Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: impact, comorbidity, risk factors, and treatment. Sareen Jitender Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie During the last 30 years, there has been a substantial increase in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several high-profile traumatic events, such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center, have led to a greater public interest in the risk and protective factors for PTSD. In this In Review paper, I discuss some of the important advances in PTSD. The paper provides a concise review of the evolution of PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, impact of PTSD in the community, an overview of the established risk factors for developing PTSD, and assessment and treatment. Throughout the paper, controversies and clinical implications are discussed. 10.1177/070674371405900902
    Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ramikie Teniel Sonya,Ressler Kerry J Biological psychiatry Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.11.016
    Posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep-disordered breathing: a review of comorbidity research. Krakow Barry J,Ulibarri Victor A,Moore Bret A,McIver Natalia D Sleep medicine reviews Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are common disorders, but limited data address their co-morbidity. Emerging research indicates PTSD and SDB may co-occur more frequently than expected and may impact clinical outcomes. This review describes historical developments that first raised suspicions for a co-morbid relationship between PTSD and SDB, including barriers to the recognition and diagnosis of this co-morbidity. Objective diagnostic data from polysomnography studies in PTSD patients reveal widely varying prevalence rates for co-morbidity (0-90%). Use of standard, recommended technology (nasal cannula pressure transducer) versus older, less reliable technology (thermistor/thermocouple) appears to have influenced objective data acquisition and therefore SDB rates in sleep studies on PTSD patients. Studies using higher quality respiratory sensors demonstrated the highest prevalence of SDB in PTSD patients. Clinical relevance, theoretical models and research recommendations are discussed. The lack of widely acknowledged, tested, or proven explanatory models and pathophysiological mechanisms to understand the relationship between these two disorders may prove formidable barriers to further investigations on prevalence and clinical relevance, albeit both conditions are associated with waking or sleeping hyperarousal activity, which may inform future studies. 10.1016/j.smrv.2014.11.001
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Phenomena After Critical Illness. Bienvenu Oscar Joseph,Gerstenblith Ted-Avi Critical care clinics This article focuses on a psychiatric morbidity in critical illness survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We present a case in the second person, because it is helpful to imagine what being critically ill can be like from the perspective of a patient without medical training. One-fifth of critical illness survivors have clinically relevant PTSD symptoms in the year after intensive care, and markers of risk include prior psychiatric illness, benzodiazepine administration in the intensive care unit (ICU), and early post-ICU memories of frightening, nightmare-like experiences during intensive care. ICU diaries are a low-tech, low-cost interventions that can supplement psychiatric care. 10.1016/j.ccc.2017.03.006
    [Posttraumatic stress disorder after intensive care : Prevalence, risk factors, and treatment]. Gawlytta R,Wintermann G-B,Böttche M,Niemeyer H,Knaevelsrud C,Rosendahl J Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of intensive care which might affect not only the patients but also their relatives. About one fifth of these patients develop clinically important PTSD in the first year after intensive care. Comorbid psychopathology, received benzodiazepines, and memories of the frightening, distressing ICU experiences are common risk factors for the development of PTSD symptoms. There are only a few specific approaches for the treatment of PTSD after intensive care. The efficacy of intensive care diaries has only been examined in a few studies, but could not yet be confirmed clearly. Internet-based writing therapy represents a further treatment option where the partner also becomes involved in the treatment. 10.1007/s00063-017-0266-0
    Posttraumatic stress disorder. Jorge Ricardo E Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.) PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The objectives of this article are to update the reader on the current definition and diagnostic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to describe its clinical characteristics, discuss its epidemiology and pathophysiologic aspects, as well as to summarize the current therapeutic options for PTSD. RECENT FINDINGS:The new nomenclature of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes 20 PTSD symptoms clustered into four symptomatic domains: intrusive symptoms, active avoidance, disturbed emotional states, and alterations of arousal and reactivity. Diagnostic structured interviews and severity scales have been updated in order to address this recent revision. It is also recognized that the neural circuits whose disruption might explain the genesis of PTSD symptoms, although overlapping, may be different between these four domains, a fact that may inform new biologically based phenotypes with prognostic and therapeutic implications.During the past years, there has been active research into the different factors influencing vulnerability and resilience to stress, including the effect of genetic and epigenetic variations. The neural circuits involved in the processing of threatening stimuli have been studied in patients with PTSD through paradigms inspired in animal research. These studies suggest that patients with PTSD have difficulty discriminating danger from safety cues and have problems suppressing fear in the presence of safety cues. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest that the increased amygdala activation observed in these patients results from abnormal modulatory input from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Structural brain abnormalities, on the other hand, have been more consistently identified in the hippocampus.Prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive reprocessing are the interventions that have the more extensive validation of their psychotherapeutic efficacy. Medications are modestly more effective than placebo to treat PTSD symptoms, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered a safe initial choice. Use of combined strategies including pharmacologic modulation of fear processing is an area of active research. SUMMARY:PTSD is a frequent psychopathologic condition with a lifetime prevalence that is close to 10%. In the past few years, there have been significant advances in the definition of the disorder, in elucidating the neurobiology of vulnerability and resilience, and in developing new treatment alternatives. 10.1212/01.CON.0000466667.20403.b1
