.459
    Chronic constipation. Laughton James The New England journal of medicine
    Guanylate cyclase C agonists: emerging gastrointestinal therapies and actions. Camilleri Michael Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.01.003
    Turning classical bile acid physiology into everyday pharmacology: impact of a bile acid transporter inhibitor on chronic constipation. Quigley Eamonn M M Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.05.026
    Chronic constipation. Brisinda Giuseppe,Cadeddu Federica,Maria Giorgio The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJM200403183501219
    Chronic constipation. Lembo Anthony,Camilleri Michael The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMra020995
    Enteric nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal are altered in patients with slow-transit constipation and megacolon. Wedel Thilo,Spiegler Juliane,Soellner Stefan,Roblick Uwe J,Schiedeck Thomas H K,Bruch Hans-Peter,Krammer Heinz-Juergen Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:A variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders have been attributed to alterations of interstitial cells of Cajal and malformations of the enteric nervous system. This study evaluates both the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal and the pathohistology of the enteric nervous system in 2 severe human colorectal motility disorders. METHODS:Colonic specimens obtained from patients with slow-transit constipation (n = 11), patients with megacolon (n = 6), and a control group (n = 13, nonobstructing neoplasia) were stained with antibodies against c-kit (marker for interstitial cells of Cajal) and protein gene product 9.5 (neuronal marker). The morphometric analysis of interstitial cells of Cajal included the separate registration of the number and process length within the different regions of the muscularis propria. The structural architecture of the enteric nervous system was assessed on microdissected whole-mount preparations. RESULTS:In patients with slow-transit constipation, the number of interstitial cells of Cajal was significantly decreased in all layers except the outer longitudinal muscle layer. The myenteric plexus showed a reduced ganglionic density and size (moderate hypoganglionosis) compared with the control group. Patients with megacolon were characterized by a substantial decrease in both the number and the process length of interstitial cells of Cajal. The myenteric plexus exhibited either complete aganglionosis or severe hypoganglionosis. CONCLUSIONS:The enteric nervous system and interstitial cells of Cajal are altered concomitantly in slow-transit constipation and megacolon and may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of colorectal motility disorders. 10.1053/gast.2002.36600
    Association of distinct alpha(2) adrenoceptor and serotonin transporter polymorphisms with constipation and somatic symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Kim H J,Camilleri M,Carlson P J,Cremonini F,Ferber I,Stephens D,McKinzie S,Zinsmeister A R,Urrutia R Gut BACKGROUND:The role of genetics in the phenotypic manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unclear. Our aims were: (1) to compare the prevalence of polymorphisms of alpha 2 (alpha(2)) adrenoceptors, norepinephrine transporter, and serotonin transporter protein (soluble carrier protein member 4 (SLC6A4)) promoter in patients with lower functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and in healthy controls; and (2) to test associations of these genetic variations with symptoms of IBS and high somatic symptom scores. METHODS:Validated bowel and somatic symptom questionnaires characterised the phenotype: 90 with IBS constipation (IBS-C), 128 IBS diarrhoea, 38 IBS alternating bowel function, and 20 chronic abdominal pain. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of different polymorphisms for alpha(2) adrenoceptor and SLC6A4 with IBS or chronic abdominal pain phenotypes and high somatic score. RESULTS:Two distinct polymorphisms independently appeared to be associated with the phenotype IBS-C: alpha(2C) Del 322-325 (odds ratio (OR) 2.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 6.28); p = 0.05) and alpha(2A) -1291 (C-->G) (OR 1.66 (95% CI 0.94, 2.92); p = 0.08) relative to wild-type. Overall, the alpha(2C) Del 322-325 polymorphism (alone or combined with other polymorphisms) was also significantly associated with a high somatic symptom score (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.06, 4.64); p = 0.03). Combinations of polymorphisms were also associated with high somatic scores. CONCLUSION:Functionally distinct alpha(2A) and alpha(2C) adrenoceptor and serotonin transporter polymorphisms are associated with constipation and high somatic symptoms in patients with lower functional gastrointestinal disorders, although the strength of the genetic contribution to the phenotype is unclear. 10.1136/gut.2003.030882
    Pan-colonic decrease in interstitial cells of Cajal in patients with slow transit constipation. Lyford G L,He C-L,Soffer E,Hull T L,Strong S A,Senagore A J,Burgart L J,Young-Fadok T,Szurszewski J H,Farrugia G Gut BACKGROUND:Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required for normal intestinal motility. ICC are found throughout the human colon and are decreased in the sigmoid colon of patients with slow transit constipation. AIMS:The aims of this study were to determine the normal distribution of ICC within the human colon and to determine if ICC are decreased throughout the colon in slow transit constipation. PATIENTS:The caecum, ascending, transverse, and sigmoid colons from six patients with slow transit constipation and colonic tissue from patients with resected colon cancer were used for this study. METHODS:ICC cells were identified with a polyclonal antibody to c-Kit, serial 0.5 microm sections were obtained by confocal microscopy, and three dimensional software was employed to reconstruct the entire thickness of the colonic muscularis propria and submucosa. RESULTS:ICC were located within both the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Two networks of ICC were identified, one in the myenteric plexus region and another, less defined network, in the submucosal border. Caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and sigmoid colon displayed similar ICC volumes. ICC volume was significantly lower in the slow transit constipation patients across all colonic regions. CONCLUSIONS:The data suggest that ICC distribution is relatively uniform throughout the human colon and that decreased ICC volume is pan-colonic in idiopathic slow transit constipation. 10.1136/gut.51.4.496
