(PG2) Enhances the M1 Polarization of Macrophages, Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells, and T Cell-Mediated Anticancer Immune Responses in Patients with Lung Cancer. Bamodu Oluwaseun Adebayo,Kuo Kuang-Tai,Wang Chun-Hua,Huang Wen-Chien,Wu Alexander T H,Tsai Jo-Ting,Lee Kang-Yun,Yeh Chi-Tai,Wang Liang-Shun Nutrients BACKGROUND:Recently, we demonstrated that (PG2), the active ingredient in dried roots of ameliorates cancer symptom clusters and improves quality of life (QoL) in patients with metastatic disease by modulating inflammatory cascade against the background roles of inflammatory cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumor initiation, metastasis, and progression. Nevertheless, the role of PG2 in the modulation of anticancer immunogenicity and therapeutic response remains relatively underexplored and unclear. PURPOSE:The present study investigates how and to what extent PG2 modulates cellular and biochemical components of the inflammatory cascade and enhances anticancer immunity, as well as the therapeutic implication of these bio-events in patients with lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS:Herein, we demonstrated that PG2 significantly increased the M1/M2 macrophage polarization ratio in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) H441 and H1299 cells. This PG2-induced preferential pharmacologic up-regulation of tumoral M1 population in vitro positively correlated with the downregulation of tumor-promoting IL-6 and IL-10 expression in NSCLC cell-conditioned medium, with concomitant marked inhibition of cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and tumorsphere formation. Our ex vivo results, using clinical sample from our NSCLC cohort, demonstrated that PG2 also promoted the functional maturation of DCs with consequent enhancement of T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses. Consistent with the in vitro and ex vivo results, our in vivo studies showed that treatment with PG2 elicited significant time-dependent depletion of the tumor-associated M2 population, synergistically enhanced the anti-M2-based anticancer effect of cisplatin, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in the NSCLC mice models. Moreover, in the presence of PG2, cisplatin-associated dyscrasia and weight-loss was markedly suppressed. CONCLUSION:These results do indicate a therapeutically-relevant role for PG2 in modulating the M1/M2 macrophage pool, facilitating DC maturation and synergistically enhancing the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, thus laying the foundation for further exploration of the curative relevance of PG2 as surrogate immunotherapy and/or clinical feasibility of its use for maintenance therapy in patients with lung cancer. 10.3390/nu11102264
    Tumour cell derived effects on monocyte/macrophage polarization and function and modulatory potential of Viscum album lipophilic extract in vitro. Estko Myriam,Baumgartner Stephan,Urech Konrad,Kunz Matthias,Regueiro Ursula,Heusser Peter,Weissenstein Ulrike BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Macrophages are highly versatile cells that play an important role in tumour microenvironment. Tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) have been linked to both, good or bad prognosis of several cancer types depending on their number, composition and polarization. Viscum album lipophilic extract (VALE) contains several pentacyclic triterpenes known to modulate the activity of monocytes and other immune cells and to exhibit anticancer properties. In our in vitro study, we investigated the effect of tumour cell lines on macrophage polarization and monocyte chemotactic transmigration and examined the modulatory potential of VALE and its predominant triterpene oleanolic acid (OA). METHODS:Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) using M-CSF and polarized into M1 by IFN-γ and LPS and into M2 macrophages by IL-4 and IL-13 or by co-culture with two different tumour cell lines. Polarized macrophages were subsequently treated with VALE or OA. Phenotypic markers and cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoanalysis. Migration of human peripheral blood monocytes induced by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or supernatants of different tumour cell lines under the influence of VALE or OA was measured in a chemotaxis transmigration assay. RESULTS:In vitro polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages revealed specific phenotypic patterns and tumour cell co-cultured MDM displayed ambiguous phenotypes with M1 as well as M2 associated markers. VALE and OA showed modest influence on cell surface marker profile and cytokine expression of tumour cell co-cultured macrophages. All tumour cell supernatants markedly enhanced the migratory activity of monocytes. VALE and OA significantly inhibited MCP-1 induced monocyte transmigration, whereas monocyte migration initiated by tumour cell derived supernatants was not affected. CONCLUSIONS:In our study we reconfirmed that co-culture with different tumour cell lines can result in a mixed macrophage phenotype with M1 as well as M2 patterns, a finding that is important for a better understanding of tumour microenvironment functions. Moreover, we demonstrated that VALE shows slight immunomodulatory effects on tumour cell co-cultured macrophages and modulates monocyte chemotactic transmigration in vitro, indicating promising possibilities of triterpenes from Viscum album L. to contribute in a multimodal concept of anti-cancer therapy in future. Our data contribute to an understanding of monocyte function and macrophage polarization in vitro and of the possibility to influence their behaviour by triterpene containing mistletoe extracts. 10.1186/s12906-015-0650-3
    The re-polarisation of M2 and M1 macrophages and its role on cancer outcomes. den Breems Nicoline Y,Eftimie Raluca Journal of theoretical biology The anti-tumour and pro-tumour roles of Th1/Th2 immune cells and M1/M2 macrophages have been documented by numerous experimental studies. However, it is still unknown how these immune cells interact with each other to control tumour dynamics. Here, we use a mathematical model for the interactions between mouse melanoma cells, Th2/Th1 cells and M2/M1 macrophages, to investigate the unknown role of the re-polarisation between M1 and M2 macrophages on tumour growth. The results show that tumour growth is associated with a type-II immune response described by large numbers of Th2 and M2 cells. Moreover, we show that (i) the ratio k of the transition rates k12 (for the re-polarisation M1→M2) and k21 (for the re-polarisation M2→M1) is important in reducing tumour population, and (ii) the particular values of these transition rates control the delay in tumour growth and the final tumour size. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of various model parameters on changes in the tumour cell population, and confirm that the ratio k alone and the ratio of M2 and M1 macrophage populations at earlier times (e.g., day 7) cannot always predict the final tumour size. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.10.034
    Primary M1 macrophages as multifunctional carrier combined with PLGA nanoparticle delivering anticancer drug for efficient glioma therapy. Pang Liang,Zhu Ying,Qin Jing,Zhao Wenjie,Wang Jianxin Drug delivery Glioma remains difficult to treat because of the infiltrative growth of tumor cells and their resistance to standard therapy. Despite rapid development of targeted drug delivery system, the current therapeutic efficacy is still challenging. Based on our previous studies, macrophages have been proved to be promising drug carrier for active glioma delivery. To make full use of macrophage carrier, primary M1 macrophages were proposed to replace regular macrophage to deliver nanodrugs into glioma, because M1 macrophages not only have the natural ability to home into tumor tissues, but they also have stronger phagocytic capability than other types of macrophage, which can enable them to uptake enough drug-loaded nanoparticles for therapy. In addition, M1 macrophages are not easily affected by harsh tumor microenvironment and inhibit tumor growth themselves. In this study, M1 macrophage-loaded nanoparticles (M1-NPs) were prepared by incubating poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with primary M1 macrophages. In vitro cell assays demonstrated M1 macrophage still maintained good tumor tropism capability after particle loading, and could efficiently carry particles across endothelial barrier into tumor tissues. In vivo imaging verified that M1-NPs exhibited higher brain tumor distribution than free nanoparticles. DOX@M1-NPs (doxorubicin-loaded M1-NPs) presented significantly enhanced anti-glioma effect with prolonged survival median and increased cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the results provided a new strategy exploiting M1 macrophage as carrier for drug delivery, which improved targeting efficiency and therapeutic efficacy of chemodrugs for glioma therapy. 10.1080/10717544.2018.1502839
    Immunomodulatory Effect of Lentinan on Aberrant T Subsets and Cytokines Profile in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Wang Xi-En,Wang You-Hui,Zhou Qiang,Peng Min,Zhang Jing,Chen Mi,Ma Li-Juan,Xie Guo-Ming Pathology oncology research : POR As a purified active component from traditional Chinese medicine, lentinan administration can be applied as beneficial chemo-immunotherapy for anti-tumor. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of lentinan on aberrant T subsets and cytokines profile were evaluated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Of all NSCLC patients treated with NP chemotherapeutic protocol (combination of vinorelbin and cisplatin), 73 cases were recruited in this retrospective cohort trial study, of which 38 cases received additional lentinan. The changes of aberrant T subsets and cytokines profile were compared between two groups (chemotherapy in combination with lentinan vs. conserved single chemotherapy) by flow cytometry and molecular biology. Higher subset ratio of CD3CD8 cytotoxic T cells was confirmed in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients. Chemo-immunotherapy of lentinan resulted in a significant increase of CD3 + CD56+ NKT cells (15.7 ± 3.1%), compared with 8.6 ± 1.4% of NKT cells in single chemotherapy group, and up-regulated CD3CD8 and CD3CD4 subsets as well, but caused the decrease of CD4CD25 Tregs induction, accompanied by significant alleviation of IL-10 and TGF-β1, and elevation of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12 (P < 0.05). It could be confirmed that lentinan could not only enhance the cellular immunity and promote the beneficial of anti-tumor by associated immunotherapy, but also had the ability to inhibit the expansion of immune suppressive Tregs in the NSCLC patients, in whom there was a raised Tregs induction compared to health control. Lentinan-based chemo-immunotherapy is a promising strategy for anti-tumor via enhancing the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, followed by the elevation of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines. Meanwhile, the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs is down-regulated, leading to a shift in the inflammatory status from Th2 to Th1 in NSCLC patients treated with lentinan. 10.1007/s12253-018-0545-y
    Study of Natural Killer (NK) Cell Cytotoxicity Against Cholangiocarcinoma in a Nude Mouse Model. Jung In Hye,Kim DO Hee,Yoo DA Kyung,Baek Sun Young,Jeong Seong Hoon,Jung Dawoon E,Park Seung Woo,Chung Yong-Yoon In vivo (Athens, Greece) BACKGROUND/AIM:Natural killer (NK) cells are one of the lymphocytes clinically used for various cancer types. Cytotoxicity of NK cells to cholangiocarcinoma (CC), however, has not yet been studied. Nor NK cell therapy against CC has been clinically applied. In this study, relevance of NK cell therapy for anti-tumor efficacy against CC was pre-clinically investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Human HuCCT-1 cells, an intrahepatic CC cell line, were xenografted into nude mice. The HuCCT-1 tumor-bearing nude mice then received multiple infusions of ex vivo-expanded human NK cells (SMT01) and in vivo cytotoxic activity of the NK cells against the CC cells was evaluated. RESULTS:SMT01 infusion resulted in significant inhibition of the CC tumor growth. Body weight of the mice administrated with chemotherapy was found to be maintained at the lowest level among all treatment groups while all the SMT01 infusion groups well maintained their body weight. CONCLUSION:The present in vivo study demonstrates that NK cells contain cytolytic activity against cholangiocarcinoma and show beneficial effect of NK cell therapy in relevance to quality of life. Further investigation of the NK cell-based immunotherapy can be useful to determine cancer therapeutics for the specific tumor. 10.21873/invivo.11307