    HPA axis regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis focusing on potential moderators. Schumacher Sarah,Niemeyer Helen,Engel Sinha,Cwik Jan Christopher,Laufer Sebastian,Klusmann Hannah,Knaevelsrud Christine Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous findings are inconsistent, possibly due to trauma exposure of controls or different hormone measurement methods. We investigated cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S) in adults with clinical PTSD under basal or challenged conditions (Prospero registration no. CRD42016041690). A search of PubMed, Scopus, Medline, PsycINFO, Pilots/ProQuest, and Web of Science resulted in 108 included studies (N = 6484). Morning and 24 h cortisol were significantly lower in PTSD than in controls (g = -0.21; 95% CI: -0.42-(-0.01); g = -0.31; CI: -0.60-(-0.03)). Significant cortisol increases occurred after awakening in PTSD (g = 0.40; CI: 0.13-0.67) and in non-exposed controls (g = 0.96; CI: 0.59-1.33). Evening DHEA was significantly higher in PTSD than in non-exposed controls (g = 0.58; CI: 0.17-0.99). All groups showed large cortisol suppression effects after dexamethasone administration. Overall, the potential moderators investigated did not reveal a consistent pattern of HPA alterations. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.02.005
    The Effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. Sebastian Brenda,Nelms Jerrod Explore (New York, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:Over the past two decades, growing numbers of clinicians have been utilizing emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown encouraging outcomes for all three conditions. OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy of EFT in treating PTSD by conducting a meta-analysis of existing RCTs. METHODS:A systematic review of databases was undertaken to identify RCTs investigating EFT in the treatment of PTSD. The RCTs were evaluated for quality using evidence-based standards published by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Therapies. Those meeting the criteria were assessed using a meta-analysis that synthesized the data to determine effect sizes. While uncontrolled outcome studies were excluded, they were examined for clinical implications of treatment that can extend knowledge of this condition. RESULTS:Seven randomized controlled trials were found to meet the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A large treatment effect was found, with a weighted Cohen׳s d = 2.96 (95% CI: 1.96-3.97, P < .001) for the studies that compared EFT to usual care or a waitlist. No treatment effect differences were found in studies comparing EFT to other evidence-based therapies such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; 1 study) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; 1 study). CONCLUSIONS:The analysis of existing studies showed that a series of 4-10 EFT sessions is an efficacious treatment for PTSD with a variety of populations. The studies examined reported no adverse effects from EFT interventions and showed that it can be used both on a self-help basis and as a primary evidence-based treatment for PTSD. 10.1016/j.explore.2016.10.001
    Epigenetics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Current Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions. Zannas Anthony S,Provençal Nadine,Binder Elisabeth B Biological psychiatry Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related psychiatric disorder that is thought to emerge from complex interactions among traumatic events and multiple genetic factors. Epigenetic regulation lies at the heart of these interactions and mediates the lasting effects of the environment on gene regulation. An increasing body of evidence in human subjects with PTSD supports a role for epigenetic regulation of distinct genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of PTSD. The role of epigenetic regulation is further supported by studies examining fear conditioning in rodent models. Although this line of research offers an exciting outlook for future epigenetic research in PTSD, important limitations include the tissue specificity of epigenetic modifications, the phenomenologic definition of the disorder, and the challenge of translating molecular evidence across species. These limitations call for studies that combine data from postmortem human brain tissue and animal models, assess longitudinal epigenetic changes in living subjects, and examine dimensional phenotypes in addition to diagnoses. Moreover, examining the environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors that promote resilience to trauma may lead to important advances in the field. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.04.003
    Evidenced-Based Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Updated Review of Validated Psychotherapeutic and Pharmacological Approaches. Charney Meredith E,Hellberg Samantha N,Bui Eric,Simon Naomi M Harvard review of psychiatry LEARNING OBJECTIVES:After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic approaches to treating patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. ABSTRACT:A strong evidence base exists for psychological and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The published literature investigating the effectiveness of these treatments in reducing the symptoms and impairments associated with PTSD has expanded substantially in recent years. This review provides a concise overview of the empirical literature examining these treatment approaches. Evidence-based, trauma-focused therapies are recommended as first-line interventions, with the most support for cognitive- and exposure-based approaches. Prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy are the two most cited and rigorously investigated. Various other evidence-supported protocols are discussed. Pharmacotherapies can be used when evidence-based psychotherapies are not available or are ineffective, or on the basis of patient preference. Pharmacotherapy with the most support for PTSD includes selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Evidence supports the implementation of these interventions across genders, populations, and settings. Given that little research directly compares the effectiveness of different PTSD interventions and their mechanisms of action, it remains uncertain how to best select and tailor treatments to optimize individual outcomes. Future directions and novel, ongoing research are discussed. 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000186
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Perspectives for the Use of Deep Brain Stimulation. Reznikov Roman,Hamani Clement Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society OBJECTIVES:Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been either approved or is currently under investigation for a number of psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We review clinical and preclinical concepts as well as the neurocircuitry that may be of relevance for the implementation of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS:PTSD is a chronic and debilitating illness associated with dysfunction in well-established neural circuits, including the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Although most patients often improve with medications and/or psychotherapy, approximately 20-30% are considered to be refractory to conventional treatments. In other psychiatric disorders, DBS has been investigated in treatment-refractory patients. To date, preclinical work suggests that stimulation at high frequency delivered at particular timeframes to different targets, including the amygdala, ventral striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex may improve fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the only clinical report published so far, a patient implanted with electrodes in the amygdala has shown striking improvements in PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Neuroimaging, preclinical, and preliminary clinical data suggest that the use of DBS for the treatment of PTSD may be practical but the field requires further investigation. 10.1111/ner.12551