    Analysis of the c-kit gene in patients with slow transit constipation. Tong W-D,Liu B-H,Zhang L-Y,Zhang S-B Gut 10.1136/gut.2006.094953
    Ghrelin and motilin receptors as drug targets for gastrointestinal disorders. Sanger Gareth J,Furness John B Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology The gastrointestinal tract is the major source of the related hormones ghrelin and motilin, which act on structurally similar G protein-coupled receptors. Nevertheless, selective receptor agonists are available. The primary roles of endogenous ghrelin and motilin in the digestive system are to increase appetite or hedonic eating (ghrelin) and initiate phase III of gastric migrating myoelectric complexes (motilin). Ghrelin and motilin also both inhibit nausea. In clinical trials, the motilin receptor agonist camicinal increased gastric emptying, but at lower doses reduced gastroparesis symptoms and improved appetite. Ghrelin receptor agonists have been trialled for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis because of their ability to increase gastric emptying, but with mixed results; however, relamorelin, a ghrelin agonist, reduced nausea and vomiting in patients with this disorder. Treatment of postoperative ileus with a ghrelin receptor agonist proved unsuccessful. Centrally penetrant ghrelin receptor agonists stimulate defecation in animals and humans, although ghrelin itself does not seem to control colorectal function. Thus, the most promising uses of motilin receptor agonists are the treatment of gastroparesis or conditions with slow gastric emptying, and ghrelin receptor agonists hold potential for the reduction of nausea and vomiting, and the treatment of constipation. Therapeutic, gastrointestinal roles for receptor antagonists or inverse agonists have not been identified. 10.1038/nrgastro.2015.163
    Altered 5-hydroxytryptamine signaling in patients with constipation- and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Atkinson Wendy,Lockhart Stephen,Whorwell Peter J,Keevil Brian,Houghton Lesley A Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Evidence suggests that postprandial platelet-depleted plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentrations may be abnormal in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, interpretation of the data has been hampered by the variable methodology and rather small numbers used in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure concentrations of platelet-depleted plasma 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA under fasting and fed conditions in a large group of patients with diarrhea-predominant (d-) and constipation-predominant (c-) IBS, compared with controls. The ratio of plasma 5-HIAA:5-HT and platelet stores was also assessed. METHODS:Twenty-nine c-IBS patients (aged, 19-53 years), 55 d-IBS patients (aged, 19-52 years), and 35 healthy volunteers (aged, 18-46 years) had platelet-depleted plasma 5-HT/5-HIAA concentrations measured using reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection before and after a standard meal. RESULTS:d-IBS patients had raised platelet-depleted plasma 5-HT concentrations under fasting and fed conditions (P < .05). However, the postprandial relative to fasting concentration was similar to controls. In contrast, c-IBS patients failed to show an increase in platelet-depleted plasma 5-HT concentration with meal ingestion compared with controls (P < .01). c-IBS was associated with decreased 5-HIAA (P < .01) but normal 5-HIAA:5-HT ratio and d-IBS with normal 5-HIAA concentrations but reduced 5-HIAA:5-HT ratio (P < .005). C-IBS but not d-IBS patients had increased platelet 5-HT. CONCLUSIONS:These results support the concept that d-IBS is characterized by reduced 5-HT reuptake, whereas impaired release may be a feature of c-IBS. These results also provide a rational basis for current pharmacologic approaches involving modulation of different 5-HT receptors in c- and d-IBS. 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.09.031
    New perspectives in the diagnosis and management of enteric neuropathies. Knowles Charles H,Lindberg Greger,Panza Emanuele,De Giorgio Roberto Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Chronic disturbances of gastrointestinal function encompass a wide spectrum of clinical disorders that range from common conditions with mild-to-moderate symptoms to rare diseases characterized by a severe impairment of digestive function, including chronic pain, vomiting, bloating and severe constipation. Patients at the clinically severe end of the spectrum can have profound changes in gut transit and motility. In a subset of these patients, histopathological analyses have revealed abnormalities of the gut innervation, including the enteric nervous system, termed enteric neuropathies. This Review discusses advances in the diagnosis and management of the main clinical entities--achalasia, gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and chronic constipation--that result from enteric neuropathies, including both primary and secondary forms. We focus on the various evident neuropathologies (degenerative and inflammatory) of these disorders and, where possible, present the specific implications of histological diagnosis to contemporary treatment. This knowledge could enable the future development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches. 10.1038/nrgastro.2013.18