    Cryopreserved Human Natural Killer Cells Exhibit Potent Antitumor Efficacy against Orthotopic Pancreatic Cancer through Efficient Tumor-Homing and Cytolytic Ability (Running Title: Cryopreserved NK Cells Exhibit Antitumor Effect). Oh Eonju,Min Bokyung,Li Yan,Lian ChunYing,Hong JinWoo,Park Gyeong-Min,Yang Bitna,Cho Sung Yoo,Hwang Yu Kyeong,Yun Chae-Ok Cancers Pancreatic cancer is known to be highly aggressive, and desmoplasia-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is a hallmark of many pancreatic cancers, severely restricts the therapeutic efficacy of both immunotherapeutics and conventional chemotherapeutics due to the ECM functioning as a major physical barrier against permeation and penetration. In the case of cell-based immunotherapeutics, there are several other bottlenecks preventing translation into clinical use due to their biological nature; for example, poor availability of cell therapeutic in a readily usable form due to difficulties in production, handling, shipping, and storage. To address these challenges, we have isolated allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells from healthy donors and expanded them to generate cryopreserved stocks. These cryopreserved NK cells were thawed to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy against desmoplastic pancreatic tumors, ultimately aiming to develop a readily accessible and mass-producible off-the-shelf cell-based immunotherapeutic. The cultured NK cells post-thawing retained highly pure populations of activated NK cells that expressed various activating receptors and a chemokine receptor. Furthermore, systemic administration of NK cells induced greater tumor growth suppression when compared with gemcitabine, which is the standard chemotherapeutic used for pancreatic cancer treatment. The potent antitumor effect of NK cells was mediated by efficient tumor-homing ability and infiltration into desmoplastic tumor tissues. Moreover, the infiltration of NK cells led to strong induction of apoptosis, elevated expression of the antitumor cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, and inhibited expression of the immunosuppressive transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in tumor tissues. Expanded and cryopreserved NK cells are strong candidates for future cell-mediated systemic immunotherapy against pancreatic cancer. 10.3390/cancers11070966
    Interaction of natural killer cells with neutrophils exerts a significant antitumor immunity in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Ueda Ryosuke,Narumi Kenta,Hashimoto Hisayoshi,Miyakawa Reina,Okusaka Takuji,Aoki Kazunori Cancer medicine Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce a strong antitumor immunity by homeostatic proliferation (HP) of T cells and suppression of regulatory T cells following preconditioning-induced lymphopenia. However, the role of innate immunity including natural killer (NK) cells is still not understood. Here, first, we examined whether NK cells exert an antitumor effect after syngeneic HSCT in a murine colon cancer model. Flow cytometry showed that NK cells as well as T cells rapidly proliferated after HSCT, and the frequency of mature NK cells was increased in tumor during HP. Furthermore, NK cells undergoing HP were highly activated, which contributed to substantial tumor suppression. Then, we found that a large number of neutrophils accumulated in tumor early after syngeneic HSCT. It was recently reported that neutrophil-derived mediators modulate NK cell effector functions, and so we examined whether the neutrophils infiltrated in tumor are associated with NK cell-mediated antitumor effect. The depletion of neutrophils significantly impaired an activation of NK cells in tumor and increased the fraction of proliferative NK cells accompanied by a decrease in NK cell survival. The results suggested that neutrophils in tumor prevent NK cells from activation-induced cell death during HP, thus leading to a significant antitumor effect by NK cells. This study revealed a novel aspect of antitumor immunity induced by HSCT and may contribute to the development of an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer using HSCT. 10.1002/cam4.550
    Human natural killer cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived antigens by dendritic cells. Deauvieau Florence,Ollion Vincent,Doffin Anne-Claire,Achard Carole,Fonteneau Jean-François,Verronese Estelle,Durand Isabelle,Ghittoni Raffaella,Marvel Jacqueline,Dezutter-Dambuyant Colette,Walzer Thierry,Vie Henri,Perrot Ivan,Goutagny Nadège,Caux Christophe,Valladeau-Guilemond Jenny International journal of cancer Dendritic cells (DCs) cross-present antigen (Ag) to initiate T-cell immunity against most infections and tumors. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytolytic lymphocytes that have emerged as key modulators of multiple DC functions. Here, we show that human NK cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived Ag by DC leading to Ag-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation. Surprisingly, cytotoxic function of NK cells was not required. Instead, we highlight a critical and nonredundant role for IFN-γ and TNF-α production by NK cells to enhance cross-presentation by DC using two different Ag models. Importantly, we observed that NK cells promote cell-associated Ag cross-presentation selectively by monocytes-derived DC (Mo-DC) and CD34-derived CD11b(neg) CD141(high) DC subsets but not by myeloid CD11b(+) DC. Moreover, we demonstrate that triggering NK cell activation by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-coated tumor cells leads to efficient DC cross-presentation, supporting the concept that NK cells can contribute to therapeutic mAbs efficiency by inducing downstream adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings point toward a novel role of human NK cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity through selective induction of cell-associated Ag cross-presentation by CD141(high) DC, a process that could be exploited to better harness Ag-specific cellular immunity in immunotherapy. 10.1002/ijc.29087
    Dendritic cells pulsed with placental gp96 promote tumor-reactive immune responses. Zheng Huaguo,Liu Lanlan,Zhang Han,Kan Fangming,Wang Shuo,Li Yang,Tian Huaqin,Meng Songdong PloS one Defining and loading of immunogenic and safe cancer antigens remain a major challenge for designing dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines. In this study, we defined a prototype strategy of using DC-based vaccines pulsed with placenta-derived heat shock protein gp96 to induces anti-tumor T cell responses. Placental gp96 was efficiently taken up by CD11c+ bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and resulted in moderate BMDC maturation. Splenocytes and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) generated with mouse BMDCs pulsed with placental gp96 specifically lysed B16 melanoma and LLC lung carcinoma cells. In both transplantable melanoma and lung carcinoma mice models, immunization with placental gp96-stimulated BMDCs led to a significant decrease in tumor growth and mouse mortality with respect to mice treated with liver gp96-pulsed BMDCs or placental gp96 alone. This vaccine induced strong cross-reactive tumor-specific T cell responses. Our results revealed that DCs pulsed with placenta-derived gp96 represent an effective immunotherapy to induce tumor-reactive immune responses, possibly via loading DCs with its associated carcinoembryonic antigens. 10.1371/journal.pone.0211490
    Engineering monocyte-derived dendritic cells to secrete interferon-α enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immune effector functions. Willemen Yannick,Van den Bergh Johan M J,Lion Eva,Anguille Sébastien,Roelandts Vicky A E,Van Acker Heleen H,Heynderickx Steven D I,Stein Barbara M H,Peeters Marc,Figdor Carl G,Van Tendeloo Viggo F I,de Vries I Jolanda,Adema Gosse J,Berneman Zwi N,Smits Evelien L J Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination has demonstrated potential in clinical trials as a new effective cancer treatment, but objective and durable clinical responses are confined to a minority of patients. Interferon (IFN)-α, a type-I IFN, can bolster anti-tumor immunity by restoring or increasing the function of DCs, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, type-I IFN signaling on DCs was found to be essential in mice for tumor rejection by the innate and adaptive immune system. Targeted delivery of IFN-α by DCs to immune cells could boost the generation of anti-tumor immunity, while avoiding the side effects frequently associated with systemic administration. Naturally circulating plasmacytoid DCs, major producers of type-I IFN, were already shown capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients without severe toxicity, but their limited number complicates their use in cancer vaccination. In the present work, we hypothesized that engineering easily generated human monocyte-derived mature DCs to secrete IFN-α using mRNA electroporation enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity. Our results show that IFN-α mRNA electroporation of DCs significantly increases the stimulation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell as well as anti-tumor NK cell effector functions in vitro through high levels of IFN-α secretion. Altogether, our findings mark IFN-α mRNA-electroporated DCs as potent inducers of both adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity and pave the way for clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients. 10.1007/s00262-015-1688-2
    Sensitization of cisplatin resistant bladder tumor by combination of cisplatin treatment and co-culture of dendritic cells with apoptotic bladder cancer cells. Zhang Qi,Chen Zhuo Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) Dendritic cells (DCs) are a population of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), serving as central regulators of adaptive immunity by presenting antigens. In addition, DCs play essential roles in the connection of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, therapeutic vaccines turn out to become a viable therapeutic approach for immunotherapy of cancers. Here we report a dendritic cell-based vaccine strategy which could suppress the bladder tumor growth in vivo and improve the efficiency of chemotherapy. In this study, we investigate the antitumor effects of mature DCs induced by antigen loading in bladder tumor in vivo. We demonstrate the co-culture of cisplatin induced apoptotic human bladder cancer cell line, T24 cells with immature DCs could promote the maturation of DCs. Cisplatin and these activated DCs were reintroduced into mice bearing the T24 cisplatin resistant cells-derived tumor growth to activate or boost the immune response. Mice with iDCs co-cultured with apoptotic T24 (iDCs T24 Apo) cells injection effectively initiate a cytotoxic effect against tumor growth and improve the survival rates of mice compared with controls. Moreover, we observed injection of iDCs T24 apoptosis cells combined with cisplatin into mice with T24 cisplatin resistant cancer cells-derived tumor resulted in a statistically significant suppression of tumor growth compared with mice injected with PBS alone, cisplatin alone, iDCs, iDCs T24 Apo cells, cisplatin plus iDCs. This study provides a dendritic cell-based vaccine strategy which might reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and improve the efficiency of anti-chemoresistance of bladder cancer.