    Physical fitness in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Vancampfort Davy,Stubbs Brendon,Richards Justin,Ward Philip B,Firth Joseph,Schuch Felipe B,Rosenbaum Simon Disability and rehabilitation PURPOSE:People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical fitness is a key modifiable risk factor for CVD and associated mortality. We reviewed the evidence-base regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD. METHODS:Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus from inception until May 2016 using the key words "fitness" OR "exercise" AND "posttraumatic stress disorder" OR "PTSD". RESULTS:In total, 5 studies involving 192 (44 female) individuals with PTSD met the inclusion criteria. Lower baseline physical fitness are associated with greater reductions in avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as with total, physical, and social symptoms of anxiety sensitivity. Rigorous data comparing physical fitness with age- and gender matched general population controls are currently lacking. CONCLUSIONS:The research field regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD is still in its infancy. Given the established relationships between physical fitness, morbidity and mortality in the general population and the current gaps in the PTSD literature, targets for future research include exploring: (a) whether people with PTSD are at risk of low physical fitness and therefore in need of intensified assessment, treatment and follow-up, (b) the relationships among physical fitness, overall health status, chronic disease risk reduction, disability, and mortality in individuals PTSD, (c) psychometric properties of submaximal physical fitness tests in PTSD, (d) physical fitness changes following physical activity in PTSD, and (e) optimal methods of integrating physical activity programs within current treatment models for PTSD. Implications for Rehabilitation People with PTSD should aim to achieve 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes vigorous physical activity per week while also engaging in resistance training exercises at least twice a week. Health care professionals should assist people with PTSD to overcome barriers to physical activity such as physical pain, loss of energy, lack of interest and motivation, generalized fatigue and feelings of hyperarousal. 10.1080/09638288.2016.1226412
    Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the treatment literature and neurobiological evidence. Boyd Jenna E,Lanius Ruth A,McKinnon Margaret C Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches. A scoping review of the literature on PTSD treatment studies, including approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and metta mindfulness, reveals low attrition with medium to large effect sizes. We review the convergence between neurobiological models of PTSD and neuroimaging findings in the mindfulness literature, where mindfulness interventions may target emotional under- and overmodulation, both of which are critical features of PTSD symptomatology. Recent emerging work indicates that mindfulness-based treatments may also be effective in restoring connectivity between large-scale brain networks among individuals with PTSD, including connectivity between the default mode network and the central executive and salience networks. Future directions, including further identification of the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in patients with PTSD and direct comparison of these interventions to first-line treatments for PTSD are discussed. 10.1503/jpn.170021
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key? Leclercq Sophie,Forsythe Paul,Bienenstock John Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Gut bacteria strongly influence our metabolic, endocrine, immune, and both peripheral and central nervous systems. Microbiota do this directly and indirectly through their components, shed and secreted, ranging from fermented and digested dietary and host products to functionally active neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Depression has been associated with enhanced levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and abnormal responses to stress. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be marked in addition by low cortisol responses, and these factors seem to predict and predispose individuals to develop PTSD after a traumatic event. Dysregulation of the immune system and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis observed in PTSD may reflect prior trauma exposure, especially early in life. Early life, including the prenatal period, is a critical time in rodents, and may well be for humans, for the functional and structural development of the immune and nervous systems. These, in turn, are likely shaped and programmed by gut and possibly other bacteria. Recent experimental and clinical data converge on the hypothesis that imbalanced gut microbiota in early life may have long-lasting immune and other physiologic effects that make individuals more susceptible to develop PTSD after a traumatic event and contribute to the disorder. This suggests that it may be possible to target abnormalities in these systems by manipulation of certain gut bacterial communities directly through supplementation or indirectly by dietary and other novel approaches. 10.1177/0706743716635535
    Neuroendocrine Underpinnings of Increased Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women. Briscione M A,Michopoulos V,Jovanovic T,Norrholm S D Vitamins and hormones Women are particularly vulnerable to the effects of psychological trauma and the development of trauma-, stressor-, and anxiety-related mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the current chapter, we examine the female hormonal systems that interact with psychobiological stress response systems to elicit maladaptive behavior and mental disease states in traumatized female populations. In addition, we provide a contemporary translational example of a stress vulnerability genomic profile (coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) that may underlie the specific susceptibilities observed in women. Translational scientific investigations such as those described herein may lead to the identification of risk and resilience factors for PTSD as well as enhanced clinical interventions for treating excessive fear and anxiety. 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.08.003