    The role of glial cells and apoptosis of enteric neurones in the neuropathology of intractable slow transit constipation. Bassotti G,Villanacci V,Maurer C A,Fisogni S,Di Fabio F,Cadei M,Morelli A,Panagiotis T,Cathomas G,Salerni B Gut BACKGROUND:Idiopathic slow transit constipation is one of the most severe and often intractable forms of constipation. As motor abnormalities are thought to play an important pathogenetic role, studies have been performed on the colonic neuroenteric system, which rules the motor aspects of the viscus. AIMS:We hypothesised that important neuropathological abnormalities of the large bowel are present, that these are not confined to the interstitial cells of Cajal and ganglion cells, and that the previously described reduction of enteric neurones, if confirmed, might be related to an increase in programmed cell death (apoptosis). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Surgical specimens from 26 severely constipated patients were assessed by conventional and immunohistochemical methods. Specific staining for enteric neurones, glial cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, and fibroblast-like cells associated with the latter were used. In addition, gangliar cell apoptosis was evaluated by means of indirect and direct techniques. Data from patients were compared with those obtained in 10 controls. RESULTS:Severely constipated patients displayed a significant decrease in enteric gangliar cells, glial cells, and interstitial cells of Cajal. Fibroblast-like cells associated with the latter did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Patients had significantly more apoptotic enteric neurones than controls. CONCLUSION:Severely constipated patients have important neuroenteric abnormalities, not confined to gangliar cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. The reduction of enteric neurones may in part be due to increased apoptotic phenomena. 10.1136/gut.2005.073197
    Role of progesterone signaling in the regulation of G-protein levels in female chronic constipation. Xiao Zuo-Liang,Pricolo Victor,Biancani Piero,Behar Jose Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic constipation caused by slow transit is common in women with an F/M ratio of 9:1. The cause and mechanisms responsible for this syndrome are unknown. Progesterone has been suggested as a possible contributing factor. Our aim was to investigate the site and mechanisms responsible for this colonic motility disorder. METHODS:Seven women with intractable constipation and slow transit time underwent colectomy and 6 women who underwent a left colectomy for adenocarcinoma (controls) were studied. Dissociated colonic circular muscle cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion. Changes in G-protein levels were measured by Western blot. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Galpha q and progesterone receptors was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot. RESULTS:Muscle cells from patients with chronic constipation exhibited impaired contraction in response to receptor-G-protein-dependent agonists (cholecystokinin [CCK], acetylcholine) and in response to the direct G-protein activator guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiophosphate). Contraction was normal with receptor-G-protein-independent agonists (diacylglycerol and KCl). Western blot showed down-regulation of Galpha q/11 and up-regulation of Galpha s proteins in patients with chronic constipation. The mRNA expression of Galpha q was lower and the progesterone receptors were overexpressed in patients with chronic constipation compared with controls. These abnormalities were reproduced in vitro by pretreatment of normal colonic muscle cells with progesterone for 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS:Slow transit chronic constipation in women may be caused by down-regulation of contractile G proteins and up-regulation of inhibitory G proteins, probably caused by overexpression of progesterone receptors. 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.12.001
    Abnormalities of prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase enzymes in female patients with slow-transit constipation. Cong Ping,Pricolo Victor,Biancani Piero,Behar Jose Gastroenterology BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Chronic constipation due to slow transit (STC) is more common in female than in male patients. We have previously shown that these gender differences may be due to over expression of progesterone (PG) receptors that alter G protein patterns. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the impaired basal colonic motility in female patients with STC. METHODS:Muscle tissues from females with STC and controls with adeno-carcinoma of the colon were studied. Prostaglandins were determined by immunoassay, COX enzymes by Western blot and COX enzymes and progesterone receptors mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS:STC patients had impaired colonic motility index, lower TxA(2) and PGF(2) and higher PGE(2) levels than controls. STC had lower COX-1 protein and mRNA levels and higher COX-2 protein and mRNA levels than controls. These abnormalities were reproduced in normal colonic muscle cells treated with PG for 6 h. STC patients had higher PG receptor protein expression and mRNA levels than controls suggesting over expression of these receptors. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the impaired motility index of STC is due to abnormal levels of prostaglandin and COX enzymes, probably caused by an over expression of PG receptors that make muscle cells more sensitive to circulating levels of PG. 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.05.021