    Tumour tissue microenvironment can inhibit dendritic cell maturation in colorectal cancer. Michielsen Adriana J,Hogan Andrew E,Marry Joseph,Tosetto Miriam,Cox Fionnuala,Hyland John M,Sheahan Kieran D,O'Donoghue Diarmuid P,Mulcahy Hugh E,Ryan Elizabeth J,O'Sullivan Jacintha N PloS one Inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment promote tumour growth, vascular development and enable evasion of anti-tumour immune responses, by disabling infiltrating dendritic cells. However, the constituents of the tumour microenvironment that directly influence dendritic cell maturation and function are not well characterised. Our aim was to identify tumour-associated inflammatory mediators which influence the function of dendritic cells. Tumour conditioned media obtained from cultured colorectal tumour explant tissue contained high levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 in addition to VEGF. Pre-treatment of monocyte derived dendritic cells with this tumour conditioned media inhibited the up-regulation of CD86, CD83, CD54 and HLA-DR in response to LPS, enhancing IL-10 while reducing IL-12p70 secretion. We examined if specific individual components of the tumour conditioned media (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5) could modulate dendritic cell maturation or cytokine secretion in response to LPS. VEGF was also assessed as it has a suppressive effect on dendritic cell maturation. Pre-treatment of immature dendritic cells with VEGF inhibited LPS induced upregulation of CD80 and CD54, while CXCL1 inhibited HLA-DR. Interestingly, treatment of dendritic cells with CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 or VEGF significantly suppressed their ability to secrete IL-12p70 in response to LPS. In addition, dendritic cells treated with a combination of CXCL1 and VEGF secreted less IL-12p70 in response to LPS compared to pre-treatment with either cytokine alone. In conclusion, tumour conditioned media strongly influences dendritic cell maturation and function. 10.1371/journal.pone.0027944
    A Highly Active Form of XCL1/Lymphotactin Functions as an Effective Adjuvant to Recruit Cross-Presenting Dendritic Cells for Induction of Effector and Memory CD8 T Cells. Matsuo Kazuhiko,Kitahata Kosuke,Kawabata Fumika,Kamei Momo,Hara Yuta,Takamura Shiki,Oiso Naoki,Kawada Akira,Yoshie Osamu,Nakayama Takashi Frontiers in immunology The chemokine receptor XCR1 is known to be selectively expressed by cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), while its ligand XCL1/lymphotactin is mainly produced by activated CD8 T cells and natural killer cells. Recent studies have shown that XCL1-antigen fusion proteins efficiently induce CD8 T cell responses by preferentially delivering antigens to XCR1 DCs. However, XCL1 was found to be a poor adjuvant for induction of CD8 T cell responses. XCL1 is unique because of its lack of one of the two disulfide bonds commonly conserved in all other chemokines and thus has an unstable structure with a relatively weak chemokine activity. In the present study, we generated a variant form of murine XCL1 termed mXCL1-V21C/A59C that contained a second disulfide bond to stabilize its chemokine structure. We confirmed that mXCL1-V21C/A59C had much more potent chemotactic and calcium mobilization activities than the wild type XCL1 (mXCL1-WT). Intradermal injection of mXCL1-V21C/A59C, but not that of mXCL1-WT, significantly increased the accumulation of XCR1CD103 DCs in the injection site, and most of the accumulated XCR1CD103 DCs were found to take up co-injected ovalbumin (OVA). Furthermore, recruited XCR1CD103 DCs efficiently migrated to the draining lymph nodes and stayed for a prolonged period of time. Consequently, mXCL1-V21C/A59C strongly induced OVA-specific CD8 T cells. The combination of OVA and mXCL1-V21C/A59C well protected mice from E.G7-OVA tumor growth in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols. Finally, memory CTL responses were efficiently induced in mice immunized with OVA and mXCL1-V21C/A59C. Although intradermal injection of OVA and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) as an adjuvant also induced CD8 T cell responses to OVA, poly (I:C) poorly recruited XCR1CD103 DCs in the injection site and failed to induce significant memory CTL responses to OVA. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that a highly active form of XCL1 is a promising vaccine adjuvant for cross-presenting DCs to induce antigen-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells. 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02775
    Human IP10-scFv and DC-induced CTL synergistically inhibit the growth of glioma in a xenograft model. Wang Xuan,Zhang Fang-Cheng,Zhao Hong-Yang,Lu Xiao-Ling,Sun Yun,Xiong Zhi-Yong,Jiang Xiao-Bing Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant of EGFRvIII is highly expressed in glioma cells, and the EGFRvIII-specific dendritic cell (DC)-induced tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may hold promise in cancer immunotherapy. Interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 (IP-10) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and can recruit CXCR3(+) T cells, including CD8(+) T cells, which are important for the control of tumor growth. In this study, we assessed if the combination of IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv with DC-induced CTLs would improve the therapeutic antitumor efficacy. IP10-scFv was generated by linking the human IP-10 gene with the DNA fragment for anti-EGFRvIIIscFv with a (Gly4Ser)3 flexible linker, purified by affinity chromatography, and characterized for its anti-EGFRvIII immunoreactivity and chemotactic activity. DCs were isolated from human peripheral blood monocyte cells and pulsed with EGFRvIII-peptide, then co-cultured with autologous CD8(+) T cells. BALB/c-nu mice were inoculated with human glioma U87-EGFRvIII cells in the brain and treated intracranially with IP10-scFv and/or intravenously with DC-induced CTLs for evaluating the therapeutic effect. Treatment with both IP10-scFv and EGFRvIII peptide-pulsed, DC-induced CTL synergistically inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, which was accompanied by the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and enhancement of cytotoxicity, thereby increasing the numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes (BILs) and prolonging the residence time of CTLs in the tumor. 10.1007/s13277-014-1867-3
    Th17 cells are refractory to senescence and retain robust antitumor activity after long-term ex vivo expansion. Bowers Jacob S,Nelson Michelle H,Majchrzak Kinga,Bailey Stefanie R,Rohrer Baerbel,Kaiser Andrew Dm,Atkinson Carl,Gattinoni Luca,Paulos Chrystal M JCI insight Adoptive immunotherapy for solid tumors relies on infusing large numbers of T cells to mediate successful antitumor responses in patients. While long-term rapid-expansion protocols (REPs) produce sufficient numbers of CD8 T cells for treatment, they also cause decline in the cell's therapeutic fitness. In contrast, we discovered that IL-17-producing CD4 T cells (Th17 cells) do not require REPs to expand 5,000-fold over 3 weeks. Also, unlike Th1 cells, Th17 cells do not exhibit hallmarks of senescence or apoptosis, retaining robust antitumor efficacy in vivo. Three-week-expanded Th17 cells eliminated melanoma as effectively as Th17 cells expanded for 1 week when infused in equal numbers into mice. However, treating mice with large recalcitrant tumors required the infusion of all cells generated after 2 or 3 weeks of expansion, while the cell yield obtained after 1-week expansion was insufficient. Long-term-expanded Th17 cells also protected mice from tumor rechallenge including lung metastasis. Importantly, 2-week-expanded human chimeric antigen receptor-positive (CAR) Th17 cells also retained their ability to regress human mesothelioma, while CAR Th1 cells did not. Our results indicate that tumor-reactive Th17 cells are an effective cell therapy for cancer, remaining uncompromised when expanded for a long duration owing to their resistance to senescence. 10.1172/jci.insight.90772
    Roles for Interleukin 17 and Adaptive Immunity in Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer. Hurtado Christopher G,Wan Fengyi,Housseau Franck,Sears Cynthia L Gastroenterology Sporadic colorectal cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide. The locations and functions of immune cells in the colorectal tumor microenvironment are complex and heterogeneous. T-helper (Th)1 cell-mediated responses against established colorectal tumors are associated with better outcomes of patients (time of relapse-free or overall survival), whereas Th17 cell-mediated responses and production of interleukin 17A (IL17A) have been associated with worse outcomes of patients. Tumors that develop in mouse models of colorectal cancer are rarely invasive and differ in many ways from human colorectal tumors. However, these mice have been used to study the mechanisms by which Th17 cells and IL17A promote colorectal tumor initiation and growth, which appear to involve their direct effects on colon epithelial cells. Specific members of the colonic microbiota may promote IL17A production and IL17A-producing cell functions in the colonic mucosa to promote carcinogenesis. Increasing our understanding of the interactions between the colonic microbiota and the mucosal immune response, the roles of Th17 cells and IL17 in these interactions, and how these processes are altered during colon carcinogenesis, could lead to new strategies for preventing or treating colorectal cancer. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.08.056
    Metabolic heterogeneity underlies reciprocal fates of T17 cell stemness and plasticity. Karmaus Peer W F,Chen Xiang,Lim Seon Ah,Herrada Andrés A,Nguyen Thanh-Long M,Xu Beisi,Dhungana Yogesh,Rankin Sherri,Chen Wenan,Rosencrance Celeste,Yang Kai,Fan Yiping,Cheng Yong,Easton John,Neale Geoffrey,Vogel Peter,Chi Hongbo Nature A defining feature of adaptive immunity is the development of long-lived memory T cells to curtail infection. Recent studies have identified a unique stem-like T-cell subset amongst exhausted CD8-positive T cells in chronic infection, but it remains unclear whether CD4-positive T-cell subsets with similar features exist in chronic inflammatory conditions. Amongst helper T cells, T17 cells have prominent roles in autoimmunity and tissue inflammation and are characterized by inherent plasticity, although how such plasticity is regulated is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T17 cells in a mouse model of autoimmune disease are functionally and metabolically heterogeneous; they contain a subset with stemness-associated features but lower anabolic metabolism, and a reciprocal subset with higher metabolic activity that supports transdifferentiation into T1-like cells. These two T17-cell subsets are defined by selective expression of the transcription factors TCF-1 and T-bet, and by discrete levels of CD27 expression. We also identify signalling via the kinase complex mTORC1 as a central regulator of T17-cell fate decisions by coordinating metabolic and transcriptional programmes. T17 cells with disrupted mTORC1 signalling or anabolic metabolism fail to induce autoimmune neuroinflammation or to develop into T1-like cells, but instead upregulate TCF-1 expression and acquire stemness-associated features. Single-cell RNA sequencing and experimental validation reveal heterogeneity in fate-mapped T17 cells, and a developmental arrest in the T1 transdifferentiation trajectory upon loss of mTORC1 activity or metabolic perturbation. Our results establish that the dichotomy of stemness and effector function underlies the heterogeneous T17 responses and autoimmune pathogenesis, and point to previously unappreciated metabolic control of plasticity in helper T cells. 10.1038/s41586-018-0806-7
