Tricuspid valve regurgitation: epidemiology and pathophysiology.
Compared with the vast literature concerning the prevalence, pathophysiology, and outcome of left valvular disease, the data concerning tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is very limited. In this review we summarized the present data concerning these important issues. We show that TR is as prevalent as aortic stenosis in the community, with increasing prevalence with age, and much more common in women. We review the present knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of TR, focusing on functional TR. We show that functional TR is multifactorial, resulting from both RV remodeling and pulmonary hypertension, and/or atrial fibrillation resulting in right atrial dilatation. We demonstrate that RV remodeling, mostly in the mid segment, will result in tethering. On the other side, right atrial remodeling will mostly result in pure annular dilatation and loss of valvular/annular coverage reserve. Finally, due to the heterogeneous nature of TR we review the outcome data for each presentation of TR and show that in most contexts TR is associated with very poor outcome, even when adjusted for left ventricular systolic, and diastolic function, pulmonary pressure, and RV dysfunction.
Impact of right ventricular dysfunction and end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure estimated from analysis of tricuspid regurgitant velocity spectrum in patients with preserved ejection fraction.
Baruch Guy,Rothschild Ehud,Kapusta Livia,Schwartz Lorin Arie,Biner Simon,Aviram Galit,Ingbir Meirav,Nachmany Ido,Keren Gad,Topilsky Yan
European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging
AIMS:We aimed to analyse the association between right haemodynamic parameters, right ventricular (RV) dysfunction parameters, and outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). METHODS AND RESULTS:Retrospective analysis of right haemodynamic (systolic pulmonary pressure and end-diastolic pulmonary pressure based on tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity at pulmonary valve opening time), and RV parameters including size (end-diastolic and end-systolic area), function (RV fractional area change, Tei index, Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion, and speckle tracking derived free wall strain), from 557 consecutive patients with preserved EF [EF ≥ 50%; age 64.9 + 20; 52% female; co-morbidity Charlson index 4.7 (2.9, 6.4)]. All cause and cardiac mortality were retrospectively analysed and correlated to echo haemodynamic and co-morbid parameters. TR velocity at pulmonary valve opening time and calculated end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure were obtainable in 71% of patients. The best haemodynamic univariate predictor of mortality was calculated end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure [hazard ratio 1.06 (1.04-1.07); P < 0.0001], superior to TR peak velocity and systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Elevated end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure was associated with all cause and cardiac mortality even when adjusted for all significant clinical (age, gender, and Charlson index), and echo (stroke volume index, left atrial volume index, systolic pulmonary pressure, E/e', and Tei index) parameters. Tei index was superior to all other RV functional parameters (P < 0.05 for all parameters). CONCLUSION:TR velocity at pulmonary valve opening time and calculated end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure are obtainable in most patients, and add prognostic information on top of clinical and routine haemodynamic and diastolic parameters.
Pulmonary vascular resistance versus pulmonary artery pressure for predicting right ventricular remodeling and functional tricuspid regurgitation.
Gual-Capllonch Francisco,Teis Albert,Ferrer Elena,Núñez Julio,Vallejo Nuria,Juncà Gladys,López-Ayerbe Jorge,Lupón Josep,Bayes-Genis Antoni
Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common cause of right ventricular (RV) remodeling and functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR), but incremental pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) does not always correlate with anatomic and functional RV changes. This study aimed to evaluate a noninvasive measure of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) for predicting RV dilatation, RV dysfunction, and severity of FTR. METHODS:We prospectively analyzed consecutive stable patients with PASP ≥ 35 mm Hg or any degree of RV dilatation or dysfunction secondary to PH. Noninvasive PVR was calculated based on FTR peak velocity and flow in RV outflow tract. RESULTS:We included 251 patients, aged 72.1 ± 11.4 years, 53% women, 74.9% with type 2 pulmonary hypertension. The mean PASP was 48.3 ± 12.2 mm Hg. Both PASP and PVR significantly correlated with FTR, RV dilatation, and RV systolic dysfunction. After dichotomizing FTR and RV dilatation and systolic dysfunction as nonsignificant vs significant, FTR and RV dilatation were similarly predicted by PASP and PVR, but RV dysfunction was better predicted by PVR (AUC = 0.78 [0.72-0.84] vs 0.66 [0.60-0.73] for PASP, P < 0.001). Patients with low PASP but high PVR showed worse RV and left ventricular function but lower rates of right heart failure and smaller inferior vena cava, compared to patients with high PASP but low PVR. CONCLUSIONS:Noninvasive PVR was superior to PASP for predicting RV systolic dysfunction, but both were similarly associated with RV dilatation or FTR grade. PASP and PVR complement each other to define the echocardiographic findings and clinical status of the patient.
Association of tricuspid regurgitation with clinical and echocardiographic outcomes after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip System: 30-day and 12-month follow-up from the GRASP Registry.
Ohno Yohei,Attizzani Guilherme F,Capodanno Davide,Cannata Stefano,Dipasqua Fabio,Immé Sebastiano,Barbanti Marco,Ministeri Margherita,Caggegi Anna,Pistritto Anna M,Chiarandà Marta,Ronsivalle Giuseppe,Giaquinta Sandra,Farruggio Silvia,Mangiafico Sarah,Scandura Salvatore,Tamburino Corrado,Capranzano Piera,Grasso Carmelo
European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging
AIM:The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of baseline tricuspid regurgitation (TR) on the outcomes after percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) with the MitraClip system. METHODS AND RESULTS:Data from 146 consecutive patients with functional mitral regurgitation (MR) were obtained. Two different groups, dichotomized according to the degree of pre-procedural TR (moderate/severe, n = 47 and none/mild, n = 99), had their clinical and echocardiographic outcomes through 12-month compared. At 30-day, the primary safety endpoint was significantly higher in moderate/severe TR compared with none/mild TR (10.6 vs. 2.0%, P = 0.035). Marked reduction in MR grades observed post-procedure were maintained through 12 months. Although NYHA functional class significantly improved in both groups compared with baseline, it was impaired in moderate/severe TR compared with the none/mild TR group (NYHA > II at 30 day: 33.3 vs. 9.2%, P < 0.001; at 1 year: 38.5 vs. 12.3%, respectively, P = 0.006). Left ventricle reverse remodelling and ejection fraction improvement were revealed in both groups. The primary efficacy endpoint at 12-month determined by freedom from death, surgery for mitral valve dysfunction, or grade ≥ 3+ MR was comparable between groups, but combined death and re-hospitalization for heart failure rates were higher in the moderate/severe TR group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that baseline moderate/severe TR and chronic kidney disease were independent predictors of this combined endpoint. CONCLUSIONS:Although PMVR with MitraClip led to improvement in MR, TR, and NYHA functional class in patients with baseline moderate/severe TR, the primary safety endpoint at 30-day was impaired, while moderate/severe TR independently predicted death and re-hospitalization for heart failure at 12-month.
Functional tricuspid valve regurgitation in adults with congenital heart disease: an emerging problem.
Giamberti Alessandro,Chessa Massimo,Ballotta Andrea,Varrica Alessandro,Agnetti Aldo,Frigiola Alessandro,Ranucci Marco
The Journal of heart valve disease
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY:At present, limited data are available regarding functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Functional TR is the consequence of right ventricular (RV) dilation or dysfunction that, in these patients, is typically associated with chronic RV volume overloading. The study aim was to resolve this problem by evaluating results obtained from patients after surgical treatment of ACHD. METHODS:A total of 65 patients (mean age 46 years) with ACHD underwent an operation to correct functional TR during elective cardiac surgery between January 2000 and December 2008 at the authors' institution. The preoperative median NYHA functional class was 3, and the median TR grade was 3. Surgical treatment of the primary cardiac lesion included atrial septal defect (ASD) closure in 40 patients and pulmonary valve implantation in 25. Functional TR was treated by annuloplasty (n = 48), rigid tricuspid valve ring (n = 14), or tricuspid valve replacement (n = 3). RESULTS:There were no in-hospital deaths. The median TR grade at discharge was 0. During a mean follow up period of 63 months (range: 12-96 months) there was one delayed death that was not cardiac-related. Both, the NYHA functional class (p = 0.001) and TR grade (p = 0.001) were significantly improved among survivors. One patient (1.5%) had tricuspid valve replacement at five years after annuloplasty. No significant differences regarding annuloplasty versus rigid tricuspid valve ring were noted during the follow up period. CONCLUSION:Functional TR is an emerging, though as yet still underestimated, problem in ACHD. It is a consequence of RV dilation/dysfunction that, in these patients, is typically related to chronic RV volume overloading. Surgery should be considered to resolve this problem, and can be performed at low risk and with good mid-term results.
Echocardiographic Determinants of One-Year All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure Complicated by Significant Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation.
Hu Kai,Liu Dan,Störk Stefan,Herrmann Sebastian,Oder Daniel,Ertl Georg,Voelker Wolfram,Weidemann Frank,Nordbeck Peter
Journal of cardiac failure
BACKGROUND:Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction plays an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF). We evaluated the echocardiographic determinants of 1-year all-cause mortality in CHF patients with clinically relevant functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR). METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 101 consecutive CHF patients (mean age 74 ± 10 years, 53% male) with moderate or severe functional TR were enrolled. Each patient underwent at least 2 echocardiography examinations in an interval of >6 months. Clinical follow-up was made after a median of 305 (interquartile range 164-365) days after the last echocardiography. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Forty-two patients (42%) died during follow-up. Baseline right atrial (RA) area, TR volume increase and RV enlargement over time were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors (all P < .05). Compared to baseline levels, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was significantly reduced in nonsurvivors during follow-up echocardiography (54 ± 19 vs 49 ± 21 mm Hg; P = .010), but significantly increased in survivors (48 ± 17 vs 54 ± 17 mm Hg; P = .001). Multivariable survival analysis suggested that baseline RA area ≥27 cm (hazard ratio [HR] 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.80; P = .013), follow-up TR proximal isovelocity surface area regurgitant volume increase ≥15 mL (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.20-4.31; P = .012), RV middle diameter increase ≥10 mm (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.10-5.11; P = .027), and sPAP reduction ≥10 mm Hg (HR 3.04, 95% CI 1.51-6.13; P = .002) were determinants of 1-year all-cause mortality after the last echocardiography. Patients with 2 or 3 of these determinants were faced with significantly increased 1-year mortality (88% or 100%). CONCLUSIONS:Dynamic RV morphologic and functional changes during serial echocardiography are associated with significantly increased mortality risk in CHF patients with moderate or severe functional TR.
Right ventricular reduction for repair of functional tricuspid valve regurgitation: one-year follow up.
Ouda Ahmed,Matschke Klaus,Ghazy Tamer,Speiser Uwe,Alexiou Konstantin,Tugtekin Sems-Malte,Schoen Steffen,Kappert Utz
The Journal of heart valve disease
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY:The study aim was to assess the impact of reducing the right ventricular (RV) cavity in order to optimize the outcome of tricuspid valve (TV) repair in cases of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) with dilated right ventricle. METHODS:Between May 2007 and February 2010, a total of 17 patients (six males, 11 females; mean age 69.5 +/- 10.1 years; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24 +/- 13%) with severe FTR and severe RV dilation were included. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for geometric assessment of the right ventricle. Intraoperatively, the lateral RV free wall was plicated to reduce the RV cavum to approximate the papillary muscles and decrease tethering of the TV; a conventional ring annuloplasty was then performed. Follow up included echocardiography and MRI at one month and one year postoperatively. RESULTS:The mean operative time was 157 +/- 30 min, and the cross-clamp time 63 13 min. Postoperatively, the mean bleeding volume was 486 +/- 455 ml, the rethoracotomy rate 5.9%, intensive therapy unit (ITU) stay 6.0 +/- 4.4 days, and hospital stay 19.0 +/- 8.8 days. In-hospital mortality was 17.6%. The mean follow up was 14.4 +/- 2.4 months. The one-year follow up revealed a survival of 82.3%, a slight decrease in RV ejection fraction (from 33.5 +/- 4.2% to 31.7 +/- 5.7%; p = 0.13), a significant reduction in the RV end-diastolic volume index (from 160 +/- 15.6 to 128 +/- 10 ml/m2; p = 0.0001), a reduction in TV tenting area (from 3.3 +/- 0.9 to 0.9 +/- 0.3 cm2; p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the ratio of TR jet to right atrial surface area (from 54.8 +/- 8.2% to 14.1 +/- 3.5%; p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION:In cases of FTR, RV dilation may be considered as a correctable factor at subvalvular level to optimize the outcome of TV repair.