    Effects of Serotonin and Slow-Release 5-Hydroxytryptophan on Gastrointestinal Motility in a Mouse Model of Depression. Israelyan Narek,Del Colle Andrew,Li Zhishan,Park Yeji,Xing Albert,Jacobsen Jacob P R,Luna Ruth Ann,Jensen Dane D,Madra Moneek,Saurman Virginia,Rahim Ray,Latorre Rocco,Law Kimberly,Carson William,Bunnett Nigel W,Caron Marc G,Margolis Kara G Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Mood disorders and constipation are often comorbid, yet their shared etiologies have rarely been explored. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) regulates central nervous system and enteric nervous system (ENS) development and long-term functions, including gastrointestinal (GI) motility and mood. Therefore, defects in neuron production of 5-HT might result in brain and intestinal dysfunction. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis. A variant of TPH2 that encodes the R441H substitution (TPH2-R441H) was identified in individuals with severe depression. We studied mice with an analogous mutation (TPH2-R439H), which results in a 60%-80% decrease in levels of 5-HT in the central nervous system and behaviors associated with depression in humans. Feeding chow that contains 5-HTP slow release (5-HTP SR) to TPH2-R439H mice restores levels of 5-HT in the central nervous system and reduces depressive-like behaviors. METHODS:We compared the effects of feeding chow, with or without 5-HTP SR, to mice with the TPH2-R439H mutation and without this mutation (control mice). Myenteric and submucosal plexuses were isolated from all 4 groups of mice, and immunocytochemistry was used to quantify total enteric neurons, serotonergic neurons, and 5-HT-dependent subsets of neurons. We performed calcium imaging experiments to evaluate responses of enteric neurons to tryptamine-evoked release of endogenous 5-HT. In live mice, we measured total GI transit, gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and propulsive colorectal motility. To measure colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), we isolated colons and constructed spatiotemporal maps along the proximodistal length to quantify the frequency, velocity, and length of CMMCs. We measured villus height, crypt perimeter, and relative densities of enterochromaffin and enteroendocrine cells in small intestinal tissue. RESULTS:Levels of 5-HT were significantly lower in enteric neurons from TPH2-R439H mice than from control mice. TPH2-R439H mice had abnormalities in ENS development and ENS-mediated GI functions, including reduced motility and intestinal epithelial growth. Total GI transit and propulsive colorectal motility were slower in TPH2-R439H mice than controls, and CMMCs were slower and less frequent. Villus height and crypt perimeter were significantly decreased in colon tissues from TPH2-R439H mice compared with controls. Administration of 5-HTP SR to adult TPH2-R439H mice restored 5-HT to enteric neurons and reversed these abnormalities. Adult TPH2-R439H mice given oral 5-HTP SR had normalized numbers of enteric neurons, total GI transit, and colonic motility. Intestinal tissue from these mice had normal measures of CMMCs and enteric epithelial growth CONCLUSIONS: In studies of TPH2-R439H mice, we found evidence for reduced release of 5-HT from enteric neurons that results in defects in ENS development and GI motility. Our findings indicate that neuron production of 5-HT links constipation with mood dysfunction. Administration of 5-HTP SR to mice restored 5-HT to the ENS and normalized GI motility and growth of the enteric epithelium. 5-HTP SR might be used to treat patients with intestinal dysfunction associated with low levels of 5-HT. 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.022
    The cost of constipation. The Lancet Gastroenterology Hepatology The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30297-3
    microRNA overexpression in slow transit constipation leads to reduced Na1.5 current and altered smooth muscle contractility. Mazzone Amelia,Strege Peter R,Gibbons Simon J,Alcaino Constanza,Joshi Vikram,Haak Andrew J,Tschumperlin Daniel J,Bernard Cheryl E,Cima Robert R,Larson David W,Chua Heidi K,Graham Rondell P,El Refaey Mona,Mohler Peter J,Hayashi Yujiro,Ordog Tamas,Calder Stefan,Du Peng,Farrugia Gianrico,Beyder Arthur Gut OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to evaluate the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in slow transit constipation (STC). DESIGN:All human tissue samples were from the of the colon. Expression of 372 miRNAs was examined in a discovery cohort of four patients with STC versus three age/sex-matched controls by a quantitative PCR array. Upregulated miRNAs were examined by quantitative reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) in a validation cohort of seven patients with STC and age/sex-matched controls. The effect of a highly differentially expressed miRNA on a custom human smooth muscle cell line was examined by RT-qPCR, electrophysiology, traction force microscopy, and ex vivo by lentiviral transduction in rat organotypic cultures. RESULTS:The expression of 13 miRNAs was increased in STC samples. Of those miRNAs, four were predicted to target , the gene that encodes the Na channel Na1.5. The expression of mRNA was decreased in STC samples. Let-7f significantly decreased Na current density in vitro in human smooth muscle cells. In rat organotypic cultures, overexpression of let-7f resulted in reduced frequency and amplitude of contraction. CONCLUSIONS:A small group of miRNAs is upregulated in STC, and many of these miRNAs target the SCN5A-encoded Na channel Na1.5. Within this set, a novel Na1.5 regulator, let-7f, resulted in decreased Na1.5 expression, current density and reduced motility of GI smooth muscle. These results suggest Na1.5 and miRNAs as novel diagnostic and potential therapeutic targets in STC. 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318747