    The paradox of Th17 cell functions in tumor immunity. Asadzadeh Zahra,Mohammadi Hamed,Safarzadeh Elham,Hemmatzadeh Maryam,Mahdian-Shakib Ahmad,Jadidi-Niaragh Farhad,Azizi Gholamreza,Baradaran Behzad Cellular immunology Immune system acts as a host defensive mechanism protecting against attacking pathogens and transformed cells, including cancer cells. Th17 cells are a specific subset of T helper lymphocytes determined by high secretion of IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cells increase tumor progression by activating angiogenesis and immunosuppressive activities. They can also mediate antitumor immune responses through recruiting immune cells into tumors, stimulating effector CD8+ T cells, or surprisingly by altering toward Th1 phenotype and producing IFN-γ, so Th17 cells are supposed as a double-edged sword in cancer. A comprehensive approach to indicating the activity of Th17 cells in tumor progression could help in the planning of new therapeutic approaches specially targeting Th17 cells in cancer. 10.1016/j.cellimm.2017.10.015
    Increased expression of IRF8 in tumor cells inhibits the generation of Th17 cells and predicts unfavorable survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients. Zhong Weijie,Xu Xin,Zhu Zhigang,Du Qinghua,Du Hong,Yang Li,Ling Yanying,Xiong Huabao,Li Qingshan Oncotarget The immunological pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains elusive. Searching for new prognostic markers of DLBCL is a crucial focal point for clinical scientists. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) expression and its effect on the development of Th17 cells in the tumor microenvironment of DLBCL patients. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the distribution of Th17 cells and related cytokines and IRF8 in tumor tissues from DLBCL patients. Two DLBCL cell lines (OCI-LY10 and OCI-LY1) with IRF8 knockdown or overexpression and two human B lymphoblast cell lines were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro to determine the effect of IRF8 on the generation of Th17 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to investigate the involvement of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in the effect of IRF8 on Th17 cell generation. The survival of 67 DLBCL patients was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank analysis. The percentage of Th17 cells was lower in DLBCL tumor tissues than in PBMCs and corresponding adjacent benign tissues. Relative expression of interleukin (IL)-17A was lower, whereas that of interferon (IFN)-γ was higher in tumor tissues than in benign tissues. Co-culture with DLBCL cell lines inhibited the generation of Th17 cells in vitro. IRF8 upregulation was detected in DLBCL tumor tissues, and it was associated with decreased DLBCL patient survival. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that IRF8 upregulation in DLBCL, through an unknown mechanism, inhibited Th17 cell generation by suppressing RORγt in neighboring CD4+ T cells. Tumor cells may express soluble or membrane-bound factors that inhibit the expression of RORγt in T cells within the tumor microenvironment. Our findings suggest that IRF8 expression could be a prognostic factor for DLBCL. 10.18632/oncotarget.17693
    Exosomes from heat-stressed tumour cells inhibit tumour growth by converting regulatory T cells to Th17 cells via IL-6. Guo Danfeng,Chen Yinghu,Wang Shoujie,Yu Lei,Shen Yingying,Zhong Haijun,Yang Yunshan Immunology Exosomes derived from heat-stressed tumour cells (HS-TEXs), which contain abundant heat shock protein (HSP) 70, strongly induce antitumour immune responses. HSP70-induced interleukin (IL)-6 promotes IL-17 expression and causes rejection of established prostate tumours. However, it remains unclear whether HS-TEXs exhibit antitumour effects by converting regulatory T cells (T ) into T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. In this study, we found that compared with TEXs, HS-TEXs were more potent in stimulating secretion of IL-6 from dendritic cells. In vitro, IL-6 blocked tumour cell-derived transforming growth factor beta 1-induced T differentiation and promoted Th17 cell differentiation. HS-TEXs exerted strong antitumour effects, converting T into Th17 cells with high efficiency, a process that was entirely dependent upon IL-6. Neutralization of IL-17 completely abolished the antitumour effect of TEXs, but only partially inhibited that of HS-TEXs. In addition, we found higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in serum from tumour patients treated with hyperthermia, and an increase in Th17 cells and a decrease in T was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from these patients after hyperthermia. Therefore, our results demonstrate that HS-TEXs possess a powerful capacity to convert immunosuppressive T into Th17 cells via IL-6, which contributes to their potent antitumour effect. 10.1111/imm.12874
    [Interleukin-17 promotes mouse hepatoma cell proliferation by antagonizing interferon-γ]. Li Jie,Yan Kun,Yang Yi,Li Hua,Wang Zhidong,Xu Xin Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University OBJECTIVE:To investigate the interaction between interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and how their interaction affects the growth of mouse hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells. METHODS:Hepa1-6 cells treated with IL-17 and IFN-γ either alone or in combination were examined for changes in cell proliferation using MTT assay and in cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, P21 and P16 and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and Stat1 in the cells. RESULTS:Compared with control group, IFN-γ treatment obviously inhibited the growth and proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, reduced the protein expression of PCNA and cyclin D1, and increased the protein expression of P21. IL-17 alone had no effect on the growth of Hepa1-6 cells. In the combined treatment, IL-17 significantly antagonized the effects of IFN-γ. Compared with those treated with IFN-γ alone, the cells with the combined treatment showed significantly decreased G0/G1 cell population, increased the protein expressions of PCNA and cyclin D1, and decreased the protein expression of P21. IL-17 significantly inhibited IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 without affecting the phosphorylation of Stat1. CONCLUSIONS:IL-17 obviously reverses the antitumor effects of IFN-γ to promote the proliferation of mouse hepatoma cells and accelerate the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. 10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2019.01.01
    Role of interleukin (IL)-17 and T-helper (Th)17 cells in cancer. Song Yang,Yang Jian Ming Biochemical and biophysical research communications Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, is reported to be significantly generated by a distinct subset of CD4 T-cells, upgrading cancer-elicited inflammation and preventing cancer cells from immune surveillance. T-helper (Th)17 cells produced from naive CD4 T cells have recently been renowned and generally accepted, gaining eminence in cancer studies and playing the effective role in context of cancer. Th17 cells are the main source of IL-17-secreting cells, It was found that other cell types produced this cytokine as well, including Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), δγT cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. Th17-associated cytokines give impetus to tumor progression, or inducing angiogenesis and metastasis. This review demonstrates an understanding on how the pro- or antitumor function of Th17 cells and IL-17 may change cancer progression, leading to the appearance of complex and pivotal biologic activities in tumor. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.08.109
    Immunohistochemical analysis of neutrophils, interleukin-17, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neoformed vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Silva Ricardo Natã Fonseca,Dallarmi Laís Bueno,Araujo Ana Karoline Carvalho,Alencar Rita Cassia Gonçalves,Mendonça Elismauro Francisco,Silva Tarcília Aparecida,Batista Aline Carvalho,Costa Nadia Lago Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology BACKGROUND:Tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and angiogenesis have been proposed as prognostic biomarkers of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate these inflammatory markers as prognostic factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS:Specimens of OSCC (n = 30), healthy oral mucosa (negative control, n = 10), oral leukoplakia (n = 10), and apical granuloma with abscess (positive inflammatory controls, n = 10) were immunostained for CD66b (neutrophils), MMP-9, IL-17, and CD105 (neoformed microvessels). Semiquantitative (IL-17) and quantitative (CD66b, IL-17, MMP-9, and CD105) analyses were performed. Clinical information (TNM stage, metastasis, recurrence, and survival) and tumor histological grade were also obtained. RESULTS:Positivity for TAN, MMP-9, IL-17, and CD105 was higher in OSCC than in the negative control (P < 0.05) and oral leukoplakia, but similar to the positive inflammatory control. Coincident high counts of inflammatory markers (CD66b, MMP-9, IL-17, and CD105) were associated with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. Associations between high numbers of neoformed microvessels and advanced clinical stage and a higher degree of malignancy were also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS:Combined positivity for TAN, MMP-9, IL-17, and CD105 appears to be associated with the metastasis-prone phenotype of OSCC. 10.1111/jop.12762
    Interleukin-17 acts as double-edged sword in anti-tumor immunity and tumorigenesis. Qian Xin,Chen Hankui,Wu Xiaofeng,Hu Ling,Huang Qi,Jin Yang Cytokine Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine, mainly produced by Th17 cells, participates in both innate and adaptive immune responses and is involved in various diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that IL-17 not only has an oncogenic role in tumorigenesis by regulating tumor angiogenesis and enhancing tumor immune evasion but also exerts anti-tumor functions by enhancing natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activation and through the recruitment of neutrophils, NK cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells to tumor tissue. In this review, we provide an overview on the basic biology of IL-17 and recent findings regarding its enigmatic double-edged features in tumorigenesis, with special attention to the roles of IL-17 produced by tumor cells interacting with other factors in the tumor microenvironment. 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.09.011