Prognostic Usefulness of Tricuspid Annular Diameter for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Tricuspid Regurgitation of Moderate to Severe Degree.
Kim Hyungseop,Kim In-Cheol,Yoon Hyuck-Jun,Park Hyoung-Seob,Cho Yun-Kyeong,Nam Chang-Wook,Han Seongwook,Hur Seung-Ho,Kim Yoon-Nyun
The American journal of cardiology
Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is frequently encountered. Current guidelines recommend the surgical correction of severe TR only at the time of left valve surgery despite emphasizing the enlarged tricuspid annulus (TA) dimension. We attempted to evaluate the relation between TA dimension and clinical outcomes of moderate or severe TR. A total of 213 patients (mean age 68 years, women 68%) with moderate or severe TR secondary to left-sided valve surgery, nonvalvular disease, or isolated primary TR were retrospectively identified and classified into tertiles of TA dimension. Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes were defined as a composite of hospitalization for worsening heart failure (HF), stroke, and CV death over a median follow-up of 3.4 years. Upper and lower tertiles of TA dimension had high frequencies of left-sided valve surgery and isolated primary TR, respectively. TA dimension was correlated with TR severity assigned as color Doppler grade and systolic tissue Doppler imaging of the tricuspid valve (TDI s'). During follow-up, there were 87 (41%) occurrences of primary outcomes: 65 HFs (31%), 13 CV deaths (6%), and 9 strokes (4%). There was a high frequency of adverse outcomes in the upper tertile. TA dimension and TDI s' were independently related to outcomes. An enlarged TA dimension was associated with outcomes irrespective of subgroups according to type or severity of TR and TDI s' (p = 0.21, p = 0.77, p = 0.15 for interaction). A cut-off value of 4.0 cm for TA dimension was best for CV event occurrence. When assessing clinical CV outcomes, TA dimension should be considered, even in moderate TR.
Pathogenic structural heart changes in early tricuspid regurgitation.
Nemoto Naohiko,Lesser John R,Pedersen Wesley R,Sorajja Paul,Spinner Erin,Garberich Ross F,Vock David M,Schwartz Robert S
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
OBJECTIVE:Severe, late functional tricuspid regurgitation is characterized by annulus dilation, right ventricular enlargement, and papillary muscle displacement with leaflet tethering. However, the early stages of mild tricuspid regurgitation and its progression are poorly understood. This study examined structural heart changes in mild, early tricuspid regurgitation. METHODS:Sequential patients undergoing cardiac computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiography with tricuspid regurgitation were identified and evaluated. The tricuspid annulus area and chamber volumes were measured by computed tomography angiography and categorized by tricuspid regurgitation severity. RESULTS:Patients (n = 622) were divided into 3 groups by tricuspid regurgitation severity: no/trace (n = 386), mild (n = 178), and moderate/severe tricuspid regurgitation (n = 58). Annulus area was highly dependent on and proportional to regurgitation severity and correlated with both right/left atrial enlargement. Annulus area most strongly correlated with right and left atrial volume, and the annulus shape changed from elliptical to circular in moderate/severe tricuspid regurgitation. Mild tricuspid regurgitation was associated with less right/left atrial enlargement than significant tricuspid regurgitation, normal right ventricular size, and annular dilation. Significant tricuspid regurgitation was associated with annular dilation, circularization, and right ventricular enlargement. Mild and significant tricuspid regurgitation were differentiated by annulus area and indexed right ventricular volume. CONCLUSIONS:Tricuspid annular dilation and right/left atrial enlargement comprise early events in mild functional tricuspid regurgitation. Atrial enlargement occurs before right ventricular dilation, which occurs late, when tricuspid regurgitation is severe. Atrial volume and tricuspid annular dilation are early and sensitive indicators of tricuspid regurgitation significance.
Multimodality imaging to plan and guide transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions.
Prihadi Edgard A,Delgado Victoria,Bax Jeroen J
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a highly prevalent valvular heart disease. The natural history of untreated significant TR portends an unfavorable outcome, but only a minority of patients is currently referred for surgical treatment. Organic TR (caused by primary abnormality of the leaflets) is relatively infrequent whereas secondary or functional TR (caused by dilatation of the tricuspid annulus, right ventricle [RV] and right atrium) is the predominant mechanism. The success of transcatheter therapies for left valvular heart disease over the last decade, has fueled similar development of novel transcatheter devices for the treatment of TR. Currently being tested in several clinical trials, each of these devices requires specific needs to define the procedural suitability. In addition, an accurate evaluation of the complex tricuspid anatomy, RV geometry and their relationship with the surrounding structures is mandatory. Therefore, accurate pre-procedural assessment using multimodality imaging techniques will undoubtedly play a pivotal role in achieving procedural success and safety. This review article provides a comprehensive overview on the etiology and different mechanisms of TR, and highlights the role of multimodality imaging techniques in the assessment of TR severity, RV dysfunction and fulfilment of device-specific selection criteria.
Long-term echocardiographic follow-up of untreated 2+ functional tricuspid regurgitation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery.
Kusajima Kunio,Fujita Tomoyuki,Hata Hiroki,Shimahara Yusuke,Miura Sayaka,Kobayashi Junjiro
Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
OBJECTIVES:Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery with mitral valve surgery is recommended for patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR). However, the treatment for 2+ TR (mild TR) remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the long-term results of untreated 2+ TR in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the records of 96 patients with untreated 2+ TR among 885 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery from 2003 to 2010. Exclusion criteria were tricuspid valve surgery (TVS), emergency surgery, primary TR and pacemaker lead through the tricuspid valve. We assessed survival and freedom from heart failure. The freedom from 3+ (moderate) or 4+ (severe) TR was investigated by echocardiographic data at pre- and postoperative week 1, then at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 postoperative years, which were compared with those in patients who had 2+ TR preoperatively and underwent concomitant TVS in the same period (n = 47). RESULTS:The mean follow-up was 7.1 ± 2.7 years. There was no 30-day mortality. The survival rate was 97.5% at 5 years and 87.5% at 10 years. The independent risk factors for mortality were age (OR 1.2, P = 0.03) and left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 0.9, P = 0.03). Untreated 2+ TR improved transiently within the first postoperative year (P < 0.001), but progressed again in the mid- to long term. Freedom from ≥3+ TR was 64.2% at 5 years and 46.7% at 10 years, which was significantly lower than that from ≥3+ TR in patients who underwent concomitant TVS (P = 0.006). The independent risk factors for TR progression (≥3 + TR) were age (OR 1.1, P = 0.005), atrial fibrillation (OR 2.2, P = 0.04) and tricuspid annular diameter (TAD) index (mm/m(2); OR 1.1, P = 0.02). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal TAD index cut-off value was 21.0 for long-term survival [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.72] and 21.2 for TR progression (AUC = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS:Although untreated, 2+ TR significantly improved after mitral valve surgery, it then progressed again in the mid- to long term. Therefore, concomitant TVS should be considered in patients with 2+ TR who have dilated tricuspid annulus or atrial fibrillation, if feasible.
State-of-the-Art Review of Echocardiographic Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation.
Hahn Rebecca T
Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging
Functional or secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common cause of severe TR in the Western world. The presence of functional TR, either isolated or in combination with left heart disease, is associated with unfavorable natural history. Surgical mortality for isolated tricuspid valve interventions remains higher than for any other single valve surgery, and surgical options for repair do not have consistent long-term durability. In addition, as more patients undergo transcatheter left valve interventions, developing transcatheter solutions for functional TR has gained greater momentum. Numerous transcatheter devices are currently in early clinical trials. All patients require an assessment of valve morphology and function, and transcatheter devices typically require intraprocedural guidance by echocardiography. The following review will describe tricuspid anatomy, define echocardiographic views for evaluating tricuspid valve morphology and function, and discuss imaging requirements for the current transcatheter devices under development for the treatment of functional TR.
Surgical indication for functional tricuspid regurgitation at initial operation: judging from long term outcomes.
Pozzoli Alberto,Lapenna Elisabetta,Vicentini Luca,Alfieri Ottavio,De Bonis Michele
General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
The assessment and management of tricuspid valve disease have evolved substantially during the past several years. Whereas tricuspid stenosis is uncommon, tricuspid regurgitation is frequently encountered and it is most often secondary due to annular dilatation and leaflet tethering from right ventricular remodelling. The indications for tricuspid valve surgery to treat tricuspid regurgitation are several and mainly related to the underlying disease, to the severity of insufficiency and to the right ventricular function. Surgical tricuspid repair has been avoided for years, because of the misleading concept that tricuspid regurgitation should disappear once the primary left-sided problem has been eliminated. Instead, during the last decade, many investigators have reported evidence in favor of a more aggressive surgical approach to functional tricuspid regurgitation, recognising the risk of progressive tricuspid insufficiency in patients with moderate or lesser degrees of tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid annular dilatation. This concept, along with the long-term outcomes of principal surgical repair techniques are reported and discussed. Last, novel transcatheter therapies have begun to emerge for the treatment of severe tricuspid regurgitation in high-risk patients. Hence, very preliminary pre-clinical and clinical experiences are illustrated. The scope of this review is to explore the anatomic basis, the pathophysiology, the outcomes and the new insights in the management of functional tricuspid regurgitation.
Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation in Mitral Valve Disease.
McCartney Sharon L,Taylor Bradley S,Nicoara Alina
Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia
Functional tricuspid regurgitation is a common finding in patients with left-sided heart disease. If left untreated, it may reduce survival, limit functional capacity and cause end-organ dysfunction. Annulus dilation and leaflet tethering due to right ventricle remodeling are 2 major pathophysiologic mechanisms in functional tricuspid regurgitation. Even if surgical treatment remains the gold standard, indication and timing of surgical interventions remain the object of debate in the medical community. More recently, numerous transcatheter therapies have been developed in order to offer less invasive options to patients who otherwise would have a high risk of mortality and morbidity with surgical interventions.
Severe tricuspid regurgitation is predictive for adverse events in tetralogy of Fallot.
Bokma Jouke P,Winter Michiel M,Oosterhof Thomas,Vliegen Hubert W,van Dijk Arie P,Hazekamp Mark G,Koolbergen Dave R,Groenink Maarten,Mulder Barbara J M,Bouma Berto J
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
OBJECTIVE:Patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) may develop functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) due to annulus dilation. Guidelines suggest pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with rTOF with progressive TR, but data on clinical outcomes are lacking. Our objective was to determine whether TR was predictive for adverse events after PVR. METHODS:In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, patients with rTOF who had undergone PVR after preoperative echocardiographic assessment of TR grade were included. Preoperative and postoperative imaging data and a composite of adverse clinical events (death, sustained ventricular tachycardia, heart failure, or supraventricular tachycardia) were collected. Multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis was used to determine which factors were predictive for adverse events after PVR. RESULTS:A total of 129 patients (61% men, age at PVR 32.9±10.4 years) were included. The composite endpoint occurred in 39 patients during 8.4±4.2 years of follow-up. In multivariate analysis, severe preoperative TR (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.52), right ventricular end-systolic volume (HR 1.02/mL/m(2), 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03) and age at PVR (HR 1.07/year, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.09) were predictive for adverse events. Early postoperative TR was not predictive for adverse events (p=0.96). In patients without any risk factor (age >40 years, right ventricular end-systolic volume >90 mL/m(2) or severe TR), 5-year event-free survival was 100% as compared with 61% in patients with two or three risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with rTOF, severe preoperative TR was predictive for adverse events after PVR. Close surveillance is warranted in these patients irrespective of postoperative TR.