    JAMA patient page. Constipation. Sugerman Deborah Tolmach JAMA 10.1001/jama.2013.278592
    Constipation: Dried plums (prunes) for the treatment of constipation. Scott S Mark,Knowles Charles H Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1038/nrgastro.2011.82
    Genetic variants in CDC42 and NXPH1 as susceptibility factors for constipation and diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Wouters Mira M,Lambrechts Diether,Knapp Michael,Cleynen Isabelle,Whorwell Peter,Agréus Lars,Dlugosz Aldona,Schmidt Peter Thelin,Halfvarson Jonas,Simrén Magnus,Ohlsson Bodil,Karling Pontus,Van Wanrooy Sander,Mondelaers Stéphanie,Vermeire Severine,Lindberg Greger,Spiller Robin,Dukes George,D'Amato Mauro,Boeckxstaens Guy Gut OBJECTIVE:The complex genetic aetiology underlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) needs to be assessed in large-scale genetic studies. Two independent IBS cohorts were genotyped to assess whether genetic variability in immune, neuronal and barrier integrity genes is associated with IBS. DESIGN:384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 270 genes were genotyped in an exploratory cohort (935 IBS patients, 639 controls). 33 SNPs with Puncorrected<0.05 were validated in an independent set of 497 patients and 887 controls. Genotype distributions of single SNPs were assessed using an additive genetic model in IBS and clinical subtypes, IBS-C and IBS-D, both in individual and combined cohorts. Trait anxiety (N=614 patients, 533 controls), lifetime depression (N=654 patients, 533 controls) and mRNA expression in rectal biopsies (N=22 patients, 29 controls) were correlated with SNP genotypes. RESULTS:Two SNPs associated independently in the exploratory and validation cohort: rs17837965-CDC42 with IBS-C (ORexploratory=1.59 (1.05 to 1.76); ORvalidation=1.76 (1.03 to 3.01)) and rs2349775-NXPH1 with IBS-D (ORexploratory=1.28 (1.06 to 1.56); ORvalidation=1.42 (1.08 to 1.88)). When combining both cohorts, the association of rs2349775 withstood post hoc correction for multiple testing in the IBS-D subgroup. Additionally, three SNPs in immune-related genes (rs1464510-LPP, rs1881457-IL13, rs2104286-IL2RA), one SNP in a neuronal gene (rs2349775-NXPH1) and two SNPs in epithelial genes (rs245051-SLC26A2, rs17837965-CDC42) were weakly associated with total-IBS (Puncorrected<0.05). At the functional level, rs1881457 increased IL13 mRNA levels, whereas anxiety and depression scores did not correlate with rs2349775-NXPH1. CONCLUSIONS:Rs2349775 (NXPH1) and rs17837965 (CDC42) were associated with IBS-D and IBS-C, respectively, in two independent cohorts. Further studies are warranted to validate our findings and to determine the mechanisms underlying IBS pathophysiology. 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304570
    JAMA PATIENT PAGE. Treating Constipation With Medications. Wald Arnold JAMA 10.1001/jama.2015.17993
    Constipation and the Microbiome: Lumen Versus Mucosa! Quigley Eamonn M M,Spiller Robin C Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.12.023
    Relief for Chronic Constipation. Voelker Rebecca JAMA 10.1001/jama.2017.1065
    A Rare Cause of Chronic Constipation. Phipps Kyle D,Wrogemann Jens,El-Matary Wael Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.005
    Review: Prucalopride, velusetrag, bisacodyl, and sodium picosulfate improve chronic idiopathic constipation. Nee Judy,Feuerstein Joseph D Annals of internal medicine 10.7326/ACPJC-2016-165-8-041
    Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Management of Chronic Constipation. Bharucha Adil E,Lacy Brian E Gastroenterology With a worldwide prevalence of 15%, chronic constipation is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal diagnoses made in ambulatory medicine clinics, and is a common source cause for referrals to gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the United States. Symptoms vary among patients; straining, incomplete evacuation, and a sense of anorectal blockage are just as important as decreased stool frequency. Chronic constipation is either a primary disorder (such as normal transit, slow transit, or defecatory disorders) or a secondary one (due to medications or, in rare cases, anatomic alterations). Colonic sensorimotor disturbances and pelvic floor dysfunction (such as defecatory disorders) are the most widely recognized pathogenic mechanisms. Guided by efficacy and cost, management of constipation should begin with dietary fiber supplementation and stimulant and/or osmotic laxatives, as appropriate, followed, if necessary, by intestinal secretagogues and/or prokinetic agents. Peripherally acting μ-opiate antagonists are another option for opioid-induced constipation. Anorectal tests to evaluate for defecatory disorders should be performed in patients who do not respond to over-the-counter agents. Colonic transit, followed if necessary with assessment of colonic motility with manometry and/or a barostat, can identify colonic dysmotility. Defecatory disorders often respond to biofeedback therapy. For specific patients, slow-transit constipation may necessitate a colectomy. No studies have compared inexpensive laxatives with newer drugs with different mechanisms. We review the mechanisms, evaluation, and management of chronic constipation. We discuss the importance of meticulous analyses of patient history and physical examination, advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic testing, guidance for individualized treatment, and management of medically refractory patients. 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.034
    Motility. CO2-releasing suppository quickly and effectively relieves constipation. Greenhill Claire Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1038/nrgastro.2014.116