    miR-383 inhibits cell growth and promotes cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IL-17 via STAT3 signaling pathway. Wang Jianchu,Lu Libai,Luo Zongjiang,Li Wenchuan,Lu Yuan,Tang Qianli,Pu Jian Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie OBJECTIVES:Emerging microRNAs (miRNAs) are validated to take part in pathological processes, including numerous carcinomas. Currently, we focused on the functional role of miR-383 and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the underlying molecular mechanisms were also the emphases in our research. METHODS:We used reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to measure the expression levels of miR-383 in 45 paired tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues extracted from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. These tissues were also stained for IL-17 using immunohistochemical staining. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expressions of following protein-coding genes, including p-Stat3, Stat3 and GAPDH. A dual-luciferase activity was carried out to determine whether IL-17 was the downstream gene of miR-383 in hepatocellular carcinoma development. The colony assay, CCK8 assay, and apoptosis assay were used to explore the detailed regulatory effects of miR-383/IL-17 axis in the cellular processes of hepatocellular carcinoma separately. RESULTS:miR-383 was down-regulated significantly in tumor tissues, while IL-17 was up-regulated. IL-17 was certificated to act as the downstream gene of miR-383. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-383 suppressed cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the raised IL-17 attenuated the inhibition effect of miR-383 in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, we found that p-Stat3 was repressed by miR-383, and the up-regulation of IL-17 reversed the suppression effect in hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:miR-383 may play a anti-tumor role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IL-17 through STAT3 signaling pathway. miR-383/IL-17 axis maybe a potent target for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109551
    Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: The Protumor Effects of IL-17 Related to Cancer Type. Fabre Joseph,Giustiniani Jerome,Garbar Christian,Antonicelli Frank,Merrouche Yacine,Bensussan Armand,Bagot Martine,Al-Dacak Reem International journal of molecular sciences The inflammatory process contributes to immune tolerance as well as to tumor progression and metastasis. By releasing extracellular signals, cancerous cells constantly shape their surrounding microenvironment through their interactions with infiltrating immune cells, stromal cells and components of extracellular matrix. Recently, the pro-inflammatory interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper lymphocytes, the Th17 cells, and the IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) axis gained special attention. The IL-17 family comprises at least six members, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (also called IL-25), and IL-17F. Secreted as disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers, the IL-17 bind to the IL-17R, a type I cell surface receptor, of which there are five variants, IL-17RA to IL-17RE. This review focuses on the current advances identifying the promoting role of IL-17 in carcinogenesis, tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy of diverse solid cancers. While underscoring the IL-17/IL-17R axis as promising immunotherapeutic target in the context of cancer managing, this knowledge calls upon further in vitro and in vivo studies that would allow the development and implementation of novel strategies to combat tumors. 10.3390/ijms17091433
    Locally Targeting the IL-17/IL-17RA Axis Reduced Tumor Growth in a Murine B16F10 Melanoma Model. Chen Ya-Shan,Huang Tse-Hung,Liu Chao-Lin,Chen Hui-Shan,Lee Meng-Hua,Chen Hsin-Wei,Shen Chia-Rui Human gene therapy Interleukin (IL)-17 and the cells that produce it within the tumor microenvironment appear to promote tumor development and are associated with survival in cancer patients. Here we investigated the role of the IL-17/IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) axis in regulating melanoma progression and evaluated the therapeutic potential of blocking the IL-17/IL-17RA pathway. First, recombinant mouse IL-17 (γmIL-17) treatment significantly increased proliferation of mouse B16F10 cells and human A375 and A2058 cells. Silencing IL-17RA by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in B16F10 cells reduced the γmIL-17-elicited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase production. Remarkably, knockdown of IL-17RA led to a significantly decreased capability of B16F10 cells to form tumors in vivo, similar to that in IL-17-deficient mice. Finally, local application of an adenovirus delivering a shRNA against IL-17RA mRNA not only significantly suppressed tumor development, but also enhanced antitumor immunity by increasing the interferon γ-expressing T cells and not T regulatory cells. Our results highlight the critical role of the IL-17/IL-17RA pathway in tumor progression and imply that targeting IL-17RA represents a promising therapeutic strategy. 10.1089/hum.2018.104
    IL-17 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment. Gorczynski R M Advances in experimental medicine and biology Inflammation is recognized as representing a double-edged sword in terms of tumor growth, in some instances contributing to attenuation of growth and in others to enhanced progression and metastasis. Extracellular signals, released by cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME), including cancer cells themselves, as well as infiltrating immune cells, stromal cells, and other components of the extracellular matrix, all can contribute to reshaping the tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor growth/survival. Most recently, attention has centered on contributions in the TME made by the pro-inflammatory interleukin 17 (IL-17) and the T cells (Th17) and non-T cells which produce this cytokine, as well as the target cells (IL-17 receptor positive, IL-17R) signaled by IL-17. The IL-17 family itself comprises at least six members, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (also called IL-25), and IL-17F, all of which are known to be secreted as disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers. These in turn bind to IL-17R, a type I cell surface receptor, of which at least five variants have been described to date, IL-17RA to IL-17RE. The discussion below focuses on what we know to date about the role of IL-17/IL-17R interactions in the tumor microenvironment in regulation of tumor growth and metastasis and highlights recent ideas concerning the possible utility of this knowledge in the clinic. 10.1007/978-3-030-38315-2_4
    T helper 17 (Th17) cells and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in cancer. Chang Seon Hee Archives of pharmacal research Th17 cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that are essential in driving inflammation during autoimmune disease and infection through a signature cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been found in various human cancers. The function of these cells in cancers is highly context-dependent; both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity have been reported. IL-17 and IL-22, Th17-derived cytokines, influence the tumor microenvironment by directly promoting transformed cell properties and neighboring stromal cell activity. These cytokines are also involved in regulation of the immune system by modulating the activities of myeloid cells and T cells. These findings suggest that Th17 cells and their cytokines are a key mediator of cancer development, representing a potential target for cancer therapy. Herein, I review recent preclinical studies on the function of Th17 cells and IL-17 in cancer and discuss possible therapeutic approaches to harness Th17 cells for cancer immunotherapy. 10.1007/s12272-019-01146-9
    Molecular model linking Th2 polarized M2 tumour-associated macrophages with deaminase-mediated cancer progression mutation signatures. Mamrot Jared,Balachandran Siddharth,Steele Edward J,Lindley Robyn A Scandinavian journal of immunology A new and diverse range of somatic mutation signatures are observed in late-stage cancers, but the underlying reasons are not fully understood. We advance a "combinatorial association model" for deaminase binding domain (DBD) diversification to explain the generation of previously observed cancer-progression associated mutation signatures. We also propose that changes in the polarization of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are accompanied by the expression of deaminases with a new and diverse range of DBDs, and thus accounting for the generation of new somatic mutation signatures. The mechanism proposed is molecularly reminiscent of combinatorial association of heavy (H) and light (L) protein chains following V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin molecules (and similarly for protein chains in heterodimers α/β and γ/δ of V(D)Js of T Cell Receptors) required for pathogen antigen recognition by B cells and T cells, respectively. We also discuss whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) emanating from tumour enhancing M2-polarized macrophages represent a likely source of the de novo deaminase DBDs. We conclude that M2-polarized macrophages extruding EVs loaded with deaminase proteins or deaminase-specific transcription/translation regulatory factors and like information may directly trigger deaminase diversification within cancer cells, and thus account for the many new somatic mutation signatures that are indicative of cancer progression. This hypothesis now has a plausible evidentiary base, and it is worth direct testing in future investigations. A long-term objective would be to identify molecular biomarkers predicting cancer progression (or metastatic disease) and to support the development of new drug targets before metastatic pathways are activated. 10.1111/sji.12760
    Th2-mediated anti-tumour immunity: friend or foe? Ellyard J I,Simson L,Parish C R Tissue antigens The concept that the immune system can recognise tumour cells and either eliminate them (tumour immune surveillance) or select for immunologically resistant variants (immunoediting) is gaining general acceptance by immunologists. In terms of an adaptive immune response to cancer, however, much of the research has focused on the response of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes to tumour-specific antigens and the production of Th1 cytokines by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, Th2-mediated immunity has traditionally been viewed as favouring tumour growth, both by promoting angiogenesis and by inhibiting cell-mediated immunity and subsequent tumour cell killing. While there is evidence that components of type 2 inflammation, such as B cells and interleukin-10, do promote tumour growth, there are also many studies demonstrating the anti-tumour activity of CD4+ Th2 cells, particularly in collaboration with tumour-infiltrating granulocytes, such as eosinophils. In this review, we examine all the components of type 2 immunity and their effects on tumour growth. Collectively, from this analysis, we conclude that there is a great potential for the development of Th2-mediated immunotherapies that harness the cytotoxic activity of eosinophils. 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2007.00869.x