    Spontaneous neural activity differences in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative resting-state meta-analysis and fMRI validation. Disner Seth G,Marquardt Craig A,Mueller Bryon A,Burton Philip C,Sponheim Scott R Human brain mapping Identifying the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical step toward reducing its debilitating impact. Spontaneous neural activity, measured at rest using various neuroimaging techniques (e.g., regional homogeneity [ReHo], amplitude of low frequency fluctuations [ALFF]), can provide insight about baseline neurobiological factors influencing sensory, cognitive, or behavioral processes associated with PTSD. The present study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct the largest-to-date quantitative meta-analysis of spontaneous neural activity in PTSD, including 457 PTSD cases, 292 trauma-exposed controls (TECs), and 293 non-traumatized controls (NTCs) across 22 published studies. Five regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified where activity differed between PTSD cases and controls: one when compared to all controls (left globus pallidus), two when compared to TECs (left inferior parietal lobule [IPL] and right lingual gyrus), and two when compared to NTCs (left amygdala and right caudate head). To corroborate these results, a second analysis was conducted using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on an independent sample of 205 previously-deployed US military veterans. In this analysis, converging evidence from ReHo and ALFF showed that spontaneous neural activity in the left IPL alone was positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity. This result is consistent with theoretical accounts that link left IPL activity with PTSD-relevant processes such as processing of emotional stimuli (e.g., fearful faces) and the extent that attention is captured by salient autobiographical memories. By modeling the neurobiological correlates of PTSD, we can increase our understanding of this debilitating disorder and guide the development of future clinical innovations. 10.1002/hbm.23886
    Clinical Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Bipolar Disorder. Kozel F Andrew The Psychiatric clinics of North America Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being investigated for psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and both phases of bipolar disorder. Case series, open trials, and randomized controlled studies have demonstrated preliminary support for treating PTSD with rTMS alone as well as with rTMS combined with psychotherapy. Similarly, there is some evidence that GAD can be treated with rTMS. The results for treating either phase of bipolar disorder are mixed with most of the current studies showing lack of benefit over sham. Further study is required before rTMS can be recommended for these disorders. 10.1016/j.psc.2018.04.007
    An Evidence-Based Review of Early Intervention and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Birur Badari,Moore Norman C,Davis Lori L Community mental health journal We present an evidence-based review of post-trauma interventions used to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Literature search of PubMed from 1988 to March 2016 using keywords "Early Intervention AND Prevention of PTSD" yielded 142 articles, of which 52 intervention studies and 6 meta-analyses were included in our review. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and modified prolonged exposure delivered within weeks of a potentially traumatic event for people showing signs of distress have the most evidence in the treatment of acute stress and early PTSD symptoms, and the prevention of PTSD. Even though several pharmacological agents have been tried, only hydrocortisone prior to high-risk surgery, severe traumatic injury, or during acute sepsis has adequate evidence for effectiveness in the reduction of acute stress symptoms and prevention of PTSD. There is an urgent need to determine the best targets for interventions after trauma to accelerate recovery and prevent PTSD. 10.1007/s10597-016-0047-x
    [Psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in older adults]. Böttche M,Knaevelsrud C Der Nervenarzt BACKGROUND:In contrast to the high demographic relevance of the older population, relatively little is known about prevalence rates, the typologies/symptom profiles and effective therapeutic approaches for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in older adults. AIM:The aim of the present article is to provide an overview of prevalence rates, typologies of PTSD and effective treatment approaches for PTSD in the elderly. RESULTS:Compared to younger cohorts, the group of older people has a markedly lower PTSD prevalence in the vast majority of epidemiological studies. There is a comparable structure over all age classes (i. e. classes with low, moderate and high symptoms) with respect to the symptom profile of PTSD. There are currently only a few controlled treatment studies for the cohort of older adults. The published controlled or randomized controlled interventional studies suggest that trauma-focused and narrative approaches seem to be effective in the treatment of PTSD in the elderly. CONCLUSION:Future research should take account of the results so far in order to verify the existing preliminary results and to deal with current limitations. Randomized controlled trials are required, which should include a heterogeneous sample of elderly people and examine different therapeutic approaches in their effectiveness and feasibility in this cohort. 10.1007/s00115-017-0409-9
    Current Status of Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Behavioral and Biological Phenotypes, and Future Challenges in Improving Translation. Deslauriers Jessica,Toth Mate,Der-Avakian Andre,Risbrough Victoria B Biological psychiatry Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging, as it is a heterogeneous disorder with ≥20 symptoms. Clinical research increasingly utilizes objective biological measures (e.g., imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or nonverbal behaviors and/or physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more-objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and it supports the incorporation of homologous measures across species. We reviewed >600 articles to examine the ability of current rodent models to probe biological phenotypes of PTSD (e.g., sleep disturbances, hippocampal and fear-circuit dysfunction, inflammation, glucocorticoid receptor hypersensitivity) in addition to behavioral phenotypes. Most models reliably produced enduring generalized anxiety-like or depression-like behaviors, as well as hyperactive fear circuits, glucocorticoid receptor hypersensitivity, and response to long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although a few paradigms probed fear conditioning/extinction or utilized peripheral immune, sleep, and noninvasive imaging measures, we argue that these should be incorporated more to enhance translation. Data on female subjects, on subjects at different ages across the life span, or on temporal trajectories of phenotypes after stress that can inform model validity and treatment study design are needed. Overall, preclinical (and clinical) PTSD researchers are increasingly incorporating homologous biological measures to assess markers of risk, response, and treatment outcome. This shift is exciting, as we and many others hope it not only will support translation of drug efficacy from animal models to clinical trials but also will potentially improve predictability of stage II for stage III clinical trials. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.11.019