    Efficacy of drugs in chronic idiopathic constipation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Luthra Pavit,Camilleri Michael,Burr Nicholas E,Quigley Eamonn M M,Black Christopher J,Ford Alexander C The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:There are several drugs available for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation, but their relative efficacy is unclear because there have been no head-to-head randomised controlled trials. We did a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of these therapies in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. METHODS:We searched Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials published from inception to week 3 June, 2019, to identify randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of drugs (osmotic or stimulant laxatives, elobixibat, linaclotide, lubiprostone, mizagliflozin, naronapride, plecanatide, prucalopride, tegaserod, tenapanor, or velusetrag) in adults with chronic idiopathic constipation. Participants had to be treated for a minimum of 4 weeks, and we extracted data for all endpoints preferentially at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, or both. Trials included in the analysis reported a dichotomous assessment of overall response to therapy (response or no response to therapy). We pooled the data using a random effects model, and reported efficacy and safety of all treatments as a pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs to summarise the effect of each comparison tested. To rank treatments, we used P-scores, which measure the extent of certainty that a treatment is better than another treatment, averaged over all competing treatments. FINDINGS:We identified 33 eligible randomised controlled trials of drugs, comprising 17 214 patients. Based on an endpoint of failure to achieve three or more complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) per week, the stimulant diphenyl methane laxatives bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate, at a dose of 10 mg once daily, were ranked first at 4 weeks (RR 0·55, 95% CI 0·48-0·63, P-score 0·99), and prucalopride 2 mg once daily ranked first at 12 weeks (0·82, 0·78-0·86, P-score 0·96). When response to therapy was defined as falilure to achieve an increase of one or more CSBM per week from baseline, diphenyl methane laxatives at a dose of 10 mg once daily ranked first at 4 weeks (0·44, 0·37-0·54, P-score 0·99), with prucalopride 4 mg once daily ranked first at 12 weeks (0·74, 0·66-0·83, P-score 0·79), although linaclotide 290 μg once daily and prucalopride 2 mg once daily had similar efficacy (P-scores of 0·76 and 0·71, respectively). Bisacodyl ranked last in terms of safety for total number of adverse events and abdominal pain (P-score 0·08). INTERPRETATION:Almost all drugs studied were superior to placebo, according to either failure to achieve three or more CSBMs per week or or failure to achieve an increase of one or more CSBM per week over baseline. Although diphenyl methane laxatives ranked first at 4 weeks, patients with milder symptoms might have been included in these trials. Prucalopride ranked first at 12 weeks, and many of the included trials recruited patients who previously did not respond to laxatives, suggesting that this drug is likely to be the most efficacious for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. However, because treatment duration in most trials was 4-12 weeks, the long-term relative efficacy of these drugs is unknown. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30246-8
    Agents that act luminally to treat diarrhoea and constipation. Menees Stacy,Saad Richard,Chey William D Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Diarrhoea and constipation are common clinical complaints that negatively affect quality of life, reduce work productivity and lead to considerable health-care expenditure. A variety of therapies have been used to treat these conditions. Unlike drugs that require systemic absorption to exert their effects, luminally acting agents improve diarrhoea and constipation by altering intestinal and/or colonic motility, as well as mucosal absorption and secretion, through a variety of mechanisms. Examples of luminally acting agents for diarrhoea include peripherally acting opiate analogues, enkephalinase inhibitors, bile-acid binding agents, nonabsorbed antibiotics, probiotics, bismuth-containing compounds, berberine and agents with possible effects on intestinal secretion or permeability. Luminally acting drugs for constipation include bulking agents, surfactants, osmotics, stimulants, chloride-channel activators, probiotics, drugs that increase delivery of bile acids to the colon and natural therapies such as prunes and hemp seed extract. As the physiological effects of luminally acting drugs are largely confined to the gastrointestinal tract, these agents are unlikely to cause adverse effects outside of the gastrointestinal tract. 10.1038/nrgastro.2012.162
    JAMA PATIENT PAGE. Constipation. Wald Arnold JAMA 10.1001/jama.2015.17991
    How Effective Are Secretagogues for Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation. Pannemans Jasper,Tack Jan Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.005