    Th1 cytokines are more effective than Th2 cytokines at licensing anti-tumour functions in CD40-activated human macrophages in vitro. Luheshi Nadia,Davies Gareth,Poon Edmund,Wiggins Kimberley,McCourt Matthew,Legg James European journal of immunology CD40 agonists are showing activity in early clinical trials in patients with advanced cancer. In animal models, CD40 agonists synergise with T-cell-activating therapies to inhibit tumour growth by driving tumour macrophage repolarisation from an immunosuppressive to a Th1 immunostimulatory, tumouricidal phenotype. We therefore tested the hypothesis that T-cell-derived cytokines license anti-tumour functions in CD40-activated human macrophages. CD40 ligand (CD40L) alone activated macrophages to produce immunosuppressive IL-10, in a similar fashion to bacterial LPS, but failed to promote anti-tumour functions. The Th1 cytokine IFN-γ optimally licensed CD40L-induced macrophage anti-tumour functions, inducing a switch from IL-10 to IL-12p70 production, promoting macrophage-mediated Th1 T-cell skewing and enhancing tumouricidal activity. We found that even the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promoted IL-12p70 production (albeit without inhibiting IL-10 production) and enhanced Th1 T-cell skewing by CD40L-activated macrophages. However, IL-4 and IL-13 did not enhance tumouricidal activity in CD40L-activated macrophages. Thus, while both Th1 and Th2 cytokines biased macrophages to a Th1 immunostimulatory phenotype, only Th1 cytokines promoted tumouricidal activity in CD40L-activated macrophages. The presence of tumour-infiltrating Th1 or Th2 cells might therefore be predictive for patient response to CD40 agonism. 10.1002/eji.201343351
    Anti-CD40-induced inflammatory E-cadherin+ dendritic cells enhance T cell responses and antitumour immunity in murine Lewis lung carcinoma. Zhang Yong,Hu Xiaoyan,Hu Yue,Teng Kai,Zhang Kai,Zheng Yamei,Hong Xiaohua,Yu Kunwu,Wang Yan,Liu Li Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Agonistic CD40 antibodies have been demonstrated to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and enhance antitumour T cell responses, thereby providing a new therapeutic option in cancer immunotherapy. In agonistic CD40 antibody-mediated inflammatory responses, a novel subset of E-cadherin + dendritic cells (DCs) has been identified, and little is known about the role of these DCs in tumour immunity. This study investigated the effect of anti-CD40-mediated inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs in murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). METHODS:The phenotype and characteristics of anti-CD40-mediated inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs isolated from the anti-CD40 model were assessed in vitro. The antitumour activity of E-cadherin + DCs were evaluated in vivo by promoting the differentiation of effector CD4+ T cells, CEA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD103+ CD8+ T cells and assessing their resistance to tumour challenge, including variations in tumour volume and survival curves. RESULTS:Here, we demonstrated that anti-CD40-mediated E-cadherin + inflammatory DCs accumulate in the lungs of Rag1 KO mice and were able to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells to induce Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and polarisation and to inhibit regulatory T cell and Th2 responses. Importantly, with the adoptive transfer of E-cadherin + DCs into the Lewis lung cancer model, the inflammatory DCs increased the Th1 and Th17 cell responses and reduced the Treg cell and Th2 responses. Interestingly, following the injection of inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs, the CD103+ CD8+ T cell and CEA-specific CD8+ T cell responses increased and exhibited potent antitumour immunity. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that anti-CD40-induced E-cadherin + DCs enhance T cell responses and antitumour activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-bearing mice and may be used to enhance the efficacy of DC-based peptide vaccines against NSCLC. 10.1186/s13046-015-0126-9
    Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Specific Th2 Cells Eradicates Tumors by Triggering an In Situ Inflammatory Immune Response. Lorvik Kristina Berg,Hammarström Clara,Fauskanger Marte,Haabeth Ole Audun Werner,Zangani Michael,Haraldsen Guttorm,Bogen Bjarne,Corthay Alexandre Cancer research Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) trials to date have focused on transfer of autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells; however, the potential of CD4 T helper (Th) cells for ACT is gaining interest. While encouraging results have been reported with IFNγ-producing Th1 cells, tumor-specific Th2 cells have been largely neglected for ACT due to their reported tumor-promoting properties. In this study, we tested the efficacy of idiotype-specific Th2 cells for the treatment of mice with MHC class II-negative myeloma. Th2 ACT efficiently eradicated subcutaneous myeloma in an antigen-specific fashion. Transferred Th2 cells persisted in vivo and conferred long-lasting immunity. Cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th2 cells did not require B cells, natural killer T cells, CD8 T cells, or IFNγ. Th2 ACT was also curative against B-cell lymphoma. Upon transfer, Th2 cells induced a type II inflammation at the tumor site with massive infiltration of M2-type macrophages producing arginase. In vivo blockade of arginase strongly inhibited Th2 ACT, consistent with a key role of arginase and M2 macrophages in myeloma elimination by Th2 cells. These results illustrate that cancer eradication may be achieved by induction of a tumor-specific Th2 inflammatory immune response at the tumor site. Thus, ACT with tumor-specific Th2 cells may represent a highly efficient immunotherapy protocol against cancer. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6864-76. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1219
    Improved Anti-Tumour Adaptive Immunity Can Overcome the Melanoma Immunosuppressive Tumour Microenvironment. Dang Nana,Waer Mark,Sprangers Ben,Lin Yuan Cancers Clinical benefits obtained from checkpoint blockade regimens demonstrate the importance of overcoming the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) in cancer immunotherapy. Intravenous (i.v.) injection of B16 melanoma cells (H-2K) leads to lethal disseminated pulmonary metastasis in Balb/c recipients (H-2K). This lack of immune control is related to low major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on B16 cells which is associated with delayed and decreased anti-tumour adaptive immune responses (e.g., alloantibody formation) as: (i) other tumour types with normal H-2K expression are rejected with concomitant antibody production; (ii) preincubation of B16 with IFN-gamma to upregulate H-2K expression resulted in improved antibody production and anti-tumour activity. The delayed/decreased anti-tumour adaptive immune responses induced by B16 inoculation is not able to interrupt progression of primary metastases, while it is able to effectively eliminate secondary inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) B16 cells from progression. This is due to the presence of an immunosuppressive TME within the primary metastases characterized by increased regulatory T cells (Tregs) and an increased T helper cells (Th) 2/1 profile. These tumour-induced immunosuppressive T cell populations are counteracted by improved adaptive immunity via active and passive immunization, resulting in effective elimination of the TME, destruction of the metastatic tumour and a reversal of Th2/1 profile in a time-sensitive manner. Thus, we here demonstrate that the TME is not irreversible and adaptive immunity is able to eradicate established solid tumour and its immunosuppressive TME. This study will help design treatments to overcome the immunosuppressive effect of the TME and improve efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. 10.3390/cancers11111694
    Strategies to Interfere with Tumor Metabolism through the Interplay of Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Mora Javier,Mertens Christina,Meier Julia K,Fuhrmann Dominik C,Brüne Bernhard,Jung Michaela Cells The inflammatory tumor microenvironment is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells promote each step of tumor development, exerting crucial functions from initiation, early neovascularization, to metastasis. During tumor outgrowth, tumor-associated immune cells, including myeloid cells and lymphocytes, acquire a tumor-supportive, anti-inflammatory phenotype due to their interaction with tumor cells. Microenvironmental cues such as inflammation and hypoxia are mainly responsible for creating a tumor-supportive niche. Moreover, it is becoming apparent that the availability of iron within the tumor not only affects tumor growth and survival, but also the polarization of infiltrating immune cells. The interaction of tumor cells and infiltrating immune cells is multifaceted and complex, finally leading to different activation phenotypes of infiltrating immune cells regarding their functional heterogeneity and plasticity. In recent years, it was discovered that these phenotypes are mainly implicated in defining tumor outcome. Here, we discuss the role of the metabolic activation of both tumor cells and infiltrating immune cells in order to adapt their metabolism during tumor growth. Additionally, we address the role of iron availability and the hypoxic conditioning of the tumor with regard to tumor growth and we describe the relevance of therapeutic strategies to target such metabolic characteristics. 10.3390/cells8050445
    Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Target for Antitumor Therapy. Sawa-Wejksza Katarzyna,Kandefer-Szerszeń Martyna Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis It is well known that the microenvironment of solid tumors is rich in inflammatory cells that influence tumor growth and development. Macrophages, called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are the most abundant immune cell population present in tumor tissue. Several studies have demonstrated that the density of TAMs is associated with a poor prognosis and positively correlates with tumor growth. Several studies have proved that TAMs may activate and protect tumor stem cells, stimulate their proliferation as well as promote angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, TAMs-derived cytokines and other proteins, such as CCL-17, CCL-22, TGF-β, IL-10, arginase 1, and galectin-3, make a significant contribution to immunosuppression. Since TAMs influence various aspects of cancer progression, there are many attempts to use them as a target for immunotherapy. The numerous studies have shown that the primary tumor growth and the number of metastatic sites can be significantly decreased by decreasing the population of macrophages in tumor tissue, for example, by blocking recruitment of monocytes or eliminating TAMs already present in the tumor tissue. Moreover, there are attempts at reprogramming TAMs into proinflammatory M1 macrophages or neutralizing the protumoral products of TAMs. Another approach uses TAMs for anticancer drug delivery into the tumor environment. In this review, we would like to summarize the clinical and preclinical trials that were focused on macrophages as a target for anticancer therapies. 10.1007/s00005-017-0480-8