Presence of ´isolated´ tricuspid regurgitation should prompt the suspicion of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Mascherbauer Julia,Kammerlander Andreas A,Zotter-Tufaro Caroline,Aschauer Stefan,Duca Franz,Dalos Daniel,Winkler Susanne,Schneider Matthias,Bergler-Klein Jutta,Bonderman Diana
BACKGROUND:Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle is common but frequently under-diagnosed. Particularly in advanced stages affected patients may present with significant functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) as the most prominent sign on echocardiography. The underlying left ventricular pathology may eventually be missed and symptoms of heart failure are attributed to TR, with respective therapeutic consequences. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence and mechanisms underlying TR evolution in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS:Consecutive HFpEF patients were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Confirmatory diagnostic tests including echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic assessments were performed. Of the 175 patients registered between 2010 and 2014, 51% had significant (moderate or severe) TR without structural abnormalities of the tricuspid valve. Significant hemodynamic differences between patients with and without relevant TR were encountered. These included elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (p = 0.038), reduced pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC, p = 0.005), and elevated left ventricular filling pressures (p = 0.039) in the TR group. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis revealed diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.029) and PAC (p = 0.048) as independent determinants of TR. Patients were followed for 18.1±14.1 months, during which 32% had a cardiac event. While TR was associated with outcome in the univariable analysis, it failed to predict event-free survival in the multivariable model. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of ´isolated´ functional TR should prompt the suspicion of HFpEF. Our data show that significant TR is a marker of advanced HFpEF but neither an isolated entity nor independently associated with event-free survival.
The prognostic significance of tricuspid valve regurgitation in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Chen Libo,Larsen Carolyn M,Le Rachel J,Connolly Heidi M,Pislaru Sorin V,Murphy Joseph G,McGoon Michael D,Frantz Robert P,Kane Garvan C
The clinical respiratory journal
INTRODUCTION:Tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) is a frequent finding in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, its prognostic significance and relation to PAH, while suspected, are poorly understood. We assessed 727 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PAH who underwent transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid valve function. OBJECTIVES:The study objective was to determine the association of TR presence and severity with patient characteristics, pulmonary artery hemodynamics and outcome. METHODS:Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PAH (N = 727 with group 1 pulmonary hypertension) underwent transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid valve function at diagnosis. The primary study end point was all-cause mortality or lung transplantation. RESULTS:In this population, 702 patients (96.5%) had TR; in 165 patients (23%), TR was severe. Compared with those with no or mild TR by echocardiography criteria, patients with severe TR had shorter mean (SD) 6-minute walk distances (285  m vs 360  m; P = .02) and higher levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (695  pg/dL vs 328  pg/dL; P < .05). Severe TR was associated with greater right atrial dilatation (91% vs 47%; P = .004) and right ventricular (RV) dilatation (92% vs 51%; P = .008), greater right atrial pressure (mean [SD] 15  mm Hg vs 10  mm Hg; P < .001) and lower cardiac index (mean [SD], 2.2 [0.7] L/min/m2 vs 2.8 [0.9] L/min/m2; P < .001). Severe TR was strongly predictive of greater 5-year mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, functional class, 6-minute walk distance, diffusing capacity, RV size and pulmonary vascular resistance index (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.38-2.41; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Severe TR was a significant predictor of long-term mortality rate in PAH, and TR severity correlated with PAH severity.
Predictors of reversible severe functional tricuspid regurgitation in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Cho Jae Yeong,Kim Kye Hun,Kim Jong Yoon,Sim Doo Sun,Yoon Hyun Ju,Yoon Nam Sik,Hong Young Joon,Park Hyung Wook,Kim Ju Han,Ahn Youngkeun,Jeong Myung Ho,Cho Jeong Gwan,Park Jong Chun
Journal of cardiology
BACKGROUND:Atrial remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be a risk factor for significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR), but the predictor of reversible TR in patients with severe functional TR and AF has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of reversible TR in patients with severe functional TR and AF. METHODS:Among 232 patients with severe TR, a total of 71 patients with severe functional TR and AF were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: reversible TR group (n=16, 70.1±15.5 years, 7 males) vs. non-reversible TR group (n=55, 72.3±11.8 years, 20 males). Improvement of TR to moderate or lesser degree on follow-up (FU) echocardiography was considered as reversible TR in the present study. RESULTS:During 38.9±26.7 months of FU period, reversible TR was observed in 16 patients (22.5%). The presence of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was significantly prevalent (43.8% vs. 20.0%, p=0.03) and the improvement in LV ejection fraction (EF) more than 10% on FU echocardiography was more significantly frequent (62.5% vs. 23.3%, p=0.003) in the reversible TR group than in the non-reversible TR group. However, the other echocardiographic parameters, including right ventricular function were not different between the groups. In multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model, the improvement of LVEF more than 10% was the only independent predictor of reversible TR (HR=7.39, 95%CI 1.80-30.28, p=0.005). Nine patients died only in patients with non-reversible TR (12.7%), but the reversibility of TR was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS:The improvement of LV systolic function was the only independent predictor of reversible TR. Appropriate medical therapy including management for heart failure should be considered before performing surgery in patients with severe functional TR and AF, especially in patients with LV dysfunction.
[Update on tricuspid regurgitation].
Bellavia Diego,Pentiricci Samuele,Senni Michele,Gavazzi Antonello
Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006)
Although commonly detected by transthoracic echocardiography, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has been somehow neglected, and recent data have emerged on the need for careful examination of the tricuspid valve. Functional or secondary TR is the most frequent etiology of tricuspid valve pathology in western countries and is related to tricuspid annular dilation and leaflet tethering. The prognostic role of TR associated with organic left-sided valvular heart disease is well known. However, the value of functional TR in outcome stratification of patients with advanced left ventricular dysfunction is less clear. Surgical tricuspid repair has been avoided for years, because of the misconception that TR should disappear once the primary left-sided problem is treated; this results in a large number of untreated patients with functional TR. Over the past few years, many investigators have reported evidence in favor of a more aggressive surgical approach to functional TR. Consequently, interest has been growing in the pathophysiology and treatment of functional TR. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of TR incorporating a description of valve anatomy, etiological factors, pathophysiology, epidemiological data, natural history, clinical evaluation, along with a discussion of the important role in prognostic stratification and a summary of management guidelines.
Assessment of functional tricuspid regurgitation.
Badano Luigi P,Muraru Denisa,Enriquez-Sarano Maurice
European heart journal
Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is characterized by structurally normal leaflets and is due to the deformation of the valvulo-ventricular complex. While mild FTR is frequent and usually benign, patients with severe FTR may develop progressive ventricular dysfunction and incur increased mortality. Therefore, FTR should not be ignored, should be appropriately diagnosed and quantified by Doppler echocardiography, and should be evaluated for corrective surgical procedures. At present, referral for surgical correction of FTR is often delayed until patients develop intractable heart failure. However, this strategy frequently translates in poor clinical outcome characterized by notable operative mortality and reduced long-term survival. Appropriate patient selection and proper timing for tricuspid valve (TV) repair or replacement are crucial for optimal outcome, but objective criteria for clinical decison-making remain poorly defined. In the present paper, we review the anatomy of the normal TV, the pathophysiology of FTR, the assessment of its severity and functional significance, and propose an algorithm for selecting patients for surgical treatment.
Clinical Outcome of Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients with Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Pulmonary Hypertension.
Bar Nir,Schwartz Lorin Arie,Biner Simon,Aviram Galit,Ingbir Meirav,Nachmany Ido,Margolis Gilad,Sadeh Ben,Barashi Rami,Keren Gad,Topilsky Yan
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
BACKGROUND:The outcome of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) remains unclear because of heterogeneity of etiology and the contradictory results of outcome studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TR in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal left systolic function, stratified to patients with post- or precapillary PH. METHODS:In patients with no left valvar disease (isolated) functional TR, preserved left systolic function (ejection fraction ≥ 50%), and PH (systolic pulmonary pressure > 50 mm Hg), TR was assessed both qualitatively (grade) and semiquantitatively using the vena contracta method, and retrospective analysis of long-term outcomes was conducted. Patients with severe comorbid diseases were excluded. RESULTS:The study included 245 patients (age 80.5 years, 37% men, ejection fraction 57%, all with pulmonary systolic pressure > 50 mm Hg). At least moderate to severe TR was diagnosed in 178 patients, and their outcomes were compared with those of 67 patients with the same characteristics and less than mild TR. At least moderate to severe TR was associated with lower survival, independent of all characteristics, right ventricular size or function, comorbidity, or pulmonary pressure (P = .03 for grade and P = .02 for vena contracta). Cox proportional-hazard analysis with interaction terms for TR severity and etiology of PH (post- vs precapillary) showed that the etiology of PH did not affect the association of TR with outcome (P = .90 for the interaction term). CONCLUSIONS:At least moderate to severe isolated TR is independently associated with excess mortality in patients with preserved systolic function and PH, warranting heightened attention to diagnosis and grading. This is irrespective of etiology (pre- or postcapillary) of PH. Semiquantitative assessment of TR by vena contracta is an independent associate of outcome, superior to standard qualitative assessment.
Frequency and Associated Clinical Features of Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients With Chronic Atrial Fibrillation.
Zhao Susan X,Soltanzad Nima,Swaminathan Aravind,Ogden W David,Schiller Nelson B
The American journal of cardiology
Significant functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can develop in some but not all patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). This study sought to identify factors likely to be involved in determining the severity of TR in patients with chronic AF. In this retrospective cohort study of adult patients referred for transthoracic echocardiography for evaluation of AF between 2004 and 2015, we identified 170 patients with chronic AF in the absence of structural or known coronary heart disease. Patients were classified into nonsevere (89 patients) versus severe TR (81 patients) groups based on a comprehensive assessment of color Doppler, spectral Doppler, and morphologic parameters of the tricuspid valve and right side of the heart. Patients with severe TR were significantly older (76 ± 10 vs 70 ± 11, p <0.001), with smaller body surface area (1.7 ± 0.3 m vs 1.9 ± 0.23 m, p = 0.001) and with female predominance (percentage of men 30% vs 57%, p <0.001). Although comorbidities, use of cardiovascular medications, and left-sided cardiac parameters were statistically indistinguishable between these 2 groups, right-sided cardiac dimensions, tricuspid valve tethering height, and tricuspid valve tethering area were significantly larger in the severe TR group. A comprehensive multivariate logistic regression model (model 1) identified the age, gender, right ventricular systolic pressure, right atrial volume index, and right ventricular end-diastolic area as independent factors associated with TR severity. A simplified logistic regression model using only clinical factors (model 2) confirmed the age, gender, and right ventricular systolic pressure as clinically relevant factors in relation to TR.
Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation Model in a Beating Heart Platform.
Jaworek Michal,Piola Marco,Lucherini Federico,Gelpi Guido,Castagna Marco,Lentini Giuliana,Antona Carlo,Fiore Gianfranco B,Vismara Riccardo
ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992)
Currently, clinicians are seeking new, minimally invasive treatment options for functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR). Challenging tricuspid complexity requires the evaluation of the treatment techniques in adequate and realistic preclinical scenario. The purpose of this article is to describe the design and functional assessment of a novel passive beating heart model of the pulmonary circulation with the possibility to tightly control FTR. The model housed porcine hearts actuated by a volumetric pump that cyclically pressurized the right ventricle. The in-vitro FTR model exploited the tendency of the ventricle to dilate under pressure. The dilation entailed papillary muscles displacement and valve annulus enlargement, thus inducing tricuspid valve insufficiency. Employment of constraint bands allowed to restore valve competency. The system provided consistent replication of the main determinants of the pulmonary hemodynamics in a wide range of working conditions. The experimental model of FTR was reliable, easily controllable, and showed good stability-over-time. Echocardiography and fiberscope imaging provided a unique opportunity to investigate valve dynamics. These features make the platform suitable for realistic training purposes and testing of the upcoming FTR therapies.