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ho Fiona Yan-Yee,Chan Christian S,Tang Kristen Nga-Sze Clinical psychology review Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that sleep disturbance is not only a secondary symptom but also a risk factor for PTSD. Sleep-specific psychological treatments provide an alternative to conventional trauma-focused psychological treatments. The current meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of sleep-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating PTSD, sleep, and depressive symptoms. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analytic comparisons between sleep-specific CBT and waiting-list control groups at posttreatment. Random effects models showed significant reduction in self-report PTSD and depressive symptoms and insomnia severity in the sleep-specific CBT group. The corresponding effect sizes, measured in Hedges' g, were 0.58, 0.44, and 1.15, respectively. The effect sizes for sleep diary-derived sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency were 0.83, 1.02 and 1.15, respectively. The average study attrition rate of sleep-specific CBT was relatively low (12.8%), with no significant difference from the control group (9.4%). In conclusion, sleep-specific CBT appears to be efficacious and feasible in treating PTSD symptoms. Due to the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials available, further research is warranted to confirm its efficacy and acceptability, especially in comparison to trauma-specific psychological treatments. 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.09.005
    Assessment and Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ellis Janet,Zaretsky Ari Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.) PURPOSE:The goal of this article is to increase clinicians' understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and improve skills in assessing risk for and diagnosing PTSD. The importance and sequelae of lifetime trauma burden are discussed, with reference to trends in prevention, early intervention, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS:PTSD has different clinical phenotypes, which are reflected in the changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. PTSD is almost always complicated by comorbidity. Treatment requires a multimodal approach, usually including medication, different therapeutic techniques, and management of comorbidity. Interest is growing in the neurobiology of childhood survivors of trauma, intergenerational transmission of trauma, and long-term impact of trauma on physical health. Mitigation of the risk of PTSD pretrauma in the military and first responders is gaining momentum, given concerns about the cost and disability associated with PTSD. Interest is also growing in screening for PTSD in medical populations, with evidence of improved clinical outcomes. Preliminary research supports the treatment of PTSD with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. SUMMARY:PTSD is a trauma-related disorder with features of fear and negative thinking about the trauma and the future. Untreated, it leads to ongoing disruption of life due to avoidance, impaired vocational and social functioning, and other symptoms, depending on the phenotype. Despite a theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms, PTSD remains challenging to treat, although evidence exists for benefit of pharmacologic agents and trauma-focused therapies. A need still remains for treatments that are more effective and efficient, with faster onset. 10.1212/CON.0000000000000610
    Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication. Farooqui Mudassir,Quadri Syed A,Suriya Sajid S,Khan Muhammad Adnan,Ovais Muhammad,Sohail Zohaib,Shoaib Samra,Tohid Hassaan,Hassan Muhammad Trends in psychiatry and psychotherapy Objectives:Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD. Method:A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results:It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. Conclusion:The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact. 10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0029
    Treatments of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Civilian Populations. Grasser Lana Ruvolo,Javanbakht Arash Current psychiatry reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, heterogeneous disorder for which a multitude of psychotherapies, pharmaceuticals, and immerging treatment programs are available. Majority of efficacy studies focus on Caucasian male military populations, which may be a reason why not all patients respond to treatment with long-term positive outcomes. Additionally, effects of treatment on symptom clusters have been neglected. This work reviews treatment of PTSD and its symptom clusters exclusively in civilian populations, which have been historically under-examined in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS:Exposure therapy stands at the forefront of successful PTSD treatment and offers a more cost-effective solution to pharmacotherapy; however, refugees and patients with comorbid depression may not experience such strong benefits. For exposure therapy and other forms of psychotherapy, non-inferiority studies point to promise of internet-delivered and telemedicine-based methods for reaching populations that may not have access to in-person care. SSRIs are the most widely used pharmaceutical treatment for PTSD; moderate initial benefits are observed yet long-term retention and outcomes may be enhanced by adjunct treatment. Again, refugees are a group that experiences lesser benefit. Research has begun to explore efficacy of treatments for individual symptom clusters, with hyperarousal benefiting most from currently available modalities. Avoidance, intrusion, negative thoughts and beliefs, and dissociation are symptoms requiring more research for focused interventions. Treatment of PTSD has evolved to (1) include equivalent proportions of men and women, along with focused female-exclusive cohorts; (2) explore novel methods of treatment online and in various cultural contexts; and (3) less focus on medication as evidenced by current clinical trials. In addition to further efficacy and safety studies in more diverse ethnic populations, work is needed to examine what therapies are best for targeting specific symptom clusters of PTSD. This research will drive precision treatment, and such research is beginning to point towards underlying mechanisms of pathology and change. 10.1007/s11920-019-0994-3
    Beyond the Intensive Care Unit: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critically Ill Patients. Martin Jennifer B,Badeaux Jennifer E Critical care nursing clinics of North America Medical care progress has enabled more patients in the intensive care unit to survive critical illnesses and return to daily living. This shift in survival rates has shed new light on the emotional consequences this experience. For patients surviving an ICU stay, posttraumatic stress disorder has been identified in approximately 9% to 27% compared with 7% of the general US population. Practitioners have an important role to play in early identification of patients experiencing signs and symptoms of this disorder. Timely interventions and treatment may reduce the incidence of physical and psychological comorbid conditions. 10.1016/j.cnc.2018.05.001