    Oncogenic KRAS-Driven Metabolic Reprogramming in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Utilizes Cytokines from the Tumor Microenvironment. Dey Prasenjit,Li Jun,Zhang Jianhua,Chaurasiya Surendra,Strom Anders,Wang Huamin,Liao Wen-Ting,Cavallaro Frederick,Denz Parker,Bernard Vincent,Yen Er-Yen,Genovese Giannicola,Gulhati Pat,Liu Jielin,Chakravarti Deepavali,Deng Pingna,Zhang Tingxin,Carbone Federica,Chang Qing,Ying Haoqiang,Shang Xiaoying,Spring Denise J,Ghosh Bidyut,Putluri Nagireddy,Maitra Anirban,Wang Y Alan,DePinho Ronald A Cancer discovery A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an exuberant stroma comprised of diverse cell types that enable or suppress tumor progression. Here, we explored the role of oncogenic KRAS in protumorigenic signaling interactions between cancer cells and host cells. We show that KRAS mutation (KRAS*) drives cell-autonomous expression of type I cytokine receptor complexes (IL2rγ-IL4rα and IL2rγ-IL13rα1) in cancer cells that in turn are capable of receiving cytokine growth signals (IL4 or IL13) provided by invading Th2 cells in the microenvironment. Early neoplastic lesions show close proximity of cancer cells harboring KRAS* and Th2 cells producing IL4 and IL13. Activated IL2rγ-IL4rα and IL2rγ-IL13rα1 receptors signal primarily via JAK1-STAT6. Integrated transcriptomic, chromatin occupancy, and metabolomic studies identified MYC as a direct target of activated STAT6 and that MYC drives glycolysis. Thus, paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the KRAS*-driven metabolic reprogramming of PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: Type II cytokines, secreted by Th2 cells in the tumor microenvironment, can stimulate cancer cell-intrinsic MYC transcriptional upregulation to drive glycolysis. This KRAS*-driven heterotypic signaling circuit in the early and advanced tumor microenvironment enables cooperative protumorigenic interactions, providing candidate therapeutic targets in the KRAS* pathway for this intractable disease. 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-0297
    The role of T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in tumor microenvironment. Najafi Soheil,Mirshafiey Abbas Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology T helper 17 (Th17) cells were first described as a novel T helper cell lineage independent from Th1 and Th2 subsets. Th17 cells play vital roles in inflammation and tumor immunity. It causes the dissipation of antitumor immunity and contribution to the survival of tumor cells, worsening tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells were seen innumerous cancers in mice and humans. There has been an association between intratumoral Th17 cell infiltration and both good and bad prognoses. Besides the protumoral roles defined for IL-17 andTh17 cells, several reports have shown that Th17 cells also drive antitumoral immunity. Various mechanisms by which Th17 cells control tumor growth are as following: recruitment of several immune cells including DCs, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells within tumors, activation of CD8 T cells, and probably plasticity toward Th1 phenotype, related to IFN- and TNF- production. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been exhibited to infiltrate human tumors and are believed to restrict antitumor immunity. The effect of Treg cells has been more controversial. Whereas some studies have proposed that a high density of Treg cells within the tumor associated with a poor clinical prognosis, other studies have presented a positive clinical prognosis, underlining the importance of elucidating the clinical significance of Treg cells further. Treg and Th17 cells play both positive and negative roles in regulating antitumor immune responses. In spite of the presence of these cells, yet some tumors develop and grow. These T cells by themselves are not adequate to efficiently mount antitumor immune responses. 10.1080/08923973.2019.1566925
    Th1high in tumor microenvironment is an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with NSCLC. Huang Jian,Shen Fangrong,Huang Haitao,Ling Chunhua,Zhang Guangbo Oncotarget CD4+Th subsets play an important role in tumor progression but their expression characteristics and clinical significance in human tumor microenvironment remains unclear. In this study, we aim to analyze the expression and clinical significance of tissue-infiltrating Th1, Th2 and Th17 in lung cancer by flow cytometry. We found that the frequency of CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+Th1 in tumor nest was significantly lower than that in tumor boundary, adjacent normal lung tissue or corresponding lymph node tissue; the frequency of CD3+CD4+IL-4+Th2 in tumor nest was significantly higher than that in tumor boundary, adjacent normal lung tissue or corresponding lymph node tissue; the frequency of CD3+CD4+IL-17+Th17 in tumor nest was significantly lower than that in tumor boundary, but not adjacent normal tissue or corresponding lymph node tissue. Survival analysis of 2-years survival after surgery showed that Th1high group was significantly lower compared with Th1low group; Th2high and Th17low is a good prognosis index compared with the Th2low and Th17high groups respectively, but this difference failed to significance. In addition, we also found that PD-1 expression showed a high level on lung tumor tissues and adjacent non- tumor tissue infiltrating T cells, and no significant difference was found between the two groups. However PD-L1 on CD45+CD14+mononcytes/macrophages in tumor tissue show a significantly higher level compared with that in adjacent nontumor tissues. In vitro stimulation experiments showed that IFN-γ could significantly increase PD-L1 expression on monocyte. In conclusion, we for the first time found Th1high is a poor indicator for prognosis of lung cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.14471
    Exploring immuno-regulatory mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment: Model and design of protocols for cancer remission. Ganguli Piyali,Sarkar Ram Rup PloS one The tumor microenvironment comprising of the immune cells and cytokines acts as the 'soil' that nourishes a developing tumor. Lack of a comprehensive study of the interactions of this tumor microenvironment with the heterogeneous sub-population of tumor cells that arise from the differentiation of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC), i.e. the 'seed', has limited our understanding of the development of drug resistance and treatment failures in Cancer. Based on this seed and soil hypothesis, for the very first time, we have captured the concept of CSC differentiation and tumor-immune interaction into a generic model that has been validated with known experimental data. Using this model we report that as the CSC differentiation shifts from symmetric to asymmetric pattern, resistant cancer cells start accumulating in the tumor that makes it refractory to therapeutic interventions. Model analyses unveiled the presence of feedback loops that establish the dual role of M2 macrophages in regulating tumor proliferation. The study further revealed oscillations in the tumor sub-populations in the presence of TH1 derived IFN-γ that eliminates CSC; and the role of IL10 feedback in the regulation of TH1/TH2 ratio. These analyses expose important observations that are indicative of Cancer prognosis. Further, the model has been used for testing known treatment protocols to explore the reasons of failure of conventional treatment strategies and propose an improvised protocol that shows promising results in suppressing the proliferation of all the cellular sub-populations of the tumor and restoring a healthy TH1/TH2 ratio that assures better Cancer remission. 10.1371/journal.pone.0203030
    Dendritic cell recruitment and activation in autoimmunity. Sozzani Silvano,Del Prete Annalisa,Bosisio Daniela Journal of autoimmunity Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells displaying the unique capability to activate naïve T cells. DCs react to pathogen encounter also by the production of mediators of inflammation, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because of this complex role, any imbalance in DC function reflects into defective or exaggerated immune response and tissue damage. DCs comprise two main subsets, namely conventional or classical DCs (cDCs), that are dedicated antigen presenting cells, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), that respond to nucleic acids by releasing high amounts of type I interferons (IFNs). Since the formal demonstration that DC can prime autoreactive naïve T cells, a full body of evidence has implicated DCs in virtually all manifestations of autoimmunity, although their exact pathogenic role often remains poorly characterized. The recent availability of progressively more refined strategies of constitutive and inducible DC ablation is contributing in defining the precise role of DCs at least in some autoimmune disease models. This review aims at critically summarizing the current literature concerning selected aspects of DC biology that, when altered, facilitate autoimmunity. These aspects include: i) mechanisms of tissue entry and accumulation, ii) mechanisms of activation and iii) orchestration of the immune balance by cytokine production. A special focus will be on inappropriate DC activation by signals released by damaged tissues via innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors. These signals are responsible, in pDCs, for exaggerated type I IFN production, the hallmark of a set of apparently distant autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes; whereas in cDCs, they trigger DC rapid maturation and Th1/Th17 cytokine secretion. Tissue-derived molecules also contribute to further promote tissue damage and autoantigen spreading, possibly through pDC-derived Granzyme B secretion. Finally, the therapeutic possibilities based on DC targeting in human autoimmune diseases will be briefly summarized. 10.1016/j.jaut.2017.07.012
    Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. Imai T,Nagira M,Takagi S,Kakizaki M,Nishimura M,Wang J,Gray P W,Matsushima K,Yoshie O International immunology Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions. 10.1093/intimm/11.1.81
    Myeloid STAT3 Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis by Transforming Tumor Immunosurveillance into Tumor-Promoting Inflammation. Zhou Jingjiao,Qu Zhaoxia,Sun Fan,Han Lei,Li Liwen,Yan Shapei,Stabile Laura P,Chen Lin-Feng,Siegfried Jill M,Xiao Gutian Cancer immunology research One of the most fundamental and challenging questions in the cancer field is how immunity in patients with cancer is transformed from tumor immunosurveillance to tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we identify the transcription factor STAT3 as the culprit responsible for this pathogenic event in lung cancer development. We found that antitumor type 1 CD4 T-helper (Th1) cells and CD8 T cells were directly counter balanced in lung cancer development with tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and suppressive macrophages, and that activation of STAT3 in MDSCs and macrophages promoted tumorigenesis through pulmonary recruitment and increased resistance of suppressive cells to CD8 T cells, enhancement of cytotoxicity toward CD4 and CD8 T cells, induction of regulatory T cell (Treg), inhibition of dendritic cells (DC), and polarization of macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. The deletion of myeloid STAT3 boosted antitumor immunity and suppressed lung tumorigenesis. These findings increase our understanding of immune programming in lung tumorigenesis and provide a mechanistic basis for developing STAT3-based immunotherapy against this and other solid tumors. . 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-16-0073