Tricuspid regurgitation diagnosis and treatment.
Arsalan Mani,Walther Thomas,Smith Robert L,Grayburn Paul A
European heart journal
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common lesion of the tricuspid valve (TV). Mild TR is common and usually is benign. However, moderate or severe TR can lead to irreversible myocardial damage and adverse outcomes. Despite these findings, few patients with significant TR undergo surgery. The treatment of functional (secondary) TR in particular remains controversial because of high rates of residual or recurrent TR and poor outcomes following surgical intervention. Traditional teaching that functional TR resolves on its own if the underlying disease is successfully treated has proven to be incorrect. This review aims to clarify management of TR by describing the anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of TR, including the eventual possibility of percutaneous TV therapy.
Right ventricular dysfunction, but not tricuspid regurgitation, is associated with outcome late after left heart valve procedure.
Kammerlander Andreas A,Marzluf Beatrice A,Graf Alexandra,Bachmann Alina,Kocher Alfred,Bonderman Diana,Mascherbauer Julia
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
BACKGROUND:Significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) late after left heart valve procedure is frequent and associated with increased morbidity. Surgical correction carries a significant mortality risk, whereas the impact of TR on survival in these patients is unclear. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to assess the impact of significant TR late after left heart valve procedure. METHODS:A total of 539 consecutive patients with previous left heart valve procedure (time interval from valve procedure to enrollment 50 ± 30 months) were prospectively followed for 53 ± 15 months. RESULTS:Significant TR (defined as moderate or greater severity by echocardiography) was present in 91 (17%) patients (65% female). Patients with TR presented with more symptoms (New York Heart Association functional class ≥II 55% vs. 31%), lower glomerular filtration rates (61 ± 19 ml/min vs. 68 ± 18 ml/min), and a higher likelihood of atrial fibrillation (41% vs. 20%), all statistically significant. Right ventricular (RV) systolic function was worse in patients with significant TR (RV fractional area change 43 ± 11% vs. 47 ± 9%, p < 0.001). A total of 117 (22%) patients died during follow-up. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival was significantly worse in patients with significant TR (log-rank p < 0.001). However, by multivariable Cox analysis, only RV fractional area change, age, left atrial size, diabetes, and previous coronary artery bypass graft procedure were significantly associated with mortality, but not tricuspid regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS:RV dysfunction, but not significant TR, is independently associated with survival late after left heart valve procedure.
Functional tricuspid regurgitation: an underestimated issue.
Di Mauro Michele,Bezante Gian Paolo,Di Baldassarre Angela,Clemente Daniela,Cardinali Alfredo,Acitelli Angelo,Salerni Sara,Penco Maria,Calafiore Antonio M,Gallina Sabina,
International journal of cardiology
This review article focuses on functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) that has long been a neglected and underestimated entity. FTR is defined as leakage of the tricuspid valve during systole in the presence of structurally normal leaflets and chordae. FTR may be secondary to several heart diseases, more commonly mitral valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathies, right ventricular dysplasia, and idiopathic annular dilatation. The reported prevalence of moderate or greater FTR is roughly 16%, but it rises up to 89% when considering FTR of any grade. According to the recommendations of the European Association of Echocardiography, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the first-line imaging modality for the assessment of valvular regurgitation, whereas three-dimensional TTE may provide additional information in patients with complex valve lesions. Transesophageal echocardiography may be used when TTE results are inconclusive. The natural history of FTR is unfavorable, even in less than severe tricuspid regurgitation. Data from the literature suggest that moderate or greater FTR is a risk factor for worse survival. In addition, FTR of any grade may worsen over time, which makes it reasonable to consider the correction of FTR at an early stage, preferably at the time of mitral valve surgery. Tricuspid valve annuloplasty is the gold standard surgical treatment for FTR and is associated with a recurrence rate, defined as postoperative moderate or severe FTR, ranging from 2.5 to 5.5% at 1-year follow-up.
Functional tricuspid regurgitation: a need to revise our understanding.
Dreyfus Gilles D,Martin Randolph P,Chan K M John,Dulguerov Filip,Alexandrescu Clara
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
The assessment of the etiology and severity of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) has many limitations, especially when tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is more than severe. Instead of relying solely on TR severity, a new approach not only takes into account the severity of TR, but also pays strict attention to tricuspid annular dilation (size), the mode of tricuspid leaflet coaptation, and tricuspid leaflet tethering-factors often influenced by right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction. To simplify things, we propose a new staging system for functional tricuspid valve pathology using 3 parameters that may more accurately reflect the severity of the disease: TR severity, annular dilation, and mode of leaflet coaptation (extent of tethering). We believe that by utilizing these parameters, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons will be offered a better system for appraisal and decision-making in FTR.
An uncommon cause of tricuspid regurgitation: three-dimensional echocardiographic incremental value, surgical and genetic insights.
Theron Alexis,Pinard Amélie,Riberi Alberto,Zaffran Stéphane
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Congenital tricuspid valve disease is a rare defect that includes regurgitation, stenosis and Ebstein's anomaly. We report a case of severe tricuspid regurgitation associated with functional mitral regurgitation in a 47-year-old man with congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) ruled out any Ebstein's anomaly. Three-dimensional TTE revealed a 'tricuspid hole' into the anterior leaflet that was only attached to the tricuspid annulus next to both anteroseptal and anteroposterior commissures. There was no sign of leaflet tear or perforation. The surgical repair of the tricuspid and mitral valves was performed with an optimal result. No sign of endocarditis or rheumatic disease was observed during the intervention. Sequence analysis of GATA4, HEY2 and ZFPM2 genes was performed, but no causative mutation was identified.
Analyses for Prevalence and Outcome of Tricuspid Regurgitation in China: An Echocardiography Study of 134,874 Patients.
Yang Lifan,Chen Haiyan,Pan Wenzhi,Guan Lihua,Zhang Xiaochun,Zhang Lei,Jin Qinchun,Zhou Daxin,Shu Xianhong,Ge Junbo
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and outcome of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in the Chinese population. METHODS:The echocardiography database, including 134,874 patients at our heart center from 2010 to 2012, was retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS:The rates of mild, moderate, and severe TR were 2.96, 2.22, and 1.39%, respectively. Of these patients, 4.86% had primary TR, 91.41% had functional TR, and 3.73% had unexplained TR. The rate of TR was increased in elders (odds ratio: 1.038 for 1 year's increment; 95% confidence interval: 1.037-1.040; p < 0.001) and females (odds ratio: 1.386; 95% confidence interval: 1.327-1.448, p < 0.001). The major etiologies of TR were left-sided valve heart disease (VHD) and dilated cardiomyopathy. The survival rate of severe TR patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) was lower than in those without PAH (p < 0.0001). There was a positive association between the prevalence of TR and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Compared to the non-left-sided VHD group, the left-sided VHD group had a better prognosis among severe TR patients. The 5-year survival rates were 79.69, 71.12, and 77.01% in the groups of left-sided VHD, non-left-sided VHD, and all patients. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with severe TR have a bad prognosis, especially those with non-left-sided VHD and those with PAH.
Clinical presentation and outcome of tricuspid regurgitation in patients with systolic dysfunction.
Topilsky Yan,Inojosa Jose Medina,Benfari Giovanni,Vaturi Ori,Maltais Simon,Michelena Hector,Mankad Sunil,Enriquez-Sarano Maurice
European heart journal
Aims:The impact of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction on presentation and clinical outcome is uncertain due to confounding comorbidities and mediocre regurgitation ascertainment. Methods and results:In a cohort of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction, EF < 50%) and functional TR (assessed quantitatively), we matched TR grade-groups for age, sex, EF, and TR velocity. Association of quantified TR (effective regurgitant orifice, ERO, severe if ≥0.4 cm2) to clinical presentation and outcome was analysed. In the 291 cohort patients (age 70 ± 12 years) with left ventricular dysfunction (EF 31 ± 10%), functional TR ERO was 0.26 ± 0.3 cm2. Presentation with right heart failure was strongly related to TR quantified severity [adjusted odds ratios were 4.15 (1.95-8.84), P = 0.0002 for moderate TR and 6.86 (3.34-14.1), P < 0.0001 for severe TR]. Effective regurgitant orifice ≥0.4 cm2 was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio 1.6 (1.17-2.2), P = 0.003] unadjusted and after comprehensive adjustment [hazard ratio 1.8 (1.16-2.8), P = 0.009]. Furthermore, ERO ≥0.4 cm2 was associated with increased cardiac events (mortality, new atrial fibrillation or heart failure) unadjusted [hazard ratio 1.9 (1.3-2.7), P = 0.002] and after comprehensive adjustment [hazard ratio 2.2 (1.1-4.6), P = 0.02]. Conclusion:Tricuspid regurgitation, even moderate, is associated at diagnosis with more severe heart failure presentation. While moderate TR is associated with heart failure at presentation, our quantitative data show that the threshold associated with reduced survival and more cardiac events is ERO ≥0.4 cm2. These data emphasize the clinical impact of functional TR and warrant large cohort-analysis and clinical trials of treatment of TR associated with left ventricular dysfunction.
Natural History of Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation: Implications of Quantitative Doppler Assessment.
Bartko Philipp E,Arfsten Henrike,Frey Maria K,Heitzinger Gregor,Pavo Noemi,Cho Anna,Neuhold Stephanie,Tan Timothy C,Strunk Guido,Hengstenberg Christian,Hülsmann Martin,Goliasch Georg
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
OBJECTIVES:This study sought to define the relationship between functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); and to establish the prognostic value of quantitative measures of TR severity (i.e., effective regurgitant orifice area [EROA] and regurgitant volume). BACKGROUND:The significance of TR in chronic heart failure is controversial. Earlier studies have shown an independent impact of TR on mortality, whereas more recent evidence suggests myocardial impairment to be the driving force of mortality rather than TR itself. Earlier studies have used qualitative measures of TR severity, hence the prognostic value of more quantitative measures of TR severity (i.e., EROA and regurgitant volumes) remains unclear. METHODS:We enrolled 382 patients with HFrEF on guideline-directed medical therapy and assessed TR EROA and regurgitant volume by Doppler/2-dimensional echocardiography. All-cause mortality was defined as the primary study endpoint. RESULTS:TR severity was associated with the HFrEF phenotype with more symptoms (p = 0.004), higher neurohumoral activation (p < 0.001), progressive right-ventricular dilatation (p < 0.001), and impaired function (p < 0.001). Cox regression showed a strong association between quantitative measures of TR with mortality (all p < 0.001). Quantitative metrics of TR severity were consistently associated with mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.009 (95% confidence interval: 1.004 to 1.013; p < 0.001) per 0.01 cm increase of the EROA and of 1.013 (95% confidence interval: 1.007 to 1.020; p < 0.001) per 1-ml increase in regurgitant volume. Results remained unchanged after bootstrap- or clinical confounder-based adjustment. A spline curve pattern illustrates the association with mortality with thresholds for the EROA ≥0.2 cm, and the regurgitant volume ≥20 ml with sustained excess mortality thereafter. CONCLUSIONS:This large-scale outcome study demonstrates the prognostic value of quantitative Doppler-echocardiographic measures of TR severity in HFrEF. The thresholds for EROA and TR regurgitant volume associated with mortality in our study fall within current ranges defining nonsevere TR. This may potentially impact therapeutic decision making, particularly timing of intervention.