    A randomised controlled study of the effect of cholinesterase inhibition on colon function in patients with diabetes mellitus and constipation. Bharucha Adil E,Low Phillip,Camilleri Michael,Veil Erica,Burton Duane,Kudva Yogish,Shah Pankaj,Gehrking Tonette,Zinsmeister Alan R Gut OBJECTIVES:Chronic constipation in diabetes mellitus is associated with colonic motor dysfunction and is managed with laxatives. Cholinesterase inhibitors increase colonic motility. This study evaluated the effects of a cholinesterase inhibitor on gastrointestinal and colonic transit and bowel function in diabetic patients with constipation. DESIGN:After a 9-day baseline period, 30 patients (mean ± SEM age 50 ± 2 years) with diabetes mellitus (18 type 1, 12 type 2) and chronic constipation without defaecatory disorder were randomised to oral placebo or pyridostigmine, starting with 60 mg three times a day, increasing by 60 mg every third day up to the maximum tolerated dose or 120 mg three times a day; this dose was maintained for 7 days. Gastrointestinal and colonic transit (assessed by scintigraphy) and bowel function were evaluated at baseline and the final 3 and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment effects were compared using analysis of covariance, with gender, body mass index and baseline colonic transit as covariates. RESULTS:19 patients (63%) had moderate or severe autonomic dysfunction; 16 (53%) had diabetic retinopathy. 14 of 16 patients randomised to pyridostigmine tolerated 360 mg daily; two patients took 180 mg daily. Compared with placebo (mean ± SEM 1.98 ± 0.17 (baseline), 1.84 ± 0.16 (treatment)), pyridostigmine accelerated (1.96 ± 0.18 (baseline), 2.45 ± 0.2 units (treatment), p<0.01) overall colonic transit at 24 h, but not gastric emptying or small-intestinal transit. Treatment effects on stool frequency, consistency and ease of passage were significant (p ≤ 0.04). Cholinergic side effects were somewhat more common with pyridostigmine (p=0.14) than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Cholinesterase inhibition with oral pyridostigmine accelerates colonic transit and improves bowel function in diabetic patients with chronic constipation. 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302483
    Rome III functional constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are similar disorders within a spectrum of sensitization, regulated by serotonin. Shekhar Chander,Monaghan Phillip J,Morris Julie,Issa Basma,Whorwell Peter J,Keevil Brian,Houghton Lesley A Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and patients with functional constipation (FC) have similar symptoms, and these disorders overlap in their diagnostic features. Little is known about their overlap in physiology or the involvement of serotonin signaling. We investigated relationships between platelet-depleted plasma concentrations of serotonin, gastrointestinal symptoms, and motor-sensory function in patients with FC or IBS-C compared with healthy volunteers (controls). METHODS:We measured platelet-depleted plasma concentrations of serotonin in fasting and fed individuals with IBS-C (n = 23; 19-50 years old), FC (n = 11; 25-46 years old), and controls (n = 23; 20-49 years old) recruited in Manchester, UK. We also quantified abdominal and bowel-related symptoms, rectal sensitivity, oro-cecal transit, and colonic (whole intestine) transit. RESULTS:Patients with IBS-C or FC had similar baseline symptoms, bowel habits, oro-cecal and colonic transit, and fasting concentrations of serotonin and response to meal ingestion. Only patients with IBS-C had increased symptoms after ingestion of a meal (P < .001)-these patients tended to have lower sensory thresholds than patients with FC. Defecation frequency in the combined group of patients with IBS-C or FC correlated inversely with serotonin concentration (r = -0.4; P = .03). Serotonin concentration also correlated with pain threshold (r = 0.4; P = .02) and stool threshold (r = 0.5; P = .06), which correlated inversely with defecation frequency (r = -0.3; P = .10). CONCLUSIONS:FC and IBS-C, based on Rome III criteria, are not distinct disorders, symptomatically or physiologically. Instead, they appear to lie in a spectrum of visceral sensitivity modulated by serotonin signaling. Symptom response to meal ingestion should be considered in patient classification. 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.07.014
    Efficacy of Secretagogues in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation: Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. Black Christopher J,Burr Nicholas E,Quigley Eamonn M M,Moayyedi Paul,Houghton Lesley A,Ford Alexander C Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Several secretagogues have been approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). However, their relative efficacy is unclear because there have been no head-to-head randomized controlled trials. We conducted a network meta-analysis to compare their efficacies in patients with IBS-C. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through June 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of secretagogues in adults with IBS-C. Trials included in the analysis reported a dichotomous assessment of overall response to therapy, and data were pooled using a random-effects model. Efficacy and safety of secretagogues were reported as a pooled relative risk with 95% confidence interval to summarize the effect of each comparison tested, and treatments were ranked according to their P score. RESULTS:We identified 15 eligible randomized controlled trials of secretagogues that included 8462 patients. Linaclotide, lubiprostone, plecanatide, and tenapanor were superior to placebo for the treatment of IBS-C. Linaclotide (290 μg once daily) was ranked first in efficacy based on the end point recommended by the Food and Drug Administration for trials in IBS-C, the primary end point used in each trial, abdominal pain, and complete spontaneous bowel movements. Tenapanor (50 mg twice daily) was ranked first for decreasing bloating. Total numbers of adverse events were significantly larger with linaclotide (290 and 500 μg once daily) and plecanatide (3 mg once daily) compared with placebo. However, plecanatide 6 mg once daily ranked first for safety. Diarrhea was significantly more common with all drugs, except lubiprostone (8 μg twice daily). Nausea was significantly more common in patients who received lubiprostone. CONCLUSIONS:In a network analysis of randomized controlled trials of secretagogues for IBS-C, we found all drugs to be superior to placebo. Efficacy was similar among individual drugs and dosages for most end points. However, data were extracted at the 12-week time point, so the long-term relative efficacy of these drugs is unknown. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.08.021