    [Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of the interaction between an individual genetic susceptibility, a traumatogenic event and a social context]. Auxéméry Y L'Encephale INTRODUCTION:Why are some individuals more likely than others to develop a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the face of similar levels of trauma exposure? Monitoring the traumatic process combining the antecedents, the determinants of the psychic trauma and the acute symptoms can clarify the causes of the final onset of a chronic repetition syndrome. Epidemiologic research has clarified risk factors that increase the likelihood of PTSD after exposure to a potentially traumatic event. PTSD is an interaction between a subject, a traumatogenic factor and a social context. With each epidemiological, psychopathological and more particularly neurogenetic study, we will expand on the impact of these interactions on the therapeutic treatment of psycho-traumatised persons. LITERATURE FINDINGS:Most studies have shown that unrelated to the traumatic event, additional risk factors for developing PTSD include younger age at the time of the trauma, female gender, lower social economic statuts, lack of social support, premorbid personality characteristics and preexisting anxiety or depressive disorders increase the risk of PTSD. The psychic trauma is firmly attached to the repetition and the previous traumas are as many risks of developing a subsequent PTSD in the wake of a new trauma: PTSD in adults may represent a prolonged symptomatic reaction to prior traumatic assault, child abuse and childhood adversities. Related to the traumatic event, the organic pain, the traumatic brain injury, but also the sight of blood can lead to a trauma being considered as more serious or more harmful to life. It is useful to recognize the acute reactions of exhaustion stress as they can guide both the pharmacotherapeutic and the psychotherapeutic treatment thanks to debriefings. Even though the majority of people with acute stress disorder subsequently develop PTSD, the current data indicate that too many people can develop PTSD without initially displaying acute stress disorder. Though peritraumatic dissociation and peritraumatic distress have emerged as the strongest predictors for PTSD and have to be treated as soon as possible with the debriefing or the pharmacology; initial evidence suggests the potential benefits of early intervention, shortly after the trauma, and psychological debriefing has received increasing interest from the scientific community. However the Anglo-Saxon techniques (such as Critical Incident Stress Debriefing also known as the Mitchell model) are in total contrast with the French approach. In the first case the emotional response is controlled to ensure the pursuit of the group action, whilst in the second case the debriefing concerns patients with acute symptoms in order to prevent the development of a PTSD structuring of the latter. The facts, emotions and thoughts are not partitioned but inter-linked, thus enabling a fragmentation of the traumatic experience. In the face of the annihilation experienced, speech production by the subject is restored linking the person to the human community, once abandoned. However, debate continues on the efficacy of single session debriefing in the prevention of PTSD. At the time of the acute stress reactions, benzodiazepines are contraindicated at this stage as they promote dissociation and ulterior revivals. On the other hand, treatment with propranolol could be proposed: a two or three week course of propranolol begun in the aftermath of a traumatic event can reduce subsequent PTSD symptoms. DISCUSSION:A genetic polymorphism is evidently at work in the development of a PTSD via the regulation of the expression of genes of interest to the serotoninergic system and the adrenocorticotropic axis. The 5-HTTLPR (promoter region of SLC6A4 witch encodes the serotonin transporter) constitutes a genetic candidate region that may modulate emotional responses to traumatic events. The interaction between variation at the 5HTTLPR and stressful life events could predict depression and PTSD. Considering the dopaminergic pathway, the A1 allele coding the type 2 dopaminergic receptor is associated with a severe comorbidity of PTSD with the presence of somatic disorders, anxiety, social change and depression. For noradrenergic neuromodulation, an interaction between the polymorphism of gene GABRA2 and the occurrence of PTSD is described whereas an interaction between the number of traumatic events and Val(158)Met polymorphism of the gene coding for catecholamine-o-methyltransferase has also been found. The role of polymorphisms in FKBP5 (a co-chaperone of hsp 90 which binds to the glucocorticoid receptor) in predicting PTSD too, with a gene-by-environment point of view. These gene-by-environment studies are needed to focus more on distinct endophenotypes and influences from environmental factors. If several candidate genes are involved, a weighting of susceptibility to such and such a neurological regulation system will imply various endophenotypes. According to the monoamine predominantly incriminated, PTSD can take on a more hyper-vegetative clinical expression linked with noradrenergic overuse. Differently, avoidance behaviour and the depressive aspect invoke more a modification of the serotoninergic modulation whilst posttraumatic psychotic reactions question the role of dopaminergic pathways. Neuroscientific discoveries interesting the biological support of PTSD can thus modify our view of the conception of the disorder in relation to different therapeutic prospects. CONCLUSION:Chronic PTSD can manifest itself in different clinical forms. The repetition syndrome can appear a long time after the traumatic event, following a paucisymptomatic latency period, which can last several years or even decades. The absence of complaints from the patient is common, the latter suffering in silence. Often other comorbid disorders and other complaints arise sooner than the clinical picture. Thus a depressive episode characterised as drug-seeking behaviour is frequently encountered. The therapeutic accompaniment traditionally combines a pharmacological and a psychotherapeutic treatment even if recommendations are rare. A posttraumatic stress disorder is never just a coincidence. The different stages of the evolution and the establishment of a PTSD are the expression of an interaction between the outside and the inner self. Despite a known progression of the posttraumatic stress disorder, this deleterious evolution is far from being a foregone conclusion. On the contrary, several levels of prevention are possible at each stage of its structuration to propose treatments to subjects who are vulnerable and/or present symptoms. No neurobiological study has yet found a biological marker, which would apparently and inevitably destine a subject to structure, a posttraumatic stress disorder in reaction to a stress. Conversely, the psychopathological study finds afterwards that a particular subject has necessarily built a traumatic repetition syndrome according to the concordance of significant data relative to his/her history. The event strikes a repression or an anterior biographical deadlock and of which the thematic questions the fundamentals of human culture in its emancipation with nature, like the question of death and its consequences: bereavement, parentality, transgenerational transmission and organicity often linked to the illness. A therapeutic proposal constitutes an environmental factor par excellence which can be either protective or deleterious. If the traumatic repetition syndrome has been known since Antiquity, the birth of PTSD has followed the chronology of the DSM according to the sociopolitical contexts encountered. A PTSD does not occur by chance: the conditions of possibility of the trauma are established by