Three-dimensional Tricuspid Area. A New Criterion to Improve Patient Selection for Annuloplasty in Tricuspid Regurgitation.
Mahía Patricia,Aguilar Río,De Agustín José Alberto,Marcos-Alberca Pedro,Islas Fabián,Tirado Gabriela,Nogales María Teresa,Gómez de Diego José Juan,Luaces María,Rodrigo José Luis,Cobos Miguel Ángel,Macaya Carlos,Pérez de Isla Leopoldo
Revista espanola de cardiologia (English ed.)
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:Late functional tricuspid regurgitation after rheumatic left-sided valve surgery is an important predictor of poor prognosis. This study investigated the usefulness and accuracy of 3-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography tricuspid area compared with conventional 2-dimensional diameter (2DD) for assessing significant tricuspid annulus dilatation, providing cutoff values that could be used in clinical practice to improve patient selection for surgery. METHODS:We prospectively included 109 patients with rheumatic heart disease in the absence of previous valve replacement. Tricuspid regurgitation was divided into 3 groups: mild, moderate, and severe. Optimal 3-dimensional area (3DA) and 2DD cutoff points for identification of significant tricuspid annulus dilatation were obtained and compared with current guideline thresholds. Predictive factors for 3DA dilatation were also assessed. RESULTS:Optimal cutoff points for both absolute and adjusted to body surface area (BSA) tricuspid annulus dilatation were identified (3DA: 10.4 cm, 6.5 cm/m; 2DD: 35 mm, 21 mm/m); 3DA/BSA had the best diagnostic performance (AUC=0.83). Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography tricuspid area helped to reclassify surgical indication in 14% of patients with mild tricuspid regurgitation (95%CI, 1%-15%; P=.03) and 37% with moderate tricuspid regurgitation (95%CI, 22%-37%; P<.0001), whereas 3DA/BSA changed surgery criteria in cases of mild tricuspid regurgitation (17%; 95%CI, 3%-17%; P=.01) compared with 2DD/BSA. On multivariable analysis, right and left atrial volumes and basal right ventricle diameter were independently correlated with 3DA. CONCLUSIONS:The current 40 mm threshold underestimates tricuspid annulus dilatation. Although 21 mm/m seems to be a reasonable criterion, the combination with 3DA assessment improves patient selection for surgery.
Atrial functional tricuspid regurgitation: An underappreciated cause of secondary tricuspid regurgitation.
Silbiger Jeffrey J
Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
Secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) caused by right ventricular enlargement in the setting of left heart disease/pulmonary hypertension has been well described. In contrast, that associated with right atrial enlargement-atrial functional TR (AF-TR)-remains largely underappreciated. AF-TR most often occurs in the setting of lone atrial fibrillation, although it is also seen in its absence (idiopathic AF-TR). Several recent studies have found that the prevalence, hemodynamic significance, and prognosis of AF-TR are not inconsequential, suggesting increased physician awareness of this novel clinical entity is warranted. This article discusses the pathogenesis, echocardiographic findings, and treatment of this underappreciated cause of secondary TR.
Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Functional Mitral and Tricuspid Regurgitation Despite Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Atrial Fibrillation Patients.
Abe Yukio,Akamatsu Kanako,Ito Kazato,Matsumura Yoshiki,Shimeno Kenji,Naruko Takahiko,Takahashi Yosuke,Shibata Toshihiko,Yoshiyama Minoru
Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
BACKGROUND:We investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).Methods and Results:We retrospectively studied the cases of 11,021 consecutive patients who had undergone transthoracic echocardiography. AF appeared in 1,194 patients, and we selected 298 with AF and LVEF ≥50% but without other underlying heart diseases. Moderate or greater (significant) degree of functional MR and of TR was seen in 24 (8.1%) and in 44 (15%) patients, respectively (P=0.0045). In contrast, significant MR and TR were more frequently seen in patients with AF duration >10 years (28% vs. 25%, respectively). During the follow-up period of 24±17 months, 35 patients (12%) met the composite endpoint defined as cardiac death, admission due to heart failure, or mitral and/or tricuspid valve surgery. On Cox proportional hazard ratio analysis, both MR and TR grading predicted the endpoint, independently of other echocardiographic parameters. On Kaplan-Meyer analysis, presence of both significant functional MR and TR was associated with poor prognosis, with an event-free rate of only 21% at the mean follow-up period of 24 months. CONCLUSIONS:Significant functional MR and TR are seen in a substantial proportion of patients with longstanding AF, despite preserved LVEF. This MR/TR combination predicts poor outcome for AF patients, who may have to be treated more intensively.
Prognostic Implications of Right Ventricular Free Wall Longitudinal Strain in Patients With Significant Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation.
Prihadi Edgard A,van der Bijl Pieter,Dietz Marlieke,Abou Rachid,Vollema E Mara,Marsan Nina Ajmone,Delgado Victoria,Bax Jeroen J
Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging
Background In patients with significant functional tricuspid regurgitation, timely detection of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction with conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography is challenging, whereas speckle-tracking echocardiography RV free wall longitudinal strain has been proposed as better prognosticator. We evaluated the prevalence and prognostic value of impaired RV free wall longitudinal strain in patients with significant functional tricuspid regurgitation, in comparison with tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and fractional area change (FAC). Methods Eight hundred ninety-six patients (51.3% men, 71 years [62-78 years]) with significant functional tricuspid regurgitation were divided according to the presence of RV dysfunction (defined as TAPSE <17 mm, FAC <35%, and RV free wall longitudinal strain >-23%) and were followed for the occurrence of all-cause mortality. Results RV free wall longitudinal strain identified the highest percentage of RV dysfunction (84.9%), in comparison to FAC (48.5%) and TAPSE (71.7%). During a median follow-up of 2.8 years (1.3-5.4 years), 443 (49.4%) patients died. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors showed worse RV systolic dysfunction (FAC=36.5±12.7% versus 33.9±11.8%, P=0.001; TAPSE=15.4±5.0 versus 14.0±4.5 mm, P<0.001; RV free wall longitudinal strain=-15.9±7.5% versus -12.9±6.8%, P<0.001). Cumulative event-free survival was significantly worse in patients with decreased FAC, decreased TAPSE, and impaired RV free wall longitudinal strain. On multivariate analysis, RV free wall longitudinal strain was independently associated with all-cause mortality and incremental to FAC and TAPSE. Conclusions In significant tricuspid regurgitation, impaired RV free wall longitudinal strain identifies higher rates of RV dysfunction and is associated with worse outcome beyond conventional echocardiographic parameters of RV systolic function.
6-Month Outcomes of Tricuspid Valve Reconstruction for Patients With Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation.
Nickenig Georg,Weber Marcel,Schueler Robert,Hausleiter Jörg,Näbauer Michael,von Bardeleben Ralph S,Sotiriou Efthymios,Schäfer Ulrich,Deuschl Florian,Kuck Karl-Heinz,Kreidel Felix,Juliard Jean-Michel,Brochet Eric,Latib Azeem,Agricola Eustachio,Baldus Stephan,Friedrichs Kai,Vandrangi Prashanthi,Verta Patrick,Hahn Rebecca T,Maisano Francesco
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
BACKGROUND:Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates with limited treatment options. OBJECTIVES:The authors report the 6-month safety and performance of a transcatheter tricuspid valve reconstruction system in the treatment of moderate to severe functional TR in 30 patients enrolled in the TRI-REPAIR (TrIcuspid Regurgitation RePAIr With CaRdioband Transcatheter System) study. METHODS:Between October 2016 and July 2017, 30 patients were enrolled in this single-arm, multicenter, prospective trial. Patients were diagnosed with moderate to severe, symptomatic TR in the absence of untreated left-heart disease and deemed inoperable because of unacceptable risk for open-heart surgery by the local heart team. Clinical, functional, and echocardiographic data were prospectively collected before and up to 6 months post-procedure. An independent core lab assessed all echocardiographic data, and an independent clinical event committee adjudicated the safety events. RESULTS:Mean patient age was 75 years, 73% were female, and 23% had ischemic heart disease. At baseline, 83% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III to IV, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 58%. Technical success was 100%. Through 6 months, 3 patients died. Between 6 months and baseline, echocardiography showed average reductions of annular septolateral diameter of 9% (42 mm vs. 38 mm; p < 0.01), proximal isovelocity surface area effective regurgitant orifice area of 50% (0.8 cm vs. 0.4 cm; p < 0.01), and mean vena contracta width of 28% (1.2 cm vs. 0.9 cm; p < 0.01). Clinical assessment showed that 76% of patients improved by at least 1 NYHA functional class with 88% in NYHA functional class I or II. Six-minute walk distance improved by 60 m (p < 0.01), and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score improved by 24 points (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Six-month outcomes show that the system performs as intended and appears to be safe in patients with symptomatic and moderate to severe functional TR. Significant reduction of TR through decrease of annular dimensions, improvements in heart failure symptoms, quality of life, and exercise capacity were observed. Further studies are warranted to validate these initial promising results. (TrIcuspid Regurgitation RePAIr With CaRdioband Transcatheter System [TRI-REPAIR]; NCT02981953).
Evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with a previous episode of pulmonary embolism using tissue Doppler imaging.
Dentali Francesco,Bertolini Andrea,Nicolini Eleonora,Donadini Marco,Gianni Monica,Squizzato Alessandro,Duka Ejona,Venco Achille,Ageno Walter
Internal and emergency medicine
New echocardiographic techniques including tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the right ventricular wall have been assessed to better define right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) during the acute phase of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients without significant tricuspidal insufficiency. Their application in patients with a previous history of PE may provide a better estimation of the incidence and clinical significance of long-term functional impairment of the right ventricle. In a case-control study, we compared the prevalence of RVD in a cohort of consecutive patients with previous PE and in age and sex-matched controls without PE. Exclusion criteria were moderate-severe left heart failure, moderate-severe mitral valve regurgitation, severe tricuspid insufficiency, or other causes of chronic pulmonary hypertension. Systolic and diastolic right ventricular functions were evaluated by measuring TAPSE and TDI of the right ventricular wall. Twenty-five patients with a previous first episode of PE and 25 controls were enrolled. Mean value of TAPSE was similar between patients with previous PE and controls (2.58 ± 0.33 and 2.53 ± 0.35 cm, P = ns). In patients with PE, the mean value of E″/A″ was significantly lower than in controls (0.89 ± 0.24 vs. 1.30 ± 0.39, P < 0.001), with 14 out of 25 cases having diastolic dysfunction as compared to only 3 out of 25 controls (P < 0.002). A high proportion of patients with previous PE have echocardiographic signs of RV diastolic dysfunction 6 months after the acute phase, even in the absence of symptoms, and in the presence of normal pulmonary pressures.
Prevalence of Echocardiography Use in Patients Hospitalized with Confirmed Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Real-World Observational Multicenter Study.
Bing Rong,Chow Vincent,Lau Jerrett K,Thomas Liza,Kritharides Leonard,Ng Austin Chin Chwan
BACKGROUND:Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an increased risk of death. Using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to assist diagnosis and risk stratification is recommended in current guidelines. However, its utilization in real-world clinical practice is unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study to delineate the prevalence of inpatient TTE use following confirmed acute PE, identify predictors for its use and its impact on patient's outcome. METHODS:Clinical details of consecutive patients (2000 to 2012) from two tertiary-referral hospitals were retrieved from dedicated PE databases. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was tracked from a state-wide death registry. RESULTS:In total, 2306 patients were admitted with confirmed PE, of whom 687 (29.8%) had inpatient TTE (39.3% vs 14.4% between sites, P<0.001). Site to which patient presented, older age, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation and diabetes were independent predictors for inpatient TTE use, while malignancy was a negative predictor. Overall mortality was 41.4% (mean follow-up 66.5±49.5months). Though inpatient TTE use was not an independent predictor for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in multivariable analysis, in the inpatient TTE subgroup, right ventricle-right atrial pressure gradient (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02 per-1mmHg increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03) and moderate/severe aortic stenosis (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.20-4.27) independently predicted all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Inpatient TTE is used infrequently in real-world clinical settings following acute PE despite its usefulness in risk stratification, prognostication and assessing comorbid cardiac pathologies. Identifying patients that will benefit most from a TTE assessment following an acute PE episode and reducing barriers in accessing TTE should be explored.