    Assessing the efficacy of peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs) in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation: authors reply. Burr Nicholas E,Ford Alexander C Gut 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316977
    Treating constipation with bile: a new target. Rao Satish S C The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30166-3
    Inhibiting glucose absorption to treat constipation. Spiller Robin The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30214-0
    Diagnosis and management of chronic constipation in adults. Rao Satish S C,Rattanakovit Kulthep,Patcharatrakul Tanisa Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Constipation is a heterogeneous, polysymptomatic, multifactorial disease. Acute or transient constipation can be due to changes in diet, travel or stress, and secondary constipation can result from drug treatment, neurological or metabolic conditions or, rarely, colon cancer. A diagnosis of primary chronic constipation is made after exclusion of secondary causes of constipation and encompasses several overlapping subtypes. Slow-transit constipation is characterized by prolonged colonic transit in the absence of pelvic floor dysfunction. This subtype of constipation can be identified using either the radio-opaque marker test or wireless motility capsule test, and is best treated with laxatives such as polyethylene glycol or newer agents such as linaclotide or lubiprostone. If unsuccessful, subspecialist referral should be considered. Dyssynergic defecation results from impaired coordination of rectoanal and pelvic floor muscles, and causes difficulty with defecation. The condition can be identified using anorectal manometry and balloon expulsion tests and is best managed with biofeedback therapy. Opioid-induced constipation is an emerging entity, and several drugs including naloxegol, methylnaltrexone and lubiprostone are approved for its treatment. In this Review, we provide an overview of the burden and pathophysiology of chronic constipation, as well as a detailed discussion of the available diagnostic tools and treatment options. 10.1038/nrgastro.2016.53
    Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of opioid-induced constipation. Farmer Adam D,Holt Caroline Bruckner,Downes Thomas J,Ruggeri Eugenio,Del Vecchio Sara,De Giorgio Roberto The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology Opioids are potent analgesics used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Side-effects are common and among the most bothersome are those associated with opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, which includes opioid-induced constipation. In this Review, we provide a summary of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of opioid-induced constipation, which can be defined as a change in baseline bowel habit or defecatory patterns following initiation, alteration, or increase of opioid therapy. Opioid-induced constipation is a consequence of the action of opioids on their receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. A comprehensive clinical assessment is beneficial, including evaluation of the patient's understanding of their constipation and underlying condition for which opioids are used. Clinical assessment should also aim to differentiate opioid-induced constipation from pre-existing constipation exacerbated by the opioids. Preventive strategies need to be considered when patients start treatment with opioids, such as lifestyle changes. First-line management includes simple over-the-counter laxatives. The bowel function index can be useful to objectively identify patients who are refractory to these initial measures. In this context, alternative over-the-counter laxatives (or combinations of laxatives), secretogogues, or peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists might also be considered. Educational strategies need to be developed to improve the knowledge base of health-care providers on the identification and management of opioid-induced constipation. 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30008-6
    Chronic constipation. Camilleri Michael,Ford Alexander C,Mawe Gary M,Dinning Phil G,Rao Satish S,Chey William D,Simrén Magnus,Lembo Anthony,Young-Fadok Tonia M,Chang Lin Nature reviews. Disease primers Chronic constipation is a prevalent condition that severely impacts the quality of life of those affected. Several types of primary chronic constipation, which show substantial overlap, have been described, including normal-transit constipation, rectal evacuation disorders and slow-transit constipation. Diagnosis of primary chronic constipation involves a multistep process initiated by the exclusion of 'alarm' features (for example, unintentional weight loss or rectal bleeding) that might indicate organic diseases (such as polyps or tumours) and a therapeutic trial with first-line treatments such as dietary changes, lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter laxatives. If symptoms do not improve, investigations to diagnose rectal evacuation disorders and slow-transit constipation are performed, such as digital rectal examination, anorectal structure and function testing (including the balloon expulsion test, anorectal manometry or defecography) or colonic transit tests (such as the radiopaque marker test, wireless motility capsule test, scintigraphy or colonic manometry). The mainstays of treatment are diet and lifestyle interventions, pharmacological therapy and, rarely, surgery. This Primer provides an introduction to the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, management and quality of life associated with the commonly encountered clinical problem of chronic constipation in adults unrelated to opioid abuse. 10.1038/nrdp.2017.95