genetic and psychological determinants interactively integrated at the heart of a social context. After the increase in a psychotraumatic interest in international publications since the 1980s, a fight against over-victimisation seems to be setting in. The advances in genetic and neuroimaging techniques are in the process of superseding psychometric studies in terms of reliability and validity; maybe we should see in this social evolution the changes of tomorrow concerning the clinical of PTSD and its treatment. The healing of the psycho-traumatised subject cannot just be established on the passive status of victim, which would be detrimental to reflection and ultimately reconstruction: the rebirth of the subject will require active commitment, which could distract from the deadly repetition. Whilst the confrontation with death resembled nonsense, the subject will question the psychotraumatic determinants of his/her life history to reinstate this tragic event within a search for meaning. Such restructuring is built on the intersubjectivity of the clinical relationship, which occurs within a social context. PTSD is a pathology which interacts with the societal context: on the one hand the trauma is established on the brutal reconsideration of social values which seem immutable and on the other hand, the clinical and nosographical concept of PTSD is changing with the evolution of society. 10.1016/j.encep.2011.12.003
    Circuit dysregulation and circuit-based treatments in posttraumatic stress disorder. Sheynin Jony,Liberzon Israel Neuroscience letters Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that develops in some individuals in the aftermath of exposure to traumatic events, such as actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual assault. It has been hypothesized that dysregulations in a number of specific neurocircuits, characterized by heightened responsivity of amygdala, dACC and insula, diminished responsivity of mPFC, impaired hippocampal function and deficits in cortical regions, underlie the development and expression of key PTSD symptoms. Here, we concisely describe three functional neural circuits implicated in PTSD pathophysiology and briefly review selected treatment strategies in the context of these neural circuits. We start with the commonly implicated neurocircuit model, namely, the fear learning and threat detection circuits, and then discuss the context processing circuitry, which plays an important role among others, in fear regulation. We then discuss the emotion regulation circuitry, which can further contribute to PTSD pathophysiology, and conclude with a discussion of the therapeutic approaches that might be targeting dysregulation in these circuits in PTSD patients. Specifically, we discuss how exposure-based treatments might be targeting fear learning circuits, and the pharmacological and brain-stimulation interventions aimed to augment these therapies. Finally, we discuss other pharmacological and cognitive therapeutic approaches that can augment or restore the function of the context processing and emotional regulation circuits. 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.11.014
    Posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP): Diagnostic and treatment challenges. Compean Ebele,Hamner Mark Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry Trauma exposure leads to various psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and trauma related disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are some overlapping symptoms of both PTSD and psychosis that make diagnosis challenging. Despite this overlap, the evidence of PTSD with comorbid psychosis as a distinct entity lies in the research showing biologic, genetic and treatment management differences between psychotic PTSD, non-psychotic PTSD, psychotic disorders and healthy controls. There is emerging evidence that PTSD with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP) might be a discrete entity of PTSD with known risk factors that increase its prevalence. This review has presented evidence for individuals with PTSD-SP being distinct in genetics and neurobiological factors. Individuals with PTSD and comorbid psychosis can benefit from evidence based psychotherapy (EBT). There is not enough evidence to recommend second generation antipsychotics (SGA) for PTSD-SP given that risperidone and quetiapine are the only SGAs studied in randomized controlled trials. Hence, developing an operational diagnostic criteria and treatment framework for clinical and research use is critical. 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.08.001
    Recent advances in the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of possible mechanisms underlying an effective pharmacotherapy. Malikowska-Racia Natalia,Salat Kinga Pharmacological research Recent progress in the field of neurobiology supported by clinical evidence gradually reveals the mystery of human brain functioning. So far, many psychiatric disorders have been described in great detail, although there are still plenty of cases that are misunderstood. These include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is a unique disease that combines a wide range of neurobiological changes, which involve disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis, hyperactivation of the amygdala complex, and attenuation of some hippocampal and cortical functions. Such multiplicity results in differential symptomatology, including elevated anxiety, nightmares, fear retrieval episodes that may trigger delusions and hallucinations, sleep disturbances, and many others that strongly interfere with the quality of the patient's life. Because of widespread neurological changes and the disease manifestation, the pharmacotherapy of PTSD remains unclear and requires a multidimensional approach and involvement of polypharmacotherapy. Hopefully, more and more neuroscientists and clinicians will study PTSD, which will provide us with new information that would possibly accelerate establishment of well-tolerated and effective pharmacotherapy. In this review, we have focused on neurobiological changes regarding PTSD, addressing the most disturbed brain structures and neurotransmissions, as well as discussing in detail the recently taken and novel therapeutic paths. 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.02.001
    Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis. Parker Ann M,Sricharoenchai Thiti,Raparla Sandeep,Schneck Kyle W,Bienvenu O Joseph,Needham Dale M Critical care medicine OBJECTIVE:To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014. STUDY SELECTION:Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients. DATA EXTRACTION:Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles. DATA SYNTHESIS:The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17-24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18-34%) and 44% (36-52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9-24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10-26%) and 34% (22-50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms occurred in one fifth of critical illness survivors at 1-year follow-up, with higher prevalence in those who had comorbid psychopathology, received benzodiazepines, and had early memories of frightening ICU experiences. In European studies, ICU diaries reduced posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000882