Cause of Death and Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF.
Pokorney Sean D,Piccini Jonathan P,Stevens Susanna R,Patel Manesh R,Pieper Karen S,Halperin Jonathan L,Breithardt Günter,Singer Daniel E,Hankey Graeme J,Hacke Werner,Becker Richard C,Berkowitz Scott D,Nessel Christopher C,Mahaffey Kenneth W,Fox Keith A A,Califf Robert M, ,
Journal of the American Heart Association
BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS:In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS2 score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P<0.0001) and age ≥75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P<0.0001) were associated with higher all-cause mortality. Multiple additional characteristics were independently associated with higher mortality, with decreasing creatinine clearance, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, male sex, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes being among the most strongly associated (model C-index 0.677). CONCLUSIONS:In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, ≈7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas <1 in 10 deaths were caused by nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. Optimal prevention and treatment of heart failure, renal impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes may improve survival. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00403767.
Sleep Apnea Increases the Risk of New Hospitalized Atrial Fibrillation: A Historical Cohort Study.
Kendzerska Tetyana,Gershon Andrea S,Atzema Clare,Dorian Paul,Mangat Iqwal,Hawker Gillian,Leung Richard S
OBJECTIVES:This study examined the relationship between newly diagnosed OSA and incident hospitalized atrial fibrillation (AF) over the subsequent 10 years in a large arrhythmia-free cohort. METHODS:Adults referred between 1994 and 2010 to a large academic hospital with suspected OSA who were arrhythmia-free at the time of the first diagnostic sleep study were included. Clinical data were linked to provincial health administrative data to define outcome. Cox regressions were used to investigate the relationship between severity of OSA as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and degree of nocturnal hypoxemia, and incident hospitalized AF. RESULTS:In total, 8,256 subjects were included in this study. Their median age was 47 years, 62% were men; 28% had an AHI > 30 events per hour, and 6% spent > 30% of sleep time with oxygen saturation < 90%. Over a median follow-up of 10 years (interquartile range, 7-13 years), 173 participants (2.1%) were hospitalized with AF. Controlling for age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking status, previous heart failure, COPD, and pulmonary embolism, nocturnal hypoxemia (but not AHI) was a significant predictor of incident AF: hazard ratio, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.64-3.71). After further controlling for BMI and hypertension, this association was attenuated but remained significant (hazard ratio, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.15-2.74]). CONCLUSIONS:In a large arrhythmia-free clinical cohort with suspected OSA, nocturnal hypoxemia was independently associated with a 77% increased hazard of incident hospitalized AF. These findings further support a relationship between OSA, nocturnal hypoxemia, and new-onset AF, and they may be used to enhance AF prevention in patients with OSA and severe nocturnal hypoxemia.
Sex-differences in post-discharge outcomes among patients hospitalized for atrial fibrillation.
Kalesan Bindu,Kundu Amartya,Vaze Aditya,Pino Elizabeth,Walkey Allan J,Vasan Ramachandran S,McManus David D
BACKGROUND:Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk for both thromboembolic and bleeding complications. While the risk for thromboembolism is higher among women with AF than men, the sex-related differences in post-discharge outcomes after hospitalization is not clearly understood. HYPOTHESIS:Compared to men, women hospitalized for AF are at a higher risk of both thromboembolic and bleeding complications. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD), to compare outcomes among men and women, ≥50 years of age after hospitalization for AF. The primary patient outcome was all-cause rehospitalization at 90-days after initial hospitalization. Survey-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for bleeding events at 30, 60, 90, and 270 days after hospitalization. RESULTS:From the 28 million patients in the NRD, we identified 522 521 individuals with an index hospitalization for AF. Compared to men, women hospitalized for AF accounted for 53.3% of the cohort and had higher rates of thrombotic (1.7%, 1.4%) and bleeding complications (1.4%, 1.1%). After adjustment, the 90-day risk among women vs men was significantly greater; all-cause rehospitalization (24.2%, 17.0%; HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05-1.09), rehospitalization related to ischemic stroke (0.6%, 0.3%; HR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.14-1.51), pulmonary embolism (0.4%, 0.2%; HR 1.21, 95% CI = 1.01-1.45), and any thrombotic event (1.3%, 0.7%; HR 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09-1.32). CONCLUSIONS:Hospitalization for AF is common and frequently associated with both in-hospital complications and readmission, which were more commonly observed among women with AF. Further research into epidemiological factors and treatment differences between men and women with AF is warranted.
Correlation of the tamoxifen use with the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in elderly women with breast cancer: A case-control study.
Lin Hsien-Feng,Liao Kuan-Fu,Chang Ching-Mei,Lin Cheng-Li,Lai Shih-Wei,Hsu Chung-Y
The association between tamoxifen use and risk of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in women with breast cancer has been reported in the Western population. The study aimed to evaluate the association between tamoxifen use and deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in older women with breast cancer in Taiwan.We conducted a retrospective case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 281 women subjects with breast cancer aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed deep vein thrombosis/or pulmonary embolism from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the cases. Additionally, 907 women subjects with breast cancer aged ≥65 years without deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were randomly selected as the controls. The cases and the controls were matched with age and comorbidities. Ever use of tamoxifen was defined as subjects who had at least a prescription for tamoxifen before index date. Never use of tamoxifen was defined as subjects who never had a prescription for tamoxifen before index date. We used the multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism associated with tamoxifen use.After adjustment for confounding variables, the adjusted OR of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism was 1.95 for subjects with ever use of tamoxifen (95% CI 1.45, 2.62), as compared with never use of tamoxifen. In addition, atrial fibrillation (adjusted OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.89, 7.35) and chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.06, 2.80) were also associated with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.Tamoxifen use is associated with 1.95-fold increased odds of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism among older women with breast cancer in Taiwan.
Atrial fibrillation associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. A population-based cohort study.
Wang Chun-Cheng,Lin Cheng-Li,Wang Guei-Jane,Chang Chiz-Tzung,Sung Fung-Chang,Kao Chia-Hung
Thrombosis and haemostasis
Whether atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains controversial. From Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000), we identified 11,458 patients newly diagnosed with AF. The comparison group comprised 45,637 patients without AF. Both cohorts were followed up to measure the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Univariable and multivariable competing-risks regression model and Kaplan-Meier analyses with the use of Aelon-Johansen estimator were used to measure the differences of cumulative incidences of DVT and PE, respectively. The overall incidence rates (per 1,000 person-years) of DVT and PE between the AF group and non-AF groups were 2.69 vs 1.12 (crude hazard ratio [HR]= 1.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-2.39), 1.55 vs 0.46 (crude HR = 2.68; 95 % CI = 1.97-3.64), respectively. The baseline demographics indicated that the members of the AF group demonstrated a significantly older age and higher proportions of comorbidities than non-AF group. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risks of DVT and PE remained significantly elevated in the AF group compared with the non-AF group (adjusted HR = 1.74; 95 %CI = 1.36-2.24, adjusted HR = 2.18; 95 %CI = 1.51-3.15, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier curve with the use of Aelon-Johansen estimator indicated that the cumulative incidences of DVT and PE were both more significantly elevated in the AF group than in the non-AF group after a long-term follow-up period (p<0.01). In conclusion, the presence of AF is associated with increased risk of VTE after a long-term follow-up period.
Early Use of Echocardiography in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Findings From the RIETE Registry.
Bikdeli Behnood,Lobo José Luis,Jiménez David,Green Philip,Fernández-Capitán Carmen,Bura-Riviere Alessandra,Otero Remedios,DiTullio Marco R,Galindo Silvia,Ellis Martin,Parikh Sahil A,Monreal Manuel,
Journal of the American Heart Association
Background Transthoracic echocardiography ( TTE ) is often considered for risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism ( PE ). We sought to determine the contemporary utilization of early TTE (within 72 hours of PE diagnosis) and explored the association between TTE findings and PE -related mortality. Methods and Results Data from the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbolica) registry, a multicenter registry of consecutive patients with acute PE , were used (2001-July 2017). We used a generalized linear mixed model to determine predictors of early TTE performance. Moreover, the association between 3 TTE variables (right atrial enlargement, right ventricular hypokinesis, and presence of right heart thrombi) and 30-day PE -related mortality was assessed in generalized linear mixed models adjusted for PE severity index, and other comorbidities. Among 35 935 enrollees with acute PE , 15 375 (42.8%) underwent early TTE . There was an increase in early TTE utilization rate over time ( P<0.001 for trend). Younger age, female sex, enrollment in countries other than Spain, history of coronary disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and hypotension were the main predictors of early TTE ( P<0.01 for all). In multivariable analyses, right atrial enlargement (adjusted odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.10-6.66), right ventricular hypokinesis (adjusted odds ratio: 3.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.85-5.21) and right heart thrombi (adjusted odds ratio: 4.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.99-9.71) were associated with increased odds for PE -related mortality. Conclusions Early TTE is commonly performed for acute PE and utilization rates have increased over time. Right atrial enlargement, right ventricular hypokinesis, and right heart thrombi are predictive of worse outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02832245.
Recurrent acute pulmonary embolism and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Patanè Salvatore,Marte Filippo,Currò Alessio,Cimino Claudia
International journal of cardiology
Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It has also been reported that increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. Elevated D-dimer levels have been reported in acute pulmonary embolism and it has also been reported that right ventricular overload and hypoxia in acute pulmonary embolism may lead to right ventricular myocardium injury reflected by elevated cardiac troponin levels too. We present a case of recurrent pulmonary embolism associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, in an 81-year-old Italian woman. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Atrial fibrillation is related to lower incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with pulmonary embolism.
Waleed Khalid Bin,Guan Xumin,Li Xintao,Yang Yiheng,Wang Zhao,Yin Xiaomeng,Wang Zhengyan,Liu Jianghai,Gao Lianjun,Chang Dong,Xiao Xianjie,Zhang Rongfeng,Tse Gary,Xia Yunlong
Journal of thoracic disease
Background:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established risk factor of left atrial thrombosis and systemic embolism. Traditionally pulmonary embolism (PE) is a recognized complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, whether AF is responsible for right atrial thrombosis and leads to PE has not been examined. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed medical records of patients with confirmed diagnosis of PE with AF (study group) from 2002-2015. Patients with PE without AF, matched by age and sex, served as controls (control group). The CHADS-VASc and CHADS scores were classified into two categories, low-intermediate (<2 points) and high-risk (≥2 points). Results:A total of 330 patients (110 in study group and 220 in control group). The study group had significantly lower incidence of newly diagnosed DVT (21% 44%, P<0.001), previous history of DVT (6% 17%, P=0.006) and recent surgery or trauma (10% 23%, P=0.004) compared to the control group. When stratified by the CHADS score, 49 patients (44.5%) were considered low-intermediate risk. This proportion significantly differed when stratified using CHADS-VASc, in which 13 patients (13.6%) were considered low-intermediate risk, P<0.001. Conclusions:The incidence of DVT was much lower in the study group, suggesting the possibility of clots originated from the right heart that may increase the risk of PE. The CHADS-VASc scoring system might be more sensitive for prediction and stratification of the PE in AF patients than the CHADS score.
Risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter: A nationwide population-based cohort study.
Sundbøll Jens,Hováth-Puhó Erzsébet,Adelborg Kasper,Ording Anne,Schmidt Morten,Bøtker Hans Erik,Sørensen Henrik Toft
International journal of cardiology
BACKGROUND:Patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) are at increased risk of ischemic stroke, but their risk of other thromboembolic events remains less clear. METHODS:During 2004-2013, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using Danish medical registries. We identified all patients with first-time AFF and sampled a sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched general population comparison cohort without AFF. For myocardial infarction, peripheral embolism, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism, we computed cumulative risks and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) adjusted for comorbidity and medication. RESULTS:The study population consisted of 103,989 patients with AFF and 519,935 individuals without AFF from the general population. Ten-year cumulative risks in the AFF cohort were 3.5% for myocardial infarction, 0.5% for peripheral embolism, 6.7% for ischemic stroke, 1.3% for hemorrhagic stroke, 1.0% for deep venous thrombosis, and 1.3% for pulmonary embolism. During the first 30days following AFF, aIRRs were markedly (4 to 16-fold) increased for all outcomes and similarly elevated for myocardial infarction (aIRR=8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8-9.5) and ischemic stroke (aIRR=9.9, 95% CI: 8.5-11.5). Thereafter, aIRRs decreased gradually, reaching unity after 5years for myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism, but remained 1.6 to 3.5-fold increased for peripheral embolism, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS:AFF was a risk factor for all arterial and venous outcomes during the first year of follow-up, but only for peripheral embolism, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke thereafter.
Intracranial Hemorrhage in Deep Vein Thrombosis/Pulmonary Embolus Patients Without Atrial Fibrillation.
Lamsam Layton,Sussman Eric S,Iyer Aditya K,Bhambhvani Hriday P,Han Summer S,Skirboll Stephen,Ratliff John K
Background and Purpose- Deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) is a common disease with high morbidity if it progresses to pulmonary embolus (PE). Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice; warfarin has long been the standard of care. Early experience with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) suggests that these agents may be may be a safer and equally effective alternative in the treatment of DVT/PE. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating potential complications of anticoagulation therapy. We sought to compare the rates of ICH in patients treated with DOACs versus those treated with warfarin for DVT/PE. Methods- The MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental databases were used. Adult DVT/PE patients without known atrial fibrillation and with prescriptions for either a DOAC or warfarin were followed for the occurrence of inpatient admission for ICH. Coarsened exact matching was used to balance the treatment cohorts. Cox proportional-hazards regressions and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate the association between DOACs and the risk of ICH compared with warfarin. Results- The combined cohort of 218 620 patients had a median follow-up of 3.0 months, mean age of 55.4 years, and was 52.1% women. The DOAC cohort had 26 980 patients and 8 ICH events (1.0 cases per 1000 person-years), and the warfarin cohort had 191 640 patients and 324 ICH events (3.3 cases per 1000 person-years; P<0.0001). The DOAC cohort had a lower hazard ratio for ICH compared with warfarin in both the unmatched (hazard ratio=0.26; P=0.0002) and matched (hazard ratio=0.20; P=0.0001) Cox proportional-hazards regressions. Conclusions- DOACs show superior safety to warfarin in terms of risk of ICH in patients with DVT/PE.
Atrial fibrillation is frequent but does not affect risk stratification in pulmonary embolism.
Ebner M,Rogge N I J,Parwani A S,Sentler C,Lerchbaumer M H,Pieske B,Konstantinides S V,Hasenfuß G,Wachter R,Lankeit M
Journal of internal medicine
BACKGROUND:Although prior studies indicate a high prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), the exact prevalence and prognostic impact are unknown. METHODS:We aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic impact of AF on risk stratification, in-hospital adverse outcomes and mortality in 528 consecutive PE patients enrolled in a single-centre registry between 09/2008 and 09/2017. RESULTS:Overall, 52 patients (9.8%) had known AF and 57 (10.8%) presented with AF on admission; of those, 34 (59.6%) were newly diagnosed with AF. Compared to patients with no AF, overt hyperthyroidism was associated with newly diagnosed AF (OR 7.89 [2.99-20.86]), whilst cardiovascular risk comorbidities were more frequently observed in patients with known AF. Patients with AF on admission had more comorbidities, presented more frequently with tachycardia and elevated cardiac biomarkers and were hence stratified to higher risk classes. However, AF on admission had no impact on in-hospital adverse outcome (8.3%) and in-hospital mortality (4.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected for AF on admission, NT-proBNP and troponin elevation as well as higher risk classes in risk assessment models remained independent predictors of an in-hospital adverse outcome. CONCLUSION:Atrial fibrillation is a frequent finding in PE, affecting more than 10% of patients. However, AF was not associated with a higher risk of in-hospital adverse outcomes and did not affect the prognostic performance of risk assessment strategies. Thus, our data support the use of risk stratification tools for patients with acute PE irrespective of the heart rhythm on admission.
History of deep vein thrombosis is a discriminator for concomitant atrial fibrillation in pulmonary embolism.
Keller Karsten,Prochaska Jürgen H,Coldewey Meike,Gobel Sebastian,Ullmann Alexander,Jünger Claus,Lamparter Heidrun,Ariza Liana,Bickel Christoph,Lauterbach Michael,Konstantinides Stavros,Rostock Thomas,Münzel Thomas,Wild Philipp S
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the consequence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in 70% of all cases. Although, PE and DVT are commonly related to risk factors of Virchow's triad, both entities are linked to cardiovascular risk factors, but risk factors seem differently important in both entities. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate clinical profile and outcome of patients with PE history stratified by concomitant DVT. PATIENTS/METHODS:Data from the observational multi-center thrombEVAL-study were analyzed. RESULTS:The sample (N=2,318) comprised 295 PE patients, of whom 69.2% (N=204) had DVT. Individuals without DVT were older and had higher prevalence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), chronic lung diseases, coronary artery disease, heart failure and hypertension. Multivariable regression revealed an independent association of AF (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% CI 1.63-6.18, P<0.001) and coronary artery disease (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.15-4.66, P=0.019) with PE without DVT. There was higher frequency of permanent AF in individuals without DVT, whereas paroxysmal AF was more prevalent in individuals with DVT. All AF subtypes were independently associated with PE without DVT with increasing ORs from paroxysmal to permanent AF. PE patients with and without DVT did not differ in survival (P=0.32) and cost-relevant clinical outcome (P=0.26) during follow-up. AF in PE patients was associated with cost-relevant clinical outcome (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.09, P=0.040), but no significant difference in survival (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.35-2.50, P=0.88) was observed. CONCLUSIONS:History of DVT is a significant discriminator for clinical profile of PE patients. Individuals without DVT had more often cardiac and pulmonary disease with strongest association with AF. Data advocate a potential link between AF and PE. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, Unique identifier NCT01809015.
Relation of atrial fibrillation and right-sided cardiac thrombus to outcomes in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
Kukla Piotr,McIntyre Wiliam F,Koracevic Goran,Kutlesic-Kurtovic Dusanka,Fijorek Kamil,Atanaskovic Vesna,Krupa Ewa,Mirek-Bryniarska Ewa,Jastrzębski Marek,Bryniarski Leszek,Pruszczyk Piotr,Baranchuk Adrian
The American journal of cardiology
Atrial fibrillation (AF) can induce a hypercoagulable state in both the left and right atria. Thrombus in the right side of the heart (RHT) may lead to acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of RHT and AF and to assess their impact on outcomes in patients with APE. The retrospective cohort included 1,006 patients (598 female), with a mean age of 66 ± 15 years. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was incidence of complications (death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, vasopressor/inotrope treatment, or ventilatory support). Atrial fibrillation was detected in 231 patients (24%). RHT was observed in 50 patients (5%). The combination of AF and RHT was observed in 16 patients (2%). The overall mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with RHT compared with those without (32% vs 14%, respectively, odds ratio [OR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 5.6, p = 0.001). The rate of complications was significantly higher in patients with RHT in comparison to those without (40% vs 22%, respectively, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.4, p = 0.004). The mortality rate in patients with both AF and RHT was significantly higher in comparison to those with AF but without RHT (50% vs 20%, respectively, OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.2, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, RHT (p = 0.03) was an independent predictor of death. In conclusion, AF is a frequent co-morbidity in patients with APE, and the presence of RHT is not uncommon. Among patients with APE, the presence of RHT increases the mortality approximately threefold regardless of the presence of known AF.
Prediction of new onset atrial fibrillation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: The role of sPESI Score.
Şahan Ekrem,Şahan Suzan,Karamanlıoğlu Murat,Gül Murat,Tüfekçioğlu Omaç
Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi : Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir
OBJECTIVE:Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a serious clinical situation and atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhytmia in clinical practice. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is an accepted risk stratification tool used to predict short term mortality in APE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the PESI score and new-onset AF in patients with APE. METHODS:The records of 869 APE patients admitted between May 2012 and December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. The PESI score was calculated for every patient. Clinical variables associated with new-onset AF in APE were assessed after the exclusion of patients with hypertension, coronary or hemodynamically significant valvular heart disease, hepatic or renal dysfunction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, any history of inflammatory or infectious disease, or recent trauma. New-onset AF was detected in 42 (4.8%) patients. RESULTS:Age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, fasting glucose level, serum creatinine, left ventricle ejection fraction, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion value, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure measures were not significantly different between patients with and without AF. New-AF patients demonstrated larger LVEDD and LAD dimensions (p <0.001 for both). The PESI score was higher in the new-onset AF group (93+-23 vs.75+-17; p <0.001). LVEDD, LAD, levels of uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, and troponin, and PESI score were univariate predictors of new-onset AF. CONCLUSION:In patients with APE, the PESI score was positively correlated with new-onset AF. A PESI score greater than 82.50 may be useful to predict new-onset AF in these patients.
Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Significance and Impact on Prognosis.
Ptaszynska-Kopczynska Katarzyna,Kiluk Izabela,Sobkowicz Bozena
BioMed research international
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular death. The most often PE etiology is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities, but embolic material can arise in pelvic or upper extremity veins as well as in right heart chambers. There is growing number of evidences of atrial fibrillation (AF) involvement in PE. The presence of AF in patients with PE may be both the cause and the consequence of PE. The PE association with AF should be considered in patients without confirmed DVT and with history of AF, which itself is associated with prothrombotic state. The valuable diagnostic method is echocardiography that may bring the insight into source of embolic material. Another possible AF and PE association is the AF as a consequence of an abrupt increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to the occlusion of the pulmonary vessels. Large-scale population-based studies have provided a considerable body of evidence on the involvement of PE in the onset of subsequent AF. Another important issue is the influence of AF on prognosis in patients with PE. Most investigators demonstrated a negative impact of AF on mortality. The main problem to resolve is whether AF is an independent mortality risk factor or whether it occurs as a result of comorbidities or the severity of a PE episode. Although the pathophysiological basis of this bidirectional relationship exists, many questions are still unresolved and require further studies, including the significance of paroxysmal AF accompanying an acute PE episode, the usefulness of PE risk scales in patients with concomitant AF, and the effect of anticoagulant treatment on PE and AF occurrence. Regardless of the type of AF, clinicians should be alert to the possibility of PE in patients with previous history of AF or presenting with new-onset AF.
Prevalence and Clinical Impact of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism.
Yang Yifeng,Liu Baoqiong,Taylor John,Huang ZhiHua,Gupta Sonali,Thumma Soumya,Wu LingLing,Wang Shuai,Everett George
Southern medical journal
OBJECTIVES:Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been suggested as a cause for pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to explore the prevalence and clinical impact of AF in patients with PE. METHODS:Using the 2012-2014 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample database, we identified "adult patients with PE" as the principal discharge diagnosis. The identified admissions were stratified into two cohorts based on the presence or absence of AF. We used multivariable regression models to evaluate in-hospital mortality, length of stay, nonhome discharge, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS:The prevalence of AF among the 201,360 patients with PE was 11.62%. Patients with AF were more likely to have massive PE (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.4-1.81, < 0.001), with higher mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.71, < 0.001) and a greater risk of mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrest, and nonhome discharges. The length of hospital stay in patients with PE and comorbid AF was significantly longer than those without (6.24 ± 0.10 vs 4.79 ± 0.03 days). CONCLUSIONS:AF is associated with a higher rate of massive PE, higher in-hospital mortality, a longer length of hospital stay, and a higher incidence of in-hospital complications and nonhome discharge.
Syncope in the German Nationwide inpatient sample - Syncope in atrial fibrillation/flutter is related to pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by higher in-hospital mortality.
Keller Karsten,Hobohm Lukas,Münzel Thomas,Ostad Mir Abolfazl
European journal of internal medicine
AIMS:Syncope is a common phenomenon in the general population. Although most of the causes are of benign origin, some comorbidities are accompanied by high mortality. We aimed to compare the in-hospital mortality of patients with syncope related to different comorbities and investigate the impact of syncope in patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF). METHODS:The nationwide inpatient sample of Germany of the years 2011-2014 was used for this analysis. Patients with syncope (ICD-code R55) were stratified by presence of selected comorbidities. Additionally, AF patients with and without syncope were compared. Incidence of syncope and in-hospital mortality were calculated. Syncope as a predictor of adverse outcome in AF patients was investigated. RESULTS:In total, 1,628,859 hospitalizations of patients with syncope were identified; incidence was 504.6/100,000 citizens/year with case-fatality rate of 1.6%. Patients with syncope revealed frequently comorbidities as AF, heart failure and pneumonia. In-hospital mortality was high in syncope patients with pulmonary embolism (PE, 13.0%), pneumonia (12.8%), myocardial infarction (MI, 9.7%) and stroke (8.5%). We analysed 1,106,019 hospitalizations (52.9% females, 54.9% aged > 70 years) of patients with AF (2011-2014). Among these, 23,694 (2.1%) were coded with syncope and 0.7% died. Syncope had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.92-1.17, P = .503) independently of age, sex and comorbidities, but was associated with PE (OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.42-2.36, P < .001), MI (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.48-1.90, P < .001), stroke (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.42-1.94, P < .001) and pneumonia (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.16-1.37, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Syncope is a frequent cause for referrals in hospitals. While the overall in-hospital mortality rate is low (<2%), syncope in coprevalence with PE, pneumonia, MI and stroke showed a mortality rate > 8%. Syncope in AF patients had no independent impact on in-hospital mortality.
CHA2DS2-VASc score is directly associated with the risk of pulmonary embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Saliba Walid,Rennert Gad
The American journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:The risk stratification score, which includes Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 [doubled], Diabetes, Stroke [doubled]- Vascular disease, Age 65-74, and Sex category [female] (CHA2DS2-VASc), is used to predict stroke in atrial fibrillation. However, whether high CHA2DS2-VASc score carries a higher risk of pulmonary embolism remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between the severity of CHA2DS2-VASc score and the incidence of pulmonary embolism. METHODS:A total of 73,541 adults with atrial fibrillation diagnosed before January 1, 2012, and no history of pulmonary embolism, were retrospectively identified from the computerized database of the Clalit Health Services, which is the largest not-for-profit health maintenance organization in Israel. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated for each subject at study entry. The cohort was followed for the first occurrence of pulmonary embolism until December 31, 2012 (70,210 person-years). RESULTS:Pulmonary embolism developed in 158 subjects, representing an incidence of 225.0 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of pulmonary embolism increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (P < .001). On Cox proportional analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score was significantly associated with pulmonary embolism (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.32) for a 1-point increase in CHA2DS2-VASc score. The results were similar after adjusting for anticoagulants and antiplatelet use (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.34), and remained unchanged after further adjustment for active malignancy. The predictive values for pulmonary embolism were similar for CHA2DS2-VASc score and the classic risk stratification score which includes Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75 years, Diabetes, and Stroke [doubled] (CHADS2); the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.619 (95% CI, 0.579-0.660) and 0.616 (95% CI, 0.575-0.656), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:CHA2DS2-VASc score is directly associated with the incidence of pulmonary embolism in atrial fibrillation.
Atrial Fibrillation and Cause-Specific Risks of Pulmonary Embolism and Ischemic Stroke.
Hald Erin M,Rinde Ludvig B,Løchen Maja-Lisa,Mathiesen Ellisiv B,Wilsgaard Tom,Njølstad Inger,Brækkan Sigrid K,Hansen John-Bjarne
Journal of the American Heart Association
BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). Emerging evidence also indicates an association between AF and pulmonary embolism (PE). Because IS may potentially mediate the observed risk of PE in AF, we aimed to assess the impact of AF on the cause-specific risks of PE and IS in a large cohort recruited from the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS:We observed 29 842 participants from 3 surveys of the Tromsø study (inclusion in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2007-2008) to the end of 2012. Incident events of AF, IS, and PE during follow-up were recorded, and information on potential confounders was obtained at baseline. Cox regression models, with AF as a time-dependent variable, were used to calculate cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PE and IS. There were 2067 participants diagnosed as having AF, 296 with PE and 1164 with IS, during a median of 17.6 years of follow-up. The risks of PE (HR, 10.88; 95% CI, 6.23-18.89) and IS (HR, 6.16; 95% CI, 4.47-8.48) were substantially increased during the first 6 months after AF diagnosis, with crude incidence rates of 18.5 per 1000 person-years for PE and 52.8 per 1000 person-years for IS. The risk estimates remained elevated for both PE (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.10-2.71) and IS (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.05-2.92) throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS:AF was associated with increased cause-specific risks of both PE and IS. Our findings infer that the risk of PE in AF is not explained by intermediate IS.
Pulmonary Embolism and Atrial Fibrillation: Two Sides of the Same Coin? A Systematic Review.
Bikdeli Behnood,Abou Ziki Maen D,Lip Gregory Y H
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal thrombotic disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, may also lead to thromboembolic complications. Although initially appearing as distinct entities, PE and AF may coexist. The direction and extent of this association has not been well characterized. We performed a search of PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications that reported coexisting AF in patients with PE, or vice versa, to provide a systematic overview of pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of this association (last search: October 13, 2016). We screened 650 articles following the PubMed search, and 697 through Scopus. PE and AF share many common risk factors, including old age, obesity, heart failure, and inflammatory states. In addition, PE may lead to AF through right-sided pressure overload or inflammatory cytokines. AF, in turn, might lead to right atrial appendage clot formation and thereby PE. Epidemiological studies indicate that AF can be seen as a presenting sign, during the early phase, or later in the course of recovery from PE. Patients with AF are also at increased risk of developing PE, a risk that correlates with the CHADS-VASc score. For the choice of antithrombotic therapy, PE-related factors (provoked or unproved, active cancer, and prior recurrence) and AF-related factors (CHADS-VASc score), risk of bleeding, and patient preferences should be considered. In conclusion, PE and AF may coexist, with an understudied bidirectional association. Prognostication and choice of antithrombotic therapy in patients with both PE and AF might be different compared with those who present with only one of the two and warrants further investigation.
Permanent atrial fibrillation and pulmonary embolism in elderly patients without deep vein thrombosis: is there a relationship?
Morella Pasquale,Sacco Maurizio,Carafa Mariano,Ferro Gaetana,Curcio Francesco,Gargiulo Gaetano,Testa Gianluca,Liguori Ilaria,Russo Gennaro,Cacciatore Francesco,Tocchetti Carlo Gabriele,Bonaduce Domenico,Abete Pasquale
Aging clinical and experimental research
BACKGROUND AND AIM:Permanent Atrial Fibrillation (pAF) is associated with increased risk of embolic complications. The relationship between pAF and pulmonary embolism (PE) has not been extensively investigated in elderly patients. Here, we aim at verifying whether pAF is associated to an increased risk of PE in a cohort of elderly patients with and without Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). METHODS:235 patients older than 65 years with PE with or without pAF were retrospectively enrolled and stratified by the absence or presence of DVT. The diagnosis of PE was performed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Right echocardiographic parameters were monitored. The severity of PE was evaluated by CTA quantization (PE score = 1, involvement of main branches of pulmonary artery) and by dimer-D (> 3000 µg/L). RESULTS:DVT was identified only in 51 cases of PE (21.7%). pAF prevalence was higher in PE without than in those with DVT (64.9% vs. 35.1%, p < 0.01). PE severity was more evident in pAF patients without than in those with DVT. Multivariate analysis of the role of pAF on PE severity confirms these results (RR = 3.41 for PE score = 1, and 8.55 for dimer-D > 3000 µg/L). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that in elderly patients with PE, the prevalence of pFA was doubled, in the absence of DVT, and it is associated with a more severe PE in the absence than in the presence of DVT. Thus, in the absence of DVT, pFA should be considered as cause of PE.
Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.
Baumgartner Christine,da Costa Bruno R,Collet Tinh-Hai,Feller Martin,Floriani Carmen,Bauer Douglas C,Cappola Anne R,Heckbert Susan R,Ceresini Graziano,Gussekloo Jacobijn,den Elzen Wendy P J,Peeters Robin P,Luben Robert,Völzke Henry,Dörr Marcus,Walsh John P,Bremner Alexandra,Iacoviello Massimo,Macfarlane Peter,Heeringa Jan,Stott David J,Westendorp Rudi G J,Khaw Kay-Tee,Magnani Jared W,Aujesky Drahomir,Rodondi Nicolas,
BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent disorder leading to heart failure, stroke, and death. Enhanced understanding of modifiable risk factors may yield opportunities for prevention. The risk of AF is increased in subclinical hyperthyroidism, but it is uncertain whether variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. RESULTS:Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person-years of follow-up), 1958 (6.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2574 individuals (8.6%) developed AF during follow-up. TSH at baseline was not significantly associated with incident AF in euthyroid participants or those with subclinical hypothyroidism. Higher fT4 levels at baseline in euthyroid individuals were associated with increased AF risk in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.66, for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of fT4; for trend ≤0.001 across quartiles). Estimates did not substantially differ after further adjustment for preexisting cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS:In euthyroid individuals, higher circulating fT4 levels, but not TSH levels, are associated with increased risk of incident AF.
Use of ultrasound-measured internal jugular vein collapsibility index to determine static intracardiac pressures in patients with presumed pulmonary hypertension.
Parikh Raj,Spring Matthew,Weinberg Janice,Reardon Christine C,Farber Harrison W
Annals of intensive care
BACKGROUND:Bedside ultrasound helps to estimate volume status in critically ill patients and has traditionally relied on diameter, respiratory variation, and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC) to reflect fluid status. We evaluated collapsibility of the internal jugular vein (IJ) with ultrasound and correlated it with concomitant right heart catheterization (RHC) measurements in patients with presumed pulmonary hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS:We studied 71 patients undergoing RHC for evaluation of pulmonary hypertension. Using two-dimensional ultrasound (Sonosite, Washington, USA), we measured the diameter of the IJ at rest, during respiratory variation, and during manual compression. Collapsibility index during respiration (respiratory CI) and during manual compression (compression CI) was calculated. We correlated mean right atrial pressure (mRAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) defined by RHC measurements with respiratory and compression CI. A secondary goal was examining correlations between CI calculations and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Baseline characteristics demonstrated female predominance (n = 51; 71.8%), mean age 59.5 years, and BMI 27.3. There were significant correlations between decrease in compression CI and increase in both mRAP (Spearman: - 0.43; p value = 0.0002) and PAOP (Spearman: - 0.35; p value = 0.0027). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between respiratory CI and either mRAP (Spearman: - 0.14; p value = 0.35) or PAOP (Spearman:- 0.12; p value = 0.31). We also observed significant negative correlation between compression CI and BNP (Spearman: - 0.31; p value = 0.01) but not between respiratory CI and BNP (Spearman: - 0.12; p value = 0.35). CONCLUSION:Increasing use of ultrasound has led to innovative techniques for estimating volume status. While prior ultrasound studies have used clinical parameters to estimate fluid status, our study used RHC measurements and demonstrated that compression CI potentially reflects directly measured mRAP and PAOP.