    Tim-3+ T-bet+ tumor-specific Th1 cells colocalize with and inhibit development and growth of murine neoplasms. Simmons William J,Koneru Mythili,Mohindru Mani,Thomas Rajan,Cutro Scott,Singh Parul,Dekruyff Rosemarie H,Inghirami Giorgio,Coyle Anthony J,Kim Byung S,Ponzio Nicholas M Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Although T cells infiltrate many types of murine and human neoplasms, in many instances tumor-specific cytotoxicity is not observed. Strategies to stimulate CTL-mediated antitumor immunity have included in vitro stimulation and/or genetic engineering of T cells, followed by adoptive transfer into tumor-bearing hosts. In this model of B cell lymphoma in SJL/J mice, we used Tim-3(+) T-bet(+) Th1 cells to facilitate the development of tumor-specific CTL. Tumor-specific Th1 cell lines were polarized with IL-12 during in vitro stimulation and long term maintenance. As few as 5 million Tim-3(+) T-bet(+) Th1 cells enabled recipients to resist growth of malignant transplantable cells. In addition, similar numbers of Th1 cells injected into 2- to 3-mo-old mice inhibited development of the spontaneous primary lymphomas, which normally arise in 90% of aging mice. CFSE(+) Th1 cells colocalized with injected tumor cells in vivo and formed conjugates with the tumor cells within follicles, whereas in nontumor-challenged recipients the CFSE(+) Th1 cells localized only within the T cell zones of the spleen. These results provide evidence that adoptive immunotherapy with Tim-3(+) T-bet(+) tumor-specific Th1 cells can be used to induce host cytotoxic responses that inhibit the development and growth of neoplastic cells. 10.4049/jimmunol.174.3.1405
    Virus overrides the propensity of human CD40L-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce Th2 mediators through synergistic induction of IFN-{gamma} and Th1 chemokine production. Bendriss-Vermare Nathalie,Burg Stéphanie,Kanzler Holger,Chaperot Laurence,Duhen Thomas,de Bouteiller Odette,D'agostini Marjorie,Bridon Jean-Michel,Durand Isabelle,Sederstrom Joel M,Chen Wei,Plumas Joël,Jacob Marie-Christine,Liu Yong-Jun,Garrone Pierre,Trinchieri Giorgio,Caux Christophe,Brière Francine Journal of leukocyte biology Depending on the activation status, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) and myeloid DC have the ability to induce CD4 T cell development toward T helper cell type 1 (Th1) or Th2 pathways. Thus, we tested whether different activation signals could also have an impact on the profile of chemokines produced by human PDC. Signals that induce human PDC to promote a type 1 response (i.e., viruses) and a type 2 response [i.e., CD40 ligand (CD40L)] also induced PDC isolated from tonsils to secrete chemokines preferentially attracting Th1 cells [such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible protein (IP)-10/CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta/CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4)] or Th2 cells (such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 and monocyte-derived chemokine/CCL22), respectively. Activated natural killer cells were preferentially recruited by supernatants of virus-activated PDC, and supernatants of CD40L-activated PDC attracted memory CD4(+) T cells, particularly the CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD25(+) T cells described for their regulatory activities. It is striking that CD40L and virus synergized to trigger the production of IFN-gamma by PDC, which induces another Th1-attracting chemokine monokine-induced by IFN-gamma/CXCL9 and cooperates with endogenous type I IFN for IP-10/CXCL10 production. In conclusion, our studies reveal that PDC participate in the selective recruitment of effector cells of innate and adaptive immune responses and that virus converts the CD40L-induced Th2 chemokine patterns of PDC into a potent Th1 mediator profile through an autocrine loop of IFN-gamma. 10.1189/jlb.0704383
    Interleukin-1 is required for cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th1 cells. Haabeth Ole Audun Werner,Lorvik Kristina Berg,Yagita Hideo,Bogen Bjarne,Corthay Alexandre Oncoimmunology The role of inflammation in cancer is controversial as both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive aspects of inflammation have been reported. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), may either promote or suppress cancer. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying these opposing outcomes remains enigmatic. Using mouse models for myeloma and lymphoma, we have recently reported that inflammation driven by tumor-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells conferred protection against B-cell cancer and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was essential for this process. Here, we have investigated the contribution of several inflammatory mediators. Myeloma eradication by Th1 cells was not affected by inhibition of TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In contrast, cancer elimination by tumor-specific Th1 cells was severely impaired by the neutralization of both IL-1α and IL-1β (collectively named IL-1) with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The antitumor functions of tumor-specific Th1 cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were both affected by IL-1 neutralization. Secretion of the Th1-derived cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at the incipient tumor site was severely reduced by IL-1 blockade. Moreover, IL-1 was shown to synergize with IFN-γ for induction of tumoricidal activity in tumor-infiltrating macrophages. This synergy between IL-1 and IFN-γ may explain how inflammation, when driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, represses rather than promotes cancer. Collectively, the data reveal a central role of inflammation, and more specifically of the canonical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, in enhancing Th1-mediated immunity against cancer. 10.1080/2162402X.2015.1039763
    Vaccination with CD133(+) melanoma induces specific Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated antitumor reactivity against parental tumor. Miyabayashi Takao,Kagamu Hiroshi,Koshio Jun,Ichikawa Kosuke,Baba Junko,Watanabe Satoshi,Tanaka Hiroshi,Tanaka Junta,Yoshizawa Hirohisa,Nakata Koh,Narita Ichiei Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells possess a small subpopulation that survives during potentially lethal stresses, including chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and molecular-targeting therapy. CD133 is a putative marker that distinguishes a minor subpopulation from normal differentiated tumor cells in many cancers. Although it is necessary to eradicate all cancer cells to obtain a cure, effective treatment to eliminate the CD133(+) treatment-tolerant cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that a CD133(+) subpopulation in murine melanoma is immunogenic and that effector T cells specific for the CD133(+) melanoma cells mediated potent antitumor reactivity, curing the mice of the parental melanoma. CD133(+) melanoma antigens preferentially induced type 17 T helper (Th17) cells and Th1 cells but not Th2 cells. CD133(+) melanoma cell-specific CD4(+) T-cell treatment eradicated not only CD133(+) tumor cells but also CD133(-) tumor cells while inducing long-lasting accumulation of lymphocytes and dendritic cells with upregulated MHC class II in tumor tissues. Further, the treatment prevented regulatory T-cell induction. These results indicate that T-cell immunotherapy is a promising treatment option to eradicate CD133(+) drug-tolerant cells to obtain a cure for cancer. 10.1007/s00262-011-1063-x
    Improving immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using dendritic cells (DC) engineered to express IL-12 in vivo. Vogt Annabelle,Sievers Elisabeth,Lukacs-Kornek Veronika,Decker Georges,Raskopf Esther,Meumann Nadja,Büning Hildegard,Sauerbruch Tilman,Strassburg Christian P,Schmidt-Wolf Ingo G H,Gonzalez-Carmona Maria A Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND:Interleukin 12 (IL-12), one of the most potent Th1-cytokines, has been used to improve dendritic cells (DC)-based immunotherapy of cancer. However, it failed to achieve clinical response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, improved conditions of immunotherapy with DC engineered to express IL-12 were studied in murine subcutaneous HCC. METHODS:Tumour-lysate pulsed DC were transduced with IL-12-encoding adenoviruses or cultivated with recombinant (r)IL-12. DC were injected intratumourally, subcutaneously or intravenously at different stages of tumour-development. RESULTS:Dendritic cell overexpressing IL-12 by adenoviruses showed enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules and stronger priming of HCC-specific effector cells than DC cultured with rIL-12. Intratumoural but not systemic injections of IL-12-DC induced the strongest antitumoural effects reaching complete regressions in 75% of early-staged tumours and in 33% of advanced tumours. Importantly, antitumoural effects could be further enhanced through combination with sorafenib. Analysing the tumour-environment, IL-12-DC increased the levels of Th1-cytokines/chemokines and of CD4(+) -, CD8(+) -T- and NK-cells. Induced immunity was tumour-specific and sustained since all tumour-free animals were protected towards hepatic tumour-cell rechallenge. However, IL-12-DC also enhanced immunosuppressive cytokines, regulatory T cells and even myeloid-derived suppressor cells within the tumours. CONCLUSIONS:Induced IL-12-overexpression by adenoviral vectors can effectively immunostimulate DC. Intratumoural but not systemic injection of activated IL-12-DC was crucial for effective tumour regression. The mechanism of this approach seems to be the induction of a sufficient Th1 tumour-environment allowing the recruitment of effector cells rather than the inhibition of tumour immunosuppression. Thus, improved immunotherapy with IL-12-DC represents a promising approach towards HCC. 10.1111/liv.12284
    Hypoxia-/HIF-1α-Driven Factors of the Tumor Microenvironment Impeding Antitumor Immune Responses and Promoting Malignant Progression. Vaupel Peter,Multhoff Gabriele Advances in experimental medicine and biology The metabolic tumor microenvironment (TME) is characterized inter alia by critical oxygen depletion (hypoxia/anoxia), extracellular acidosis (pH ≤ 6.8), high lactate levels (up to 40 mM in heterogeneously distributed areas), strongly elevated adenosine concentrations (10-100 μM) and declining nutrient resources. These TME features are major drivers, e.g., for genetic instability, intratumor heterogeneity, malignant progression and development of resistance to conventional anticancer therapies. In this context, hypoxia-dependent (and non-hypoxic) HIF-1α activation plays a key role in orchestrating a multifaceted (local) suppression of innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses (and of immune-based tumor treatment). Besides the characteristic traits mentioned, the immune-suppressive actions can additionally be triggered by an (over-)expression of VEGF and activation of VEGFR, and externalisation of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer membrane leaflet of cells and exosomes. Altogether, and even individually, these features provide strong immune-suppressive signals. The downstream effects of an enhanced HIF-1α expression include (a) an activation of immune-suppressive effects (recruitment and stimulation of immune-suppressor cells [e.g., Treg, MDSC], secretion of immune-suppressive TH2-type cytokines), and (b) inhibition of antitumor immune responses (inhibition of immune cell actions [e.g., NK, NKT, CD4, CD8], inhibition of antigen-presenting cells [e.g., DC], reduced production of immune-stimulatory TH1-type cytokines). 10.1007/978-3-319-91287-5_27