    Potential pleiotropic beneficial effects of adjuvant melatonergic treatment in posttraumatic stress disorder. Agorastos Agorastos,Linthorst Astrid C E Journal of pineal research Loss of circadian rhythmicity fundamentally affects the neuroendocrine, immune, and autonomic system, similar to chronic stress and may play a central role in the development of stress-related disorders. Recent articles have focused on the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that chronodisruption plays a causal role in PTSD development. Direct and indirect human and animal PTSD research suggests circadian system-linked neuroendocrine, immune, metabolic and autonomic dysregulation, linking circadian misalignment to PTSD pathophysiology. Recent experimental findings also support a specific role of the fundamental synchronizing pineal hormone melatonin in mechanisms of sleep, cognition and memory, metabolism, pain, neuroimmunomodulation, stress endocrinology and physiology, circadian gene expression, oxidative stress and epigenetics, all processes affected in PTSD. In the current paper, we review available literature underpinning a potentially beneficiary role of an add-on melatonergic treatment in PTSD pathophysiology and PTSD-related symptoms. The literature is presented as a narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant publications. We conclude that adjuvant melatonergic treatment could provide a potentially promising treatment strategy in the management of PTSD and especially PTSD-related syndromes and comorbidities. Rigorous preclinical and clinical studies are needed to validate this hypothesis. 10.1111/jpi.12330
    Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Boland Elaine M,Ross Richard J The Psychiatric clinics of North America Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments. 10.1016/j.psc.2015.07.005
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Elderly. Jakel Rebekah J The Psychiatric clinics of North America Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur at any point in the life span and can last for decades. Chronic PTSD can affect quality of life and have a negative impact on physical function and health in the elderly and may be associated with premature aging and dementia. It is critical that clinicians screen for trauma-based symptoms and to treat as appropriate. 10.1016/j.psc.2017.10.013
    Neuroendocrinological treatment targets for posttraumatic stress disorder. Yoon Seoyoung,Kim Yong-Ku Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent, disabling, and frequently becomes chronic. Despite this, only two selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors have been approved to date for its treatment by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and treatment results are often disappointing, with a remission rate of <30%. Certain neuroendocrinological systems are currently gaining attention with respect to their use for PTSD prevention and treatment as standalone options or medication-enhanced psychotherapy due to their involvement in physiological stress reactions, memory consolidation and extinction, cognitive appraisal to stress, and attachment and resilient coping strategies, which are important in the pathogenesis of PTSD. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system takes the most important role in stress reactions. Hydrocortisone has been studied for the prevention of PTSD, and some meta-analyses have suggested its possible efficacy; furthermore, it has been considered both as monotherapy and as an augmentation to psychotherapy in PTSD patients, with some positive results. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonists and corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 antagonists have also been considered for clinical use in PTSD treatment. Additionally, other neuroendocrinological systems have been studied in PTSD including the use of oxytocin for PTSD prevention and augmentation to psychotherapy, allopregnanolone, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) for PTSD treatment. For now, however, these studies offer only limited evidence of efficacy, thus it is prudent to study this issue more vigorously. 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.11.021
    Sleep and Dreaming in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Miller Katherine E,Brownlow Janeese A,Woodward Steve,Gehrman Philip R Current psychiatry reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Sleep disturbances are core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review aims to characterize sleep disturbances, summarize the knowledge regarding the relationships between trauma exposure and sleep difficulties, and highlight empirically supported and/or utilized treatments for trauma-related nightmares and insomnia. RECENT FINDINGS:Trauma-related nightmares and insomnia, and other sleep disorders, are frequently reported among trauma survivors. The roles of fear of sleep, REM density, and decreased parasympathetic activity are beginning to inform the relationship between trauma exposure and sleep difficulties. Additionally, the potential adaptive role of sleep loss immediately following a traumatic experience is being recognized. Interventions targeting these sleep disturbances show promise in reducing symptoms. Research in understanding the role of sleep on the development, course, and treatment of PTSD is expanding. Longitudinal investigations are needed to further elucidate these relationships and identify treatments most effective in ameliorating symptoms. 10.1007/s11920-017-0827-1
    Sleep Disorders in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. El-Solh Ali A,Riaz Usman,Roberts Jasmine Chest A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions, as it relates to PTSD. Recent advances in positive airway pressure technology have made treatment of OSA more acceptable; however, adherence to CPAP therapy presents a substantial challenge. Concomitant insomnia, which engenders psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, suicide, and alcohol and substance abuse, can be managed with cognitive behavioral therapy. Hypnotic agents are considered an alternative therapy, but concerns about adverse events and lack of high-level evidence supporting their efficacy in PTSD treatment have limited their use to resistant cases or as adjuncts to behavioral therapy when the response is less than desirable. Intrusion of nightmares can complicate PTSD treatment and exert serious strain on social, occupational, and marital relations. Imagery rehearsal therapy has shown significant reduction in nightmare intensity and frequency. The success of noradrenergic blocking agents has not been consistent among studies, with one-half reporting treatment failure. An integrated stepped care approach that includes components of both behavioral and pharmacologic interventions customized to patients' sleep-maladaptive behaviors may offer a solution to delivering accessible, effective, and efficient services for individuals with PTSD. 10.1016/j.chest.2018.04.007
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Elderly. Jakel Rebekah J Clinics in geriatric medicine Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur at any point in the life span and can last for decades. Chronic PTSD can affect quality of life and have a negative impact on physical function and health in the elderly and may be associated with premature aging and dementia. It is critical that clinicians screen for trauma-based symptoms and to treat as appropriate. 10.1016/j.cger.2019